Advertisement

Socio-Economic Disparities in the Development of the Romania’s Border Areas

  • 354 Accesses

  • 6 Citations

Abstract

The Romanian border areas include 898 Local Administrative Units 2 (LAU2), of which 88 are urban and 810 rural. Romania has borderline with the following countries: Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Ukraine, Hungary, of which 63.5 % is Non-European Union boundary. According to the population structure, 51.6 % of the total population is urban and the rest of 48.4 % is rural. In order to assess the socio-economic territorial disparities in the development of the urban space of Romanian border areas, several research stages were carried out: selecting 22 relevant statistical indicators, analyzing territorial disparities, standardizing the absolute values of the indicators, grouping the elementary indicators by 7 multiple indicator clusters (secondary indexes) in order to reflect the main socio-economic development aspects: (1) housing, (2) public utilities infrastructure and green areas, (3) health, (4) labour market, (5) demography, (6) education and (7) local economy. Finally, the authors were able to compute secondary indexes and the Index of Socio-Economic Development as Hull Score with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 14, revealing the levels of socio-economic development (high, average and low). Generally, the outcomes of the current study are in line with Romania’s complex socio-economic disparities, rooted in the historic background of the country. Spatially, the economic development follows a West–East direction, the less developed areas being concentrated in the Eastern and Southern part of the country.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Amiti, M. (1997). Specialization patterns in Europe. London: Centre for Economic Performance. (Discussion paper 363).

  2. Bălteanu, D., & Sima, M. (Eds.). (2013). Hazard assessment and mitigation in the Danube Floodplain (Calafat-Vidin—Turnu Măgurele-Nikopol sector), Technical Guide (Romanian-English) Edit (p. 247). Craiova: Universitaria.

  3. Baumol, W. J., & Gomory, R. E. (1987). Inefficient and locally stable trade equilibrium under scale economies. Comparative advantage revisited. Kyklos, 49, 509–540.

  4. Boar, N. (2003). Space disfunctionalities of the network of localities on the Tisa Corridor: the frontier effect, rural space and regional development (pp. 339–343). Cluj-Napoca: Edit. Studia.

  5. Boar, N. (2005). Regiunea transfrontaliera romano-ucraineana a Maramuresului (p. 294). Cluj-Napoca: Presa Universitara Clujeana.

  6. Boar N., & Kosinszki S. (2012). Tourism cooperation projects in the cross border Romanian–Ukrainian Maramures. Vectors for sustainable development? ERSA conference papers. European Regional Science Association. http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p636.

  7. Boar, N., Kosinszki, S., & Simion, A. (2010). The cross-border regions—strips of contiguity and dysfunction at the eastern border of the European Union. The Case of Romania. England: Regional Studies Association.

  8. Brie, M. (2010). European instruments of cross-border cooperation—case study: The Romanian–Ukrainian Border. In F. Maron & G. Pozarlik (Eds.), Identités, citoyennetés et démocratie, 20 ans après (pp. 265–280). Bruxelles: Edit. Bruylant.

  9. Brulhart, M., & Torstensson, J. (1996). Regional integration, scale economies and industry location in the European Union Discussion Paper 1435. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.

  10. Cişmaş, L., & Sabău, C. (2011). The evolution of the socio-economical profile and cross-border cooperation in Bihor-Hajdu Bihar Euro-region. Recent Researches in Tourism and Economic Development, 5(3), 160–165.

  11. Cişmaş, L. & Sabău C. (2012). Cross-border cooperation in Europe: the case of Bihor-Hajdu Bihar Euroregion. International Business Research, 5(3), 91.

  12. CNP. (2008). Disparităţi regionale la orizontul anului 2008/Regional Disparities over the 2008 Horizon (in Romanian), National Commission for Prognosis, Romanian Government, Bucharest. http://www.cnp.ro/user/repository/173eb73d5500c38082a3.pdf Accessed 16 Feb 2015.

  13. Davis, D. R., & Weinstein, D. E. (1999). Economic geography and regional production structure: An empirical investigation. European economic review, 43(2), 379–407.

