Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 126, Issue 2, pp 829–844 | Cite as

Religiousness and Subjective Well-Being Among Israeli-Palestinian College Students: Direct or Mediated Links?

  • Hisham Abu-RaiyaEmail author
  • Qutaiba Agbaria
Article

Abstract

Espousing a positive psychology orientation, this study aimed to explore the links between religiousness and subjective well-being, and test whether social support and self-control mediate the expected associations between these two variables. Participants were 264 Israeli-Palestinian college students, who were asked to provide demographic information and complete measures of religiousness, social support, self-control, subjective happiness, positive emotions and negative emotions. We found that religiousness was positively correlated with both subjective happiness and positive emotions, but no significant correlation was found between religiousness and negative emotions. Both social support and self-control partially mediated the links between religiousness and both subjective happiness and positive emotions. The findings of the study, as well as its implications and limitations, are discussed.

Keywords

Religiousness Subjective well-being Social support Self-control Israeli-Palestinians 

References

  1. Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2009). Religiosity, subjective well-being, and depression in Saudi children and adolescents. Mental Health Religion and Culture, 12, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2010). Quality of life, subjective well-being, and religiosity in Muslim college students. Quality of Life Research, 19, 1133–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2011). Religiosity, subjective well-being, self-esteem, and anxiety among Kuwaiti Muslim adolescents. Mental Health Religion and Culture, 14, 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2014). Religiosity and well being in the Muslim context. In C. Kim-Prieto (Ed.), Religion and spirituality across cultures (pp. 71–85). NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Abdel-Khalek, A. M., & Eid, G. K. (2011). Religiosity and its association with subjective well-being and depression among Kuwaiti and Palestine Muslim children and adolescents. Mental Health Religion and Culture, 14, 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Abu-Raiya, H. (2013). The psychology of Islam: Current empirically based knowledge, potential challenges and directions for future research. In K. I. Pargament, J. J. Exline, & J. W. Jones (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (Vol 1): Context, theory, and research. APA handbooks in psychology (pp. 681–695). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Abu-Raiya, H., & Pargament, K. I. (2011). Empirically-based psychology of Islam: Summary and critique of the literature. Mental Health Religion and Culture, 14, 93–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Abu-Raiya, H., & Pargament, K. I. (2014). Religious coping among diverse religions: Commonalities and divergences. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Online iFirst Publication.Google Scholar
  9. Abu-Raiya, H., Pargament, K. I., Mahoney, A., & Stein, C. (2008). A psychological measure of Islamic religiousness: Development and evidence of reliability and validity. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 18, 291–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aflakseir, A., & Coleman, P. G. (2011). Initial development of the Iranian religious coping scale. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 6, 44–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Agbaria, Q., & Ronen, T. (2010). Self control and a sense of social belonging as moderators of the link between poor subjective well-being and aggression among Arab Palestinian adolescents in Israel. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1334–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Agbaria, Q., Ronen, T., & Hamama, L. (2012). The link between developmental components (age and gender), need to belong and resources of self-control and feelings of happiness, and frequency of symptoms among Arab adolescents in Israel. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 2018–2027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Argyle, M. (1987). The psychology of happiness. UK: Methuen.Google Scholar
  14. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). Moderator-mediator variables distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bligh, A. (Ed.). (2003). The Israeli Palestinians: An Arab minority in the Jewish state. UK: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  16. Bolger, N., Zuckerman, A., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Invisible support and adjustment to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 953–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowen, R., Baetz, M., & D’Arcy, C. (2006). Self-rated importance of religion predicts one-year outcome of patients with panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 23, 266–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen, S., Mermelstein, R., Kamarck, T., & Hoberman, H. M. (1985). Measuring the functional components of social support. In I. G. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds.), Social support: Theory, research and applications (pp. 73–94). Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 31, 103–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diener, E. (2008). Myths in the science of happiness, and directions for future research. In M. Eid (Ed.), The science of SWB (pp. 493–514). NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  21. Emmons, R. A. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns: Motivation and spirituality in personality. NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Exline, J. J., Yali, A. M., & Sanderson, W. C. (2000). Guilt, discord, and alienation: The role of religious strain in depression and suicidality. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 1481–1496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frazier, P. A., Krasnoff, A. S., & Port, C. L. (1995). The role of religion in coping with chronic medical conditions. Paper presented at the 103rd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  24. Gardner, T. M., Krägeloh, C. U., & Henning, M. A. (2013). Religious coping, stress, and quality of life of Muslim university students in New Zealand. Mental Health, Religion and Culture. Online First Publication.Google Scholar
  25. Ghorbani, N., & Watson, P. J. (2006). Religious orientation types in Iranian Muslims: Differences in alexithymia, emotional intelligence, self-consciousness and psychological adjustment. Review of Religious Research, 47(3), 303–310.Google Scholar
