Construction, Robustness Assessment and Application of an Index of Perceived Level of Socio-Economic Threat from Immigrants: A Study of 47 European Countries and Regions
- 681 Downloads
In contemporary globalization, migrations to Europe have accelerated in speed and scale. Over the last decades, there has been an increase in negative attitudes towards immigration, and many studies have emphasized marked differences in the strength of anti-immigrant attitudes among European countries. However, very few studies performed a rigorous statistical assessment of the issue. A new index measuring the level of perceived threat from immigrants is proposed and applied to a data set covering 47 European countries and regions. The results show that Malta and Cyprus have the strongest perception of socio-economic threat from immigrants, followed by Austria, Great Britain, Northern Ireland and Hungary, and that the countries/regions with the weakest perception of threat are Armenia, Sweden, Romania and Northern Cyprus. It is shown that the proposed index has many theoretical and practical advantages over the existing indexes of perceived threat from immigrants. The robustness of the index is assessed using uncertainty analysis. It is very important for policy makers to monitor the level of perceived socio-economic threat from immigrants because negative attitudes towards immigrants make integration difficult and affect social capital, a key aspect of societal wellbeing and economic development. Monitoring is the basis for further political measures aimed at fostering immigrant integration. The proposed index is a useful monitoring tool, an entry point for the ongoing debate on tolerance and can spark further research for a better understanding of the issue.
KeywordsComposite indicator Tolerance towards immigrants Prejudice against immigrants Uncertainty analysis Monte Carlo methods
- Aiello, F., & Attanasio, M. (2004). How to transform a batch of simple indicators to make up a unique one? In D. Cocchi (Ed.), Atti del Convegno SIS (pp. 327–338). Padova: Cleup.Google Scholar
- Arboretti, G. R., Bonnini, S., & Salmaso, L. (2007). A performance indicator for multivariate data. Quaderni di Statistica, 9, 1–29.Google Scholar
- Artiles, A. M., & Meardi, G. (2014). Public opinion, immigration and welfare in the context of uncertainty. European Review of Labour and Research, 20, 53–68.Google Scholar
- Blalock, H. M. (1982). Conceptualization and measurement on the social sciences. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
- European Social Survey. (2014). ESS Round 6 (2012/2013). Technical Report.Google Scholar
- European Commission. (2010). Future of Europe. Standard Eurobarometer, 71. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/index_en.htm. Accessed 21 Dec 2014.
- European Commission. (2012) Discrimination in the EU in 2012. Special Eurobarometer, 393. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/index_en.htm. Accessed 12 April 2015.
- European Commission. (2014a) Future of Europe. Special Eurobarometer, 413. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/index_en.htm. Accessed 14 April 2015.
- European Commission. (2014b). Public opinion in the European Union, first results. Standard Eurobarometer, 82. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/index_en.htm. Accessed 18 April 2015.
- EVS. (2011). European Values Study 2008: Integrated dataset (EVS 2008). ZA4800 Data file Version 3.0.0, GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. doi: 10.4232/1.11004
- Gilardoni, G., D’Odorico, M., & Carrillo, D. (2015). Evidence on migrants’ integration in Europe, KING knowledge for integration governance. Milan: Fondazione ISMU.Google Scholar
- Lago, A., & Pesarin, F. (2000). Nonparametric combination of dependent rankings with application to the quality assessment of industrial products. Metron, 58, 39–52.Google Scholar
- Marozzi, M. (2015). Skills and training requirements of municipal directors: A statistical assessment. Quality and Quantity. doi: 10.1007/s11135-015-0192-2.
- OECD. (2008). Handbook on constructing composite indicators. http://composite-indicators.jrc.ec.europa.eu. Accessed 14 April 2015.
- OSCE. (2013). Armenia: A migrant integration policy index assessment. OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. http://www.osce.org/odihr. Accessed 21 Dec 2014.
- Poletti, M., & Regalia, M. (2014). Economic or cultural threat? Orientations towards immigration and European integration among EU citizens and national parties over time. KING Project—Political Science Unit Desk Research Papers, 5. http://www.king.ismu.org. Accessed 26 Mar 2014.
- Tajfel, H. (1982). Social identity and group relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar