Subjective Well-Being of Chinese Landless Peasants in Relatively Developed Regions: Measurement Using PANAS and SWLS
- 987 Downloads
The government of China expropriated the lands of peasants for urban development. Though some landless peasants have become the urban residents in the household registration system, they still recognize themselves as traditional peasants in the psychological cultural aspects. And they do not enjoy the same social security as urban citizens. This study explores the subjective well-being (SWB) of Chinese landless peasants using two scales, namely, the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) and the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). A total of 1,236 landless peasants from three relatively developed cities (Nanjing, Yangzhou, and Hangzhou) were included in the sample. Results indicated that 60 % of the respondents got NA scores above the midpoint of scale (30) and 64.64 % of the respondents reported PA scores below the midpoint of scale (30). And 64.56 % of the respondents got SWLS scores below the midpoint of scale (20). SWLS is positively related to PA and negatively related to NA. Therefore, as landless peasants possess more or stronger negative emotions, their SWB decreases. Unfair or unreasonable land compensation and resettlement policy are supposed to lead to negative emotions, while incomplete social security system leads to low life satisfaction among landless peasants.
KeywordsSWB PANAS SWLS Landless peasants Urbanization Social security Compensation policy
This paper is supported by the General Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (71173099 & 71473117), the Youth Program of National Natural Science Foundation (70903002), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-11-0228) and the key project of the National Social Science Fund entitled Social stability risk assessment of major policies and projects (11AZD108) and Study on Public Participation Mechanism in the Municipal Development Planning, China (13&ZD176). The author would also like to thank Peiyi Lu (School of Communication and Design, Sun Yat-sen University) for her contributions to this study. The authors also want to thank the anonymous reviewers for their precious comments to the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Arrindell, W. A., Heesink, J., & Feij, J. A. (1999). The satisfaction with life scale (SWLS): Appraisal with 1700 healthy young adults in The Netherlands. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(5), 815–826. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00180-9.
- Chan, N. (2003). Land acquisition compensation in China—Problems & answers. International Real Estate Review, 6(1), 136–152.Google Scholar
- Fan, X. (2003). The security function of land and the social security system innovation in rural areas. Collected Essays on Finance and Economics, 4, 8–12.Google Scholar
- Feng, B., & Ma, X. (2005). Provincial differences in China’s urbanization. Economic Survey, 1, 62–65.Google Scholar
- Gouveia, V. V., Milfont, T. L., da Fonseca, P. N., & de Miranda Coelho, J. A. P. (2009). Life satisfaction in Brazil: Testing the psychometric properties of the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) in five Brazilian samples. Social Indicators Research, 90(2), 267–277. doi: 10.1007/s11205-008-9257-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guo, X. (2012). Research on the society security of the landless peasants of Henan province. In Business, economics, financial sciences, and management (pp. 69–74). Berlin: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-27966-9_10.
- He, X. M., Ju, H. L., & Shen, X. M. (2007). Deficiency and perfection of the system of compensation on expropriated land. Economic Research Guide, 7, 18.Google Scholar
- Hui, E. C. M., Bao, H. J., & Zhang, X. L. (2013). The policy and praxis of compensation for land expropriations in China: An appraisal from the perspective of social exclusion. Land Use Policy, 32, 309–316. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.11.004.
- Jin, J., & Zhang, B. (2010). Study on the compensation model for landless peasants in the urbanization—Based on 16 counties in JiangSu province 320 landless peasants’ compensation model. Urban Studies, 17(5), 74–79.Google Scholar
- Keyes, C. L. (2006). Subjective well-being in mental health and human development research worldwide: An introduction. Social indicators research, 77(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
- Knight, J., & Gunatilaka, R. (2008). Aspirations, adaptation and subjective well-being of rural-urban migrants in China. In D. A. Clark (Ed.), Rethinking International Development series (vol. 4, pp. 94–110). Paddyfield: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Liang, Y. (2011). Civic idea of rule by law in the perspective of special trust: Research perspectives based on two continuous investigations. Academia Bimestrie, 3, 97–105.Google Scholar
- Liang, Y. (2014). Correlations between health-related quality of life and interpersonal trust: Comparisons between two generations of Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. Social Indicators Research, 1–24. doi: 10.1007/s11205-014-0755-y.
- Liang, Y. & Cao, R. (2014). Employment assistance policies of Chinese government play positive roles! The impact of post-earthquake employment assistance policies on the health-related quality of life of Chinese earthquake populations. Social Indicators Research, 1–23. doi: 10.1007/s11205-014-0620-z.
- Liang, Y., & Lu, P. (2014). Effect of occupational mobility and health status on life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations: Logistic diagonal mobility models analysis of cross-sectional data on eight Chinese provinces. International Journal for Equity in Health, 13, 15. doi: 10.1186/1475-9276-13-15.
- Liang, Y., Lu, W., & Wu, W. (2014). Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? A study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life. International Journal for Equity in Health, 13, 5. doi: 10.1186/1475-9276-13-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liang, Y., & Wang, X. (2013). Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: A study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors’ health-related quality of life. Health Research Policy and Systems, 11, 41. doi: 10.1186/1478-4505-11-41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liang, Y., & Wang, P. (2014). Influence of prudential value on the subjective well-being of Chinese urban—rural residents. Social Indicators Research, 118, 1249–1267. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0471-z.
- Liang, Y., & Wu, W. (2014). Exploratory analysis of health-related quality of life among the empty-nest elderly in rural China: An empirical study in three economically developed cities in eastern China. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 2014(12), 59. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-12-59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu, H. (2006). On the relation between compensation for land expropriation and marginalization of land-lost farmers. Journal of Northeastern University (Social Science), 5, 013.Google Scholar
- Liu, W., & Lou, L. (2004). A review on the land expropriation and its management in China. Journal of Zhejiang University (Agriculture & Life Science), 30(1), 63–68.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Land and Resources of the People’s Republic of China. (2012). Bulletin of ministry of land and resources of the People’s Republic of China. Retrieved from http://www.mlr.gov.cn/zwgk/tjxx/201304/t20130420_1205174.htm.
- National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China, (November 2013): The reform and opening up create brilliant prospect, economic development write new chapter: huge changes of Chinese economic social development since 1978. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgz/tjdt/201311/t20131106_456188.html.
- Peng, J. (2010). Review of researches on landless peasants’ happiness. Journal of Changsha Railway University (Social Science), 11(3), 15–17.Google Scholar
- Qiu, L., Zheng, X., & Wang, Y. (2008). Revision of the positive affect and negative affect scale. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology, 14(3), 249–254.Google Scholar
- Shi, G., Wu, X., Yi, Y., Yu, M., Tian, Z., Wang, W., & Wu, H. (2014). The Mental Health and Life Satisfaction of Children of Drug Abusers in Wenzhou, China. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1–18. doi: 10.1007/s11482-014-9332-4.
- Tan, S. (2008). Analysis on causes of frequent land expropriation conflicts in China. China Land Science, 22(6), 44–50.Google Scholar
- Wang, M. (2003). Thinking of land expropriation system reformation in Jiangsu province. China Land Science, 17(4), 20–24.Google Scholar
- Wu, L. (2009). Explore the sense of well-being or happiness of land-lost farmers from the perspective of social ecology, Phd thesis of Zhejiang University (pp. 23–53).Google Scholar
- Wu, S., & Qin, Q. (2008). Research progress of the identity recognition of land-lost farmers during the process of urbanization. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 36(23), 10193–10196.Google Scholar
- Xiong, C., & Xu, Y. (2009). Reliability and validity of the satisfaction with life scale for Chinese demo. China Journal of Health Psychology, 17(8), 948–949.Google Scholar
- Yang, C., & Huang, Z. (2004). Analysis of the basic life security system for land-expropriated farmers in Zhejiang province. Problem of Agricultural Economy, 6, 11–16.Google Scholar
- Yang, B., Zhang, Y., & Wang, J. (2010). Review of researches on land-lost peasants issue in the process of China’s urbanization. West Forum, 20(6), 11–18.Google Scholar
- Zhang, H. (2012). Review of Studies on landless peasants in China’s urbanization process. Theory Horizon, 12, 31–34.Google Scholar
- Zhang, W., Diao, J., & Schick, C. J. (2004). The Cross-cultural Measurement of positive and negative affect examining the dimensionality of PANAS. Psychological Science (China), 27(1), 77–79.Google Scholar
- Zhang, H., & Tong, X. (2006). Self-identity of the passive-urbanized group in the process of obtaining urban adaptability and modernity: An empirical study on 561 land-displaced peasants in Nanjing. Sociological Studies, 2, 84–106.Google Scholar
- Zhao, D. (2009). The Interactive Relationship between Farmers, Local Governments and the State during the Course of Land Acquisition. Sociological Studies, 2, 009.Google Scholar
- Zhu, K., & Roy, P. (2007). Securing land rights for Chinese farmers: A leap forward for stability and growth. Development Analysis, 3. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/publications/development-policy-analysis/securing-land-rights-chinese-farmers-leap-forward-stability-growth?print.