Livelihood Assets and Vulnerability Context of Marine Park Community Development in Malaysia
- 660 Downloads
This study assesses the community’s standard of living using the well-known Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA) as an analytical framework within the Marine Park Areas (MPAs) in Peninsular Malaysia. We focus on livelihood sustainability and environmental issues challenging MPAs. In order to protect and conserve vulnerable marine life, our efforts assess the residents’ wellbeing and identify major environmental issues associated with MPAs. The major findings of this study indicate that social and physical assets of the societies within the Marine Park Island improved with economic development, but they continue to lack in human capital, and financial and environmental assets. It is expected that this study would assist policy makers to formulate enhanced policies for conserving marine diversity as well as to improve the socio-economic status of the communities that reside therein.
KeywordsLivelihood asset Communities’ well-being Standard of living Sustainable Livelihood Approach Marine Park Areas
- Adato, M., & Meinzen-Dick, R. (2003). Assessing the impact of agricultural research on poverty and livelihoods. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 42(2), 149–166.Google Scholar
- Ashley, C., & Carney, D. (1999). Sustainable livelihoods: Lessons from early experience. Nottingham: Department for International Development (DFID), Russell Press Ltd.Google Scholar
- Barrett, C. B., & Swallow, B. M. (2004). Dynamic poverty traps and rural livelihoods. In F. Ellis & A. Freeman (Eds.), Rural livelihoods and poverty reduction policies (pp. 103–165). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Cabanban, A. S., & Nais, J. (2003). The role of marine protected areas in Sabah with emphasis of tourist. Sabah Parks Nature Journal, 6(1), 65–77.Google Scholar
- Caffey, R.H., Kazmierczak, Jr., R. F., Avault Jr., J. W. (2000). Developing consensus indicators of sustainability for Southeastern United States aquaculture. LSU Ag Center, Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness. Working Draft Bulletin No. 2000–2001.Google Scholar
- Carney, D. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods: What contribution can we make? London, UK: Department for International Development (DFID).Google Scholar
- Castaneda, F. (2000). Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: International processes, current status and the way ahead. Unasylva, 203, 34–40.Google Scholar
- Chambers, R., & Conway, G. (1992). Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century. London: Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
- Costa-Pierce, B. (2008). An ecosystem approach to marine aquaculture: A global review. In D. Soto, J. Aguilar-Manjarrez, & N. Hishamunda (Eds.), Building an ecosystem approach to aquaculture, FAO/Universitat de les Illes Balears Experts Workshop, 7–11 May 2007, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings, No. 14 (pp. 81–115). Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
- Department for International Development (DFID). (1999). Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets, No. 1–8. Department for International Development, London, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
- Department for International Development (DFID). (2000). Community forestry and sustainable livelihoods: The Nepal–UK community forestry project. London: DFID.Google Scholar
- Department for International Development (DFID). (2001). Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. London: Department for International Development.Google Scholar
- Department of Fisheries. (1996). http://www.dof.gov.my/. Accessed 25 July 2014.
- Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2009). http://www.statistics.gov.my/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
- Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2011). http://www.statistics.gov.my/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
- Diacon, D., & Guimarães, S. (2003). Agents rather than patients: Realising the potential for asset-based community development. http://www.abcdinstitute.org/docs/abcd/Windsor_2003.pdf. Accessed 22 Nov 2014.
- Economic Planning Unite (EPU). (2007). http://www.epu.gov.my/en/video-tahun-2007. Accessed 28 Oct 2014.
- Ellis, F. (2000). The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 51(2), 289–302.Google Scholar
- Erenstein, O. (2009). Livelihood assets as a multidimensional inverse proxy for poverty: a district level analysis of the Indian Indo-Gangetic Plains. Working Paper. New Delhi.Google Scholar
- Hanim, N., & Salleh, M. (2010). The impact of marine park gazettement to local community sustainable livelihoods: A case study of Redang and Tioman Islands. Retrieved from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/22680/MPRA, Paper No. 22680. Accessed 17 May 2010.
- Harborne, A., Fenner, D., Barnes, A., Beger, M., Harding, S., & Roxburgh, T. (2000). Status report on the coral reefs of the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Report Prepared to Department of Fisheries Malaysia.Google Scholar
- Harrison, P. (2005). A socio-economic assessment of sustainable livelihoods regimes for communities of Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park, Tanzania: Incorporating livelihood intervention strategies and proposals for the development of alternative income generating activities. Nairobi: IUCN EARO.Google Scholar
- Ibrahim, Y. (2007). Komuniti pulau dalam era pembangunan: Terpinggir atau meminggir? Akademika, 70, 57–76.Google Scholar
- Kari, F., Al-Amin, A. Q., Huda, N., & Azam, M. N. (2011). Growth, equity and vulnerability in marine park areas: In search of economic-environmental balance. World Applied Sciences Journal, 14(2), 277–284.Google Scholar
- Karim, A. K. A., & Ramli, M. N. (2003). Pelancongan dan Alam Sekitar: Taman Laut Malaysia. In M. J. Mohd Fauzi, D. Zaimah, T. Mohaini, M. S. Norlida Hanim, A. T. Basri, N. M. Nik Hashim, S. Z. Mohd Azlan, & M. Nafisah (Eds.), Trade liberalitaion and agricultural sector in Malaysia. Bangi, Selangor: Fakulti Ekonomi UKM.Google Scholar
- Lind, D. A., Marchal, W. G., & Wathen, S. A. (2002). Statistical techniques in business and economics (11th ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.Google Scholar
- Maritime Institute of Malaysia (MIMA). (2012). http://www.mima.gov.my/. Accessed 25 Oct 2014.
- Morse, S., & McNamara, N. (2013). Sustainable livelihood approach: A critique of theory and practice. Springer.Google Scholar
- Othman, P., Rosli, M. M., & Harun, A. (2011). The impact of tourism on small business performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysian islands. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(1), 11–21.Google Scholar
- Population and Household Census Malaysia. (2010). http://www.statistics.gov.my/portal/index.php? Accessed 26 July 2014.
- Pretty, J., & Ward, H. (2001). Social capital and the environment. World development, 29(2), 209–227.Google Scholar
- Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis. Working Paper 72. Brighton: Institute for Development Studies.Google Scholar
- Shankland, A. (2000). Analysing policy for sustainable livelihoods. IDS Research Report 49. Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton.Google Scholar
- Sixth Malaysia Plan. (1991–1995). Government of Malaysia. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
- Stephen, M., Nora, M., & Moses, A. (2009). Sustainable livelihood approach: A critical analysis of theory and practice. Geographical Paper No. 189. University of Reading, Reading, pp. 4 23.Google Scholar
- Tahir, H. M. (2008). Tioman setanding destinasi dunia. Jumaat, Oktober: Berita Harian. 24.Google Scholar
- Vincent, K. (2007). Uncertainty in adaptive capacity and the importance of scale. Global Environmental Change, 17(1), 12–24.Google Scholar
- Wells, M., & Bradon, K. (1992). People and parks: Linking protected area management with local communities. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Weng, C. N. (2009). Ecotourism and environmental conservation in small islands in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Environmental Management, 10(2), 53–69.Google Scholar
- William, S. (2003). Sustainable livelihoods: A case study of the evolution of DFID policy (pp. 7–16). London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar