Social Indicators Research

, Volume 124, Issue 1, pp 127–139 | Cite as

Relationship Between Health, Experience of Discrimination, and Social Inclusion Among Mental Health Service Users in Hong Kong

  • Kara ChanEmail author
  • Sherrill Evans
  • Marcus Yu-Lung Chiu
  • Peter J. Huxley
  • Yu-Leung Ng


The study of the relationship between mental health and social inclusion has generated much interest among social services providers, policy makers, and academics (Huxley et al. in Life Day 12(3):33–35. doi: 10.1108/13666282200800029, 2008). This paper reports the subjective experience of social inclusion in various key life domains of 168 Chinese mental health services users in Hong Kong collected through a non-probability sample survey. A Chinese version of the Social and Communities Opportunities Profile (i.e. SCOPE-C) employing the same methodology as an earlier UK study was employed in the study. Face-to-face individual interviews were conducted between October 2013 and February 2014. Results indicated that participants perceived an average level of opportunities to participate in various life domains. Despite this, they were satisfied in general with the level of opportunities in these domains. Contradictory to Chan et al. (Soc Indic Res 119(1):121–137, 2014)’s findings, participation did not often encounter discrimination in their daily life. Their perceived general health was between average and good. The overall social inclusion, average satisfaction with opportunities, and average perceived opportunities had significant positive correlation with one another. These three SCOPE-C variables were positively correlated with respondents’ physical health, but not mental health. These findings are discussed.


Social experience Community opportunities Life domains Discrimination Social exclusion Quantitative methods Social inclusion 



This project was funded by Economic & Social Research Council (Project No. ES/K005227/1). We are thankful to the NGOs that facilitate our contact with the voluntary participants who took part in the study. These NGOs include Baptist Oi Kwan Social Services, Caritas Hong Kong, Fu Hong Society, Stewards Social Services, The Mental Health Association of Hong Kong, and The Society of Rehabilitation and Crime Prevention (in alphabetical order).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kara Chan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sherrill Evans
    • 2
  • Marcus Yu-Lung Chiu
    • 3
  • Peter J. Huxley
    • 2
  • Yu-Leung Ng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Communication StudiesHong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloon TongHong Kong
  2. 2.Centre for Mental Health and SocietyBangor UniversityGwyneddUK
  3. 3.Department of Social Work, Faculty of Social SciencesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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