Social Indicators Research

, Volume 123, Issue 1, pp 267–279 | Cite as

Quality of Life and Health-Related Quality of Life over 1 Year in Older Women: Monitoring Stability and Reliability of Measurement

  • Yvonne C. Learmonth
  • Elizabeth A. Alwick
  • Edward McAuley
  • Robert W. Motl
Article

Abstract

Assessing quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older adults is important. Yet, limited research is available on the stability of these constructs and the psychometric properties of QOL [e.g., Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)] and HRQOL [e.g., Short-Form 12 Health Survey (SF-12)] measures in this population. Such knowledge is important for designing and interpreting interventions. We examined stability of QOL (SWLS) and HRQOL (SF-12) and their test–retest reliability, measurement error, and interpretability over 1 year in older Black and White women (n = 230). Stability and reliability were ascertained through paired sample t tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Standard error of measurement and coefficient of variation assessed measurement error. Smallest detectable change estimated score interpretability. QOL and HRQOL remained stable; ICC values indicated moderate reliability for the SWLS and SF-12 (SWLS = 0.73, SF-12 Physical Composite Summary = 0.69, SF-12 Mental Composite Summary = 0.58). Measurement error and interpretability estimates were similar for both the SWLS and SF-12. Interpretability estimates indicated a change in score of around 33 % may represent an important change. We provide novel data for selecting and interpreting QOL and HRQOL measures contributing to a better understanding of intervention efficacy.

Keywords

Clinical research Gerontology Measurement 

Abbreviations

QOL

Quality of life

HRQOL

Health-related quality of life

SWLS

Satisfaction with Life Scale

SF-12

Short-Form 12 Health Survey

PCS

Physical Composite Summary

MCS

Mental Composite Summary

ICC

Intraclass correlation coefficient

SEM

Standard error of measurement

CV

Coefficient of variation

SDC

Smallest detectable change

References

  1. Altman, D. G., & Bland, J. M. (2011). Brackets (parentheses) in formulas. British Medical Journal, 343, d570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, G., & Nevill, A. M. (1998). Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Medicine (Auckland, New Zealand), 26(4), 217–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beckerman, H., Roebroeck, M. E., Lankhorst, G. J., Becher, J. G., Bezemer, P. D., & Verbeek, A. L. M. (2001). Smallest real difference, a link between reproducibility and responsiveness. Quality of Life Research, 10(7), 571–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blais, M. R., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Brière, N. M. (1989). L’échelle de satisfaction de vie: Validation canadienne-française du “Satisfaction with Life Scale [The satisfaction scale: Canadian-French validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale.]. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 21(2), 210–223. doi:10.1037/h0079854.
  5. Browne, J. P., O’Boyle, C. A., McGee, H. M., Joyce, C. R. B., McDonald, N. J., O’Malley, K., et al. (1994). Individual quality of life in the healthy elderly. Quality of Life Research, 3(4), 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Vet, H., Terwee, C. B., Mokkink, L. B., & Knol, D. L. (2011). Measurement in medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Denegar, C. R., & Ball, D. W. (1993). Assessing reliability and precision of measurement: An introduction to intraclass correlation and standard error of measurement. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 2(1), 35–42.Google Scholar
  8. DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and applications (Vol. 26). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Drug Administration: Guidance for industry: Patient-reported outcome measures—Use in medical product development to support labeling claims. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 235(74), 65132–65133.Google Scholar
  11. Fowles, G., & Greenberg, S. (2011). A profile of older Americans: 2011. Administration on Aging: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  12. Hopman, W. M., Berger, C., Joseph, L., Towheed, T., VandenKerkhof, E., Anastassiades, T., et al. (2006). The natural progression of health-related quality of life: Results of a five-year prospective study of SF-36 scores in a normative population. Quality of Life Research, 15(3), 527–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lopez, A. D., Mathers, C. D., Ezzati, M., Jamison, D. T., & Murray, C. J. (Eds.). (2006). Global burden of disease and risk factors. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  14. McAuley, E., Doerksen, S. E., Morris, K. S., Motl, R. W., Hu, L., Wojcicki, T. R., et al. (2008). Pathways from physical activity to quality of life in older women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 36(1), 13–20. doi:10.1007/s12160-008-9036-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McAuley, E., Konopack, J. F., Motl, R. W., Rosengren, K., & Morris, K. S. (2005). Measuring disability and function in older women: Psychometric properties of the late-life function and disability instrument. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 60(7), 901–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McAuley, E., Morris, K. S., Doerksen, S. E., Motl, R. W., Liang, H., White, S. M., et al. (2007a). Effects of change in physical activity on physical function limitations in older women: Mediating roles of physical function performance and self-efficacy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(12), 1967–1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McAuley, E., Morris, K. S., Motl, R. W., Hu, L., Konopack, J. F., & Elavsky, S. (2007b). Long-term follow-up of physical activity behavior in older adults. Health Psychology, 26(3), 375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McHorney, C. A., Ware, J. E., & Raczek, A. E. (1993). The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Medical Care, 31(3), 247–263. doi:10.2307/3765819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Motl, R. W., McAuley, E., & Klaren, R. (2014). Reliability of physical activity measures over six months in adults with multiple sclerosis: Implications for designing behavioral interventions. Behavioral Medicine, 40(1), 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. National Center for Health Statistics (US). (2013). Health, United States, 2012: With special feature on emergency care. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics (US).Google Scholar
  21. Norman, G. R., Sloan, J. A., & Wyrwich, K. W. (2004). The truly remarkable universality of half a standard deviation: Confirmation through another look. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 4(5), 581–585. doi:10.1586/14737167.4.5.581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Paltamaa, J., West, H., Sarasoja, T., Wikström, J., & Mälkiä, E. (2005). Reliability of physical functioning measures in ambulatory subjects with MS. Physiotherapy Research International, 10(2), 93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 2. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2354-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pavot, W., Diener, E., Colvin, C. R., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Further Validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 149–161. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa5701_17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pereira, C. C. A., Palta, M., Mullahy, J., & Fryback, D. G. (2011). Race and preference-based health-related quality of life measures in the United States. Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care and Rehabilitation, 20(6), 969–978. doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9813-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pfeiffer, E. (1975). A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 23(10), 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Population Reference Bureau. (2013). The health and life expectancy of older Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. Population Reference Bureau.Google Scholar
  28. Resnick, B., & Nahm, E. S. (2001). Reliability and validity testing of the revised 12-item Short-Form Health Survey in older adults. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 9(2), 151–161.Google Scholar
  29. Revicki, D., Hays, R. D., Cella, D., & Sloan, J. (2008). Recommended methods for determining responsiveness and minimally important differences for patient-reported outcomes. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 61(2), 102–109. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2007.03.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stewart, A. L., & King, A. C. (1991). Evaluating the efficacy of physical activity for influencing quality-of-life outcomes in older adults. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 13(3), 108–116.Google Scholar
  31. Streiner, D. L., & Norman, G. R. (2008). Health measurement scales: A practical guide to their development and use. London: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ware, J. E., Jr, Kosinski, M., & Keller, S. D. (1996). A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: Construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. Medical Care, 34(3), 220–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ware, J. E., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30(6), 473–483. doi:10.2307/3765916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wyrwich, K. W., Norquist, J. M., Lenderking, W. R., & Acaster, S. (2013). Methods for interpreting change over time in patient-reported outcome measures. Quality of Life Research, 22(3), 475–483. doi:10.1007/s11136-012-0175-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvonne C. Learmonth
    • 1
  • Elizabeth A. Alwick
    • 1
  • Edward McAuley
    • 1
  • Robert W. Motl
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Kinesiology and Community HealthUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations