Building Universal Socio-cultural Indicators for Standardizing the Safeguarding of Citizens’ Rights in Smart Cities
- 902 Downloads
This research explores the opportunity to use standards as recommender instruments for designing urban policy. Standards are soft regulatory mechanisms that can be used for monitoring and safeguarding. More precisely, we explore the potential use of social standards for centering the focus of the smart cities initiative back to the citizens, and establishing a citizen-centered approach. This is in contrast to the industrial drive and technological emphasis which currently dominates. Accordingly, we present a set of novel citizenship indicators which serve as the basis for the social standardization of smart cities, something which is not now taking place, in order to ensure and safeguard the basic social urban rights of citizens. The juridical basis and well-established points of reference for building indicators for citizens’ rights in the city are two International Charters. These are the European Charter for the Safeguarding of Human Rights in the City, and the Global Charter-Agenda for Human Rights in the City. In this paper, we start by comparing and analyzing the rights contained in each of the two Charters, and elaborating indicators for measuring the promotion and protection of these rights. The elaboration of indicators has been based on different criteria and under the common premise of universal existence of feeding data, which is the most recurrent problem when building indicators meant to be global. Next, at the request of the International Standards Organization (ISO), we select the most relevant socio-cultural indicators for the Global Charter Agenda, which will be introduced in the on-going revision of the smart cities and communities standard ISO 37120:2014 Sustainable development of communities—Indicators for city services and quality of life. This will make ISO 37120 a more beneficial social standard for monitoring and safeguarding citizens’ rights in the smart city.
KeywordsSustainable city indicators Social sustainability Right to the city Human rights in the city Smart cities standardization
This research is consuming a huge amount of work and dedication. The elaboration of indicators would not have been possible without the valuable contributions and help of this team, who disinterestedly met with me once a week during months, always active, helpful, and bringing lots of great ideas: Dr. Pere Soler (University of Girona, director the Director of the Joint Master’s Program in Youth and Society (MIJS); Dr. Imma Boada (University of Girona, director of the Institute of Informatics and its Applications); Dr. Joaquim Meléndez (University of Girona, director of the Doctoral Program in Technology); Ms. Anna Serra (Lawyer at Red Cross Girona); Mr. Fran Quirós (Responsible of Cooperation Programs at Charity Girona); Mr. Lluís Puigdemont (Responsible of the Rights Department at Charity Girona); Dr. Montse Aulinas (Project Manager at Grup Fundació Ramon Noguera); Ms. Yolanda García (Responsible of social programs at Grup Fundació Ramon Noguera). Special thanks to Mr. Mark Segal, international consultant on democratization issues, for his valuable comments and general editing support during the elaboration of this research.
- Council of Europe. (1950, 2010). Convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/005.htm. Last accessed Aug 18, 2015.
- Council of Europe. (1961, 1996). European social charter. http://www.coe.int/T/DGHL/Monitoring/SocialCharter/. Last accessed Aug 18, 2015.
- Harvey, D. (2012). Rebel cities: From the right to the city to the urban revolution. London-NYC: Verso.Google Scholar
- Huchzermeyer, M. (2011). Cities with ‘slums’: From informal settlement eradication to a right to the city in Africa. Claremont: UCT Press.Google Scholar
- International Electrotechnical Commission. (2014). White paper. Orchestrating infrastructure smart cities. http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/smartcities/?ref=extfooter. Last accessed Aug 18, 2015.
- International Standards Organization. (2014). 37120 Sustainable development and resilience. Indicators for city services and quality of life. Standard briefing note and outline (available on-line and standard on purchase). http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=62436. Last accessed Aug 18, 2015.
- Lefebre, H. (1995). Introduction to modernity (J. Moore, Trans.). Verso, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Lefebvre, H. (1996 ). Writings on cities (E. Kofman & E. Lebas, Trans., Eds.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Limonad, E., & Monte-Mor, L. R. (2012). The right to the city, between rural and urban. Scripta Nova-Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales, 16 (418)Google Scholar
- Marcuse, P. (2007) The politics of public space/the right to the city: Social justice and the fight for public space. Journal of the American Planning Association, 73, (1).Google Scholar
- Marcuse, P., Mayer, M., & Brenner, N. (Eds.). (2011). Cities for people, not for profit: critical urban theory and the right to the city. Abingdon, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Shin, H. B. (2013). The right to the city and critical reflections on China’s property rights activism. Antipode, 45(5), 1167–1189.Google Scholar
- United Cities and Local Governments, Committee on Social Inclusion, Participatory Democracy and Human Rights. (2006). Global Charter-Agenda for human rights in the city. http://www.uclg-cisdp.org/en/right-to-the-city/world-charter-agenda. Last accessed Aug 18. 2015.
- United Cities and Local Governments, Committee on Social Inclusion, Participatory Democracy and Human Rights UCLG- CISDP. (1998). The European Charter for the safeguarding of the human rights in the city. http://www.uclg-cisdp.org/en/right-to-the-city/european-charter. Last accessed Aug 18, 2015.
- United Nations, General Assembly. (1948). Universal declaration of human rights. http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/. Last accessed Aug 18, 2015.
- United Nations, General Assembly. (2000). United Nations millennium declaration. http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm. Last accessed: Aug 18, 2015.
- United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1966). International covenant on civil and political rights. http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx. Last accessed Aug 18, 2015.
- United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1966). International covenant on economic, social and cultural rights. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx. Last accessed: Aug 18, 2015.
- United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1993). Vienna declaration and programme of action. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/Vienna.aspx. Last accessed Aug 18, 2015.
- United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2005). Declaration for the 60th anniversary of the United Nations. http://www.ohchr.org/en/udhr/pages/60udhr.aspx. Last accessed Aug 18, 2015.
- United Nations, World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Waldron, J. (1993). Two sides of the same coin. Liberal rights: Collected papers. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Whitzman, C., Legacy, C., Andrew, C., Klodawsky, F., Shaw, M., & Viswanath, K. (2013). Building inclusive cities. Routledge: Women’s Safety and the Right to the City.Google Scholar