  26. Granqvist, P., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2013). Religion, spirituality, and attachment. In K. I. Pargament (Editor-in-Chief), J. J. Exline, & J. W. Jones (Associate Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (Volume 1: Context, theory, and research; pp. 139–155). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  27. Hood, R. W, Jr, Hill, P. C., & Spilka, B. (2009). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (4th ed.). NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Joshanloo, M. (2013). A comparison of Western and Islamic conceptions of happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(6), 1857–1874. doi: 10.1007/s10902-012-9406-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kendler, K. S., et al. (2003). Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 496–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Khan, Z. H., & Watson, P. J. (2004). Religious orientations and the experience of Eid-ul-Azha among Pakistani Muslims. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 43(4), 537–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim-Prieto, C. (2014). Religion and spirituality across cultures. NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koenig, H. (1998). Religious attitudes and practices of hospitalized medically ill older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 213–224.Google Scholar
  33. Koenig, H. G., King, D., & Carson, V. B. (2012). Handbook of religion and health (2nd ed.). NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Koenig, H. G., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Religion and mental health: Evidence of association. International Review of Psychiatry, 13, 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koenig, H. G., McCullough, M., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Handbook of religion and health: A century of research reviewed. NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2006). Positive psychology: Past, present, and (possible) future. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 3–16.Google Scholar
  37. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L. A., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 803–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McConnell, A. R., et al. (2005). Whose self is it anyway? Self-aspect control moderates the relation between self-complexity and well-being. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McCullough, M. E., & Willoughby, B. L. B. (2009). Religion, self-control, and self-regulation: Associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 69–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McCullough, M. E., et al. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: A meta-analytic review. Health Psychology, 19, 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McIntosh, D. N., Silver, R. C., & Wortman, C. B. (1993). Religion’s role in adjustment to a negative life event: Coping with the loss of a child. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 812–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health. American Psychologist, 58, 24–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paloutzian, R., & Park, C. L. (2013). Handbook of psychology of religion and spirituality (2nd ed.). NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  45. Pappe, I. (2011). The forgotten Palestinians: A history of the Palestinians in Israel. Connecticut: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Pargament, K. I. (2013). APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality: APA handbooks in psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Park, C. L., & Cohen, L. H. (1993). Religious and nonreligious coping with the death of a friend. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17, 561–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Park, C. L., Edmondson, D., & Hale-Smith, A. (2013). Why religion? Meaning as motivation. In K. I. Pargament (Editor-in-Chief), J. J. Exline, & J. W. Jones (Associate Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (Volume 1: Context, theory, and research; pp. 157–171). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  49. Razali, S. M., Aminah, K., & Khan, U. A. (2002). Religious-cultural psychotherapy in the management of anxiety patients. Transcultural Psychiatry, 39, 130–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Razali, S. M., Hasanah, C. I., Aminah, K., & Subramaniam, M. (1998). Religious sociocultrual psychotherapy in patients with anxiety and depression. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 867–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rosenbaum, M. (1980). A schedule for assessing self-control behaviors: Preliminary findings. Behavior Therapy, 11, 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Seligman, M. E. P. (2003). Foreword: The Past and future of positive psychology. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Hadit (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived Washington (pp. xi–xx). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  53. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic intervals for indirect effects in structural equations models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290–312). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  55. Stavrova, O., Fetchenhauer, D., & Schlösser, T. (2013). Why are religious people happy? The effect of the social norm of religiosity across countries. Social Science Research, 42, 90–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Suhail, K., & Chaudhry, H. R. (2004). Predictors of Subjective Well-Being in an Eastern Muslim culture. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 359–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tix, A. P., & Frazier, P. A. (1998). The use of religious coping during stressful life events: Main effects, moderation and mediation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 411–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Veenhoven, R. (1991). Is happiness relative? Social Indicators Research, 24, 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vella-Brodrick, D. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Three ways to be happy: Pleasure, engagement, and meaning—Findings from Australian and US samples. Social Indicators Research, 90, 165–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wood, A. M., Linley, P. A., Maltby, J., Kashdan, T. B., & Hurling, R. (2011). Using psychological strengths leads to less stress and greater self-esteem, vitality, and positive affect: Longitudinal examination of the strengths use questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 15–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bob Shapell School of Social WorkTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Educational Research CenterAl-Qasemi CollegeBaqa al-GharbiyyeIsrael

Personalised recommendations