  14. Dicken, P., & Lloyd, P. E. (2007). Location in space: Theoretical perspectives in economic geography (3rd ed.). Harlow: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

  15. Dobraca, L. (1997). Cross-border relations in the Giurgiu–Ruse Danube Sector. Geographical remarks. Revue Roumaine de Géographie, 39, 3–12.

  16. Đorđević, D., & Živanović, T. (2014). Context of cross-border cooperation in the project DONAUREGIONEN +. In Geographical Research and Cross-Border Cooperation within the Lower Basin of the Danube. Abstract Book of The Third Romanian–Bulgarian–Hungarian–Serbian Conference, Veliko Gradište–Serbia, 18–21st Sep 2014.

  17. Dumitrache, L. (2004). Starea de sănătate a populaţiei României, O abordare geografică (p. 372). Bucureşti: Edit. Univers Enciclopedic.

  18. Dumitrescu (Mitrică), B. (2008). Oraşele monoindustriale din România. Între industrializare forţată şi declin economic (p. 301). Bucureşti: Edit Universitară.

  19. EC. (2014). An introduction to EU Cohesion Policy 2014–2020. http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/informat/basic/basic_2014_en.pdf. Accessed 8 May 2015.

  20. EUSRD. (2015). EU Strategy for the Danube Region (EUSRD). [cit. 12.04.2015]. http://www.danube-region.eu/. Accessed 12 April 2015.

  21. Fujita, M., Krugman, P. R., & Venables, A. (2001). The spatial economy: Cities, regions, and international trade (p. 382). Cambridge MA: MIT press.

  22. Fujita, M., & Mori, T. (1996). The role of ports in the making of major cities: Self-agglomeration and hub-effect. Journal of Development Economics, 49(1), 93–120.

  23. Gallup, J. L., Sachs, J. D., & Mellinger, A. D. (1999). Geography and economic development. International regional science review, 22(2), 179–232.

  24. Grama, V. (2012). Frontiera şi sistemul teritorial frontalier oriental al UE. Studiu de Geografie Politică (p. 270). Oradea: Editura Universităţii din Oradea.

  25. Grigorescu, I., Dumitraşcu, M., Sima, M., & Micu, D. (2016). Case study: The Euroregion Danube-Criş-Mureş-Tisza (DKMT). In G. Ocskay, P. Balogh & M. Pete (Eds.), Crossing the borders. Studies on cross-border cooperation within the Danube Region (pp. 2–63). Budapest: Central European Service for Cross-Border Initiatives.

  26. Grossman, G. M., & Helpman, E. (1993). Innovation and growth in the global economy (p. 359). Cambridge: MIT press.

  27. Guran, L., Nancu, D., Săgeată, R., & Dobre, S. (2002). Socio-economic potential of the Romanian–Bulgarian border space. Topical geographical consideration. Forum Geografic Studii şi Cercetări de Geografie şi Protecţie a Mediului, I(1), 122–132.

  28. Hagerty, M. R., Cummins, R. A., Ferriss, A. L., Land, K., Michalos, A. C., Peterson, M., et al. (2001). Quality of life indexes for national policy: Review and agenda for research. Social Indicators Research, 55(1), 1–96.

  29. Hanson, G. H. (2005). Market potential, increasing returns and geographic concentration. Journal of International Economics, 67(1), 1–24.

  30. Helpman, E., & Krugman, P. R. (1985). Market structure and foreign trade: Increasing returns, imperfect competition, and the international economy (p. 283). Cambridge: MIT press.

  31. Ianoş, I. (1981). Determinarea similarităţii dintre mărimile geografice. Lucrările Seminarului Geografic Dimitrie Cantemir, 1(1), 24–35.

  32. Ianoş, I. (1998). Restructurarea economică şi fenomenul de migraţie în România. Revista Geografică, 5, 8–13.

  33. Ianoş, I. (Ed.). (2010). Inserţia teritorială a universităţilor din România. Bucharest: Ed. Universitară.

  34. Ianoş, I., Braghină, C., & Sârodoev, I. (2007). Geographical considerations regarding the Romanian higher education. Human Geographies-Journal of Studies and Research in Human Geography, 1(1), 15–35.

  35. Ilieş, A. (2003). România între milenii: frontiere, areale frontaliere şi cooperare transfortalieră: Studiu geografic (p. 236). Oradea: Editura Universitătii din Oradea.

  36. Ilieş, A., & Grama, V. (2010). The external Western Balkan border of the European Union and its borderland: Premises for building functional transborder territorial systems. Annals for Istrian and Mediterranean Studies, Series Historia et Sociologia, 20(2), 457–469.

  37. INS. (2002, 2011). Recensămintele populaţiei şi locuinţelor (Population and Housing Censuses). www.insse.ro. Accessed 18 Jan 2015.

  38. IPSC. (2014). Millennium Development Goals Dashboard, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC), February 2014. http://esl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/envind/un_meths/UN_ME049.htm. Accessed 2 March 2015.

  39. Jaffee, D. (1998). Levels of socio-economic development theory (2nd ed.). Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.

  40. Kosinszki, S.-A., (2013). Cross border development projects in Maramureş. summary of the Ph.D. thesis, 193.231.20.119/doctorat/teza/fisier/1111. Accessed 20 Nov 2015.

  41. Krugman, P. (1999). The role of geography in development. International regional science review, 22(2), 142–161.

  42. Krugman, P., & Venables, A. J. (1995). Globalization and the inequality of nations. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(4), 857–880. doi:10.2307/2946642.

  43. MDRAP. (2014a). Romania’s Territorial Development Strategy, 2020–2035/Strategia de Dezvoltare Teritorială a României, 2020–2035. www.sdtr.ro. Accessed 18 April 2016.

  44. MDRAP. (2014b). Study 22. Peripheral areas with cross-border links/Studiul 22. Zone periferice şi legături transfrontaliere. In Romania’s Territorial Development Strategy. Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration. http://sdtr.ro/upload/STUDII/22.%20Sinteza%20Zone%20periferice%20si%20legaturi%20transfrontaliere.pdf. Accessed 4 April 2015.

  45. MDRAP. (2014c). Study 23. Specific geographical areas/Studiul 23. Zone cu specific geografic. In Romania’s Territorial Development Strategy, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration. http://sdtr.ro/upload/STUDII/23.%20Raport_Zone%20cu%20specific%20geografic_.pdf. Accessed 5 April 2015.

  46. MDRAP. (2015). Regional Operational Programme. 2014–2020, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration, Bucharest. http://www.mdrap.ro/dezvoltare-regionala/-4970/-7166/programul-operational-regional-2014-2020. Accessed 15 Dec 2015.

  47. Michalek, J., & Zarnekow, N. (2012). Application of the rural development index to analysis of rural regions in Poland and Slovakia. Social Indicators Research, 105(1), 1–37.

  48. Mitrică, B., Dumitraşcu, M., Kucsicsa, Gh., & Dogaru, D. (2016). Resources Pilot Centre for cross-border preservation of the aquatic biodiversity of Prut River. In G. Ocskay, P. Balogh & M. Pete (Eds.), Crossing the borders. Studies on cross-border cooperation within the Danube region (pp. 1–72). Budapest: Central European Service for Cross-Border Initiatives.

  49. Mocanu, I. (2010). Piaţa muncii din România: discontinuităţi temporale şi teritoriale. Bucharest: Editura Universitară.

  50. Molnár, J., Piskóti, Z., Szilasi, B. S., & Szalontai, L. (2012). A new cross-border research possibility in four countries (Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania). Central European Regional Policy and Human Geography, 2(1), 63–68.

  51. Munteanu, R. F., & Moraru, A. (2015). Labor force internationalization. Unemployment and emigration In Bacau and Vaslui Counties of Romania. CES Working Papers, 2, 309–316.

  52. Nagy, E. (2006a). Demographic tendencies in the cross-border region of Satu Mare (Romania) and Szabolcs-szatmár-bereg (Hungary) counties. Romanian Review of Regional Studies, 2(1), 85–94.

  53. Nagy, E. (2006b). Regional disparities along the Romanian–Hungarian border region. Romanian Review of Regional Studies, 2(2), 40–52.

  54. Nagy, E. (2013). Factorial analysis of the territorial disparities on the southern part of the Romanian–Hungarian border. Forum Geografic, XII(2), 125–131. doi:10.5775/fg.2067-4635.2013.148.d.

  55. OECD. (2005). Agricultural policies in OECD countries: Monitoring and evaluation. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

  56. Perţ, S. (1992). Piaţa muncii în România. Mecanisme şi politici de ocupare şi combatere a şomajului în perioada de tranziţie. Bucharest: Centre for Economic Information and Documentation.

  57. Popa, N. (2004). Frontières et régions transfrontalières en Roumanie: Entre territoires, cultures et fonctions. Geographica Timisensis, XIII, 2, 79–102.

  58. Popa, N. (2006). Frontiere, regiuni transfrontaliere şi dezvoltare regională în Europa Mediană. Timişoara: Edit. Universităţii de Vest,

  59. Popescu, C. (2000). Industria României în secolul XX. Analiză geografică. Bucharest: Edit. Oscar Print.

  60. Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

  61. Săgeată, R. (2003). The State Frontiers of Romania—between international treaties and diktat. In Europe between Millenniums. Political Geography Studies, IGU Political Geography Commission (pp.171–177).

  62. Săgeată, R., (2011). Frontiera de nord în contextul aderării României la spaţiul Schengen, GeoPolitica, IX (pp.41–42). Edit. Top Form, Asociaţia de Geopolitică “Ion Conea” (pp.197–208).

  63. Stângă, I. C., & Grozavu, A. (2012). Quantifying human vulnerability in rural areas: Case study of Tutova Hills (Eastern Romania). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12(6), 1987–2001.

  64. Storper, M. (1997). The regional world: Territorial development in a global economy. New York: Guilford Press.

  65. Sturza, A. (2006). Cross-border cooperation and neighbourhood programs between Romania and Ukraine. Eurolimes, 2, 87–94.

  66. Sumpor, M., & Đokić, I. (2011). Cross-border Cooperation in Central and South-East Europe: A Croatian perspective. In 3rd World Planning Schools Congress, Perth (WA) (pp.4–8). https://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/563221.479.pdf. Accessed 15 Nov 2015.

  67. Ţoca, C. V. (2012). The existing EGTC models of territorial cohesion and their applicability in the Debrecen-Oradea Agglomeration. Central European Regional Policy and Human Geography, 2(1), 23–40.

  68. Tošić, B. & Živanović, Z. (2014). Cross-border cooperation of Serbia and Romania in the Danube area. In Geographical Research and Cross-Border Cooperation within the Lower Basin of the Danube. Abstract Book of the Third Romanian–Bulgarian–Hungarian–Serbian Conference, Veliko Gradište—Serbia, 18–21st Sep 2014.

  69. UNFPA. (2003). Annual report. http://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/annual_report03_eng.pdf. Accessed 5 Sep 2015.

  70. Winkelmann, R. (2014). Unemployment. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 6766–6767). Netherlands: Springer.

  71. Zainea, I. (2006). The Romanian–Hungarian border as an integrated factor in the European Union, In Regional Development in the Romanian-Hungarian Cross-Border Spacefrom National to European Perspective (pp.113–121). Debrecen.

  72. Zapletal, J. (2010). The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): A new tool facilitating cross-border cooperation and governance. Quaestiones Geographicae, 29(4), 15–26.

  73. Zhelezov, G. (Ed.). (2013). Hazard assessment and mitigation in the Danube Floodplain (Calafat-Vidin—Turnu Măgurele-Nikopol sector), Technical Guide (Bulgarian-English version), Edit (p. 256). Sofia: TebApt.

Download references

Acknowledgments

Research-work for this paper was conducted under the project funded by the Central European Service for Cross-Border Initiatives (CESCI) “Crossing the borders: Geographic and Structural Characteristics of Cross-Border Cooperation in the Danube Region”, 2014, as well as under the Institute of Geography research plan (a priority research project of the Romanian Academy “The Geographical Study of the Romanian Danube Valley”).

Author information

Correspondence to Monica Dumitraşcu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mitrică, B., Mocanu, I., Dumitraşcu, M. et al. Socio-Economic Disparities in the Development of the Romania’s Border Areas. Soc Indic Res 134, 899–916 (2017) doi:10.1007/s11205-016-1462-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Territorial development
  • Socio-economic disparities
  • Border areas
  • Cross-border cooperation
  • Romania