Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 122, Issue 2, pp 371–389 | Cite as

The Impact of Migration on the First Nations Community Well-Being Index

  • Martin CookeEmail author
  • Erin O’Sullivan
Article

Abstract

Migration of First Nations people in Canada can affect social and economic conditions of First Nations communities in different ways. Overall levels of migration might cause challenges for infrastructure or service delivery, and selective in- or out-migration might have implications for community human capital. Seen through the lens of social capital, migration could be important for maintaining bridging connections to outside institutions and communities, but might also disrupt social bonds within the community. We investigated the relationships between migration and well being of Canadian First Nations communities using 5-year (2001–2006) census migration rates and the 2006 Community Well-Being Index (CWB), which measures labour market, educational attainment, income and housing conditions in First Nations communities. We found that, on average, both in-migrants to and out-migrants from First Nations had more education and higher incomes than non-migrants, but the difference was greater for out-migrants. This did not strongly affect CWB scores, however. Regressions of CWB scores on in-, out-, net, and gross migration rates, controlling for geography, found small positive effects of both in- and out-migration, as well as gross migration, on CWB scores.

Keywords

Migration First Nations Aboriginal Indigenous Canada Community well being 

References

  1. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (2010). Community well-being database, 2006. http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100016646/1100100016647.
  2. Assembly of First Nations (2013). Education, jurisdiction and governance: AFN annual report 2012–2013. http://www.afn.ca/index.php/en/policy-areas/education. Accessed September 5 2013.
  3. Beavon, D., Wingert, S., & White, J. P. (2009). Churn migration and educational attainment among Aboriginal adolescents and young adults. In J. P. White, J. Peters, D. Beavon, & N. Spence (Eds.), Aboriginal education: Current crisis and future alternatives (pp. 197–224). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Boyd, M. (1989). Family and personal networks in international migration: Recent developments and new agendas. International Migration Review, 23(3), 638–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, D. L. (2002). Migration and community: Social networks in a multilevel world. Rural Sociology, 67(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clatworthy, S. (2005). Indian registration, membership and population change in First Nations communities. Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.Google Scholar
  7. Clatworthy, S., & Cooke, M. (2001). Patterns of Registred Indian Migration between on- and off-Reserve Locations. Ottawa: Research and Analysis Direcorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.Google Scholar
  8. Clatworthy, S., & Norris, M. J. (2007). Aboriginal mobility and migration: Trends, recent patterns, and implications: 1971–2001 In J. P. White, S. Wingert, D. Beavon, & P. Maxim (Eds.), Aboriginal policy research: Moving forward, making a difference (Vol. IV, pp. 207–234). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Cooke, M. (2002). The effects of personal characteristics on migration from Prairie cities to First Nations. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 34(2), 40–62.Google Scholar
  10. Cooke, M., & Bélanger, D. (2006). Migration theories and First Nations mobility: Towards a systems perspective. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 43(2), 141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Darnell, R. (2011). Nomadic legacies and cotemporary decision-making strategies between reserve and city In H. A. Howard, & C. Proulx (Eds.), Aboriginal Peoples in Canadian cities: Transformations and continuities (pp. 39–52). Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dockery, A. (2010). Culture and wellbeing: The case of indigenous Australians. Social Indicators Research, 99(2), 315–332. doi: 10.1007/s11205-010-9582-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guimond, E., Kerr, D., & Beaujot, R. (2004). Charting the growth of Canadian Aboriginal populations: Problems, options and implications. Canadian Studies in Population, 31(1), 33–82.Google Scholar
  14. Hagan, J., MacMillan, R., & Wheaton, B. (1996). New Kid in Town: Social capital and the life course effects of family migration on children. American Sociological Review, 31(3), 368–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Helliwell, J. F., & Putnam, R. D. (2004). The social context of well-being. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, 359(1499), 1435–1446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee, E. S. (1966). A theory of migration. Demography, 3(1), 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mignone, J., Longclaws, J., & Mustard, C. (2007). Social capital in First Nations communities: Concept and measurement. In J. P. White, P. Maxim, & D. Beavon (Eds.), Aborignal policy research: Setting the agenda for change (Vol. II, pp. 125–140). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. Mitrou, F., Cooke, M., Lawrence, D., Povah, D., Mobilia, E., Guimond, E., et al. (2014). Gaps in Indigenous disadvantage not closing: A census cohort study of social determinants of health in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand from 1981–2006. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 201. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Norris, M. J., & Clatworthy, S. (2011). Urbanization and migration patterns of Aboriginal populations in Canada: A half century in review (1951–2006). Aboriginal Policy Studies, 1(1), 13–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Norris, M. J., Cooke, M., Beavon, D., Guimond, E., & Clatworthy, S. (2004). Registered Indian mobility and migration: Patterns and implications. In J. Taylor & M. Bell (Eds.), Population mobility and indigenous peoples in Australasia and North America (pp. 136–160). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. O’Sullivan, E. (2006). The Community Well-Being (CWB) Index: Well-being in First Nations communities, 1981–2001 and into the future. Ottawa: Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Strategic Analysis Directorate.Google Scholar
  22. O’Sullivan, E. (2011). The community well-being index (CWB): Measuring well-being in First Nations and non-aboriginal communities, 1981–2006. Ottawa: Strategic Research Directorate, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.Google Scholar
  23. O’Sullivan, E. (2012). The Community Well-Being Index: Investigating the relationship between isolation and well-being. Unpublished report submitted to Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Ottawa: Aborigina Affairs and Northern Development Canada.Google Scholar
  24. O’Sullivan, E., & McHardy, M. (2007). The Community Well-Being Index (CWB): Well-being in First Nations communities, present, past, and future. In J. P. White, Beavon, D., & Spence, Nicholas (Ed.), Aboriginal well-being: Canada’s continuing challenge (pp. 111–143). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  25. Peters, E. (2002). “Our City Indians”: Negotiating the meaning of First Nations urbanization in Canada, 1945–1975. Historical Geography, 30(2002), 75–92.Google Scholar
  26. Poortinga, W. (2006). Social capital: An individual or collective resource for health? Social Science and Medicine, 62(2), 292–302. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sénécal, S., & O’Sullivan, E. (2006). The well-being of Inuit communities in Canada. Ottawa: Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.Google Scholar
  28. Sénécal, S., O’Sullivan, E., Guimond, E., & Uppal, S. (2008). Applying the community well-being index and the human development index to Inuit in Canada. In J. White, D. Beavon, & N. Spence (Eds.), Aboriginal well-being: Canada’s continuing challenge (pp. 149–172). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publisher.Google Scholar
  29. Statistics Canada (2008). Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 Census, Catalogue no. 97-558-XIE. Ottawa: Minister of Industry.Google Scholar
  30. Statistics Canada (2010a). 2006 Census Dictionary, Catalogue no. 92-566-X. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  31. Statistics Canada (2010b). Aboriginal peoples technical report, 2006 Census (2nd Edn). Catalogue no. 92-569-X. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  32. Statistics Canada. (2013a). Aboriginal peoples in Canada; First Nations People, Métis and Inuit. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  33. Statistics Canada (2013b). The Educational Attainment of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: National Household Survey (NHS) 2011. Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011003. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  34. Taylor, J. (2008). Indigenous peoples and indicators of well-being: Australian perspectives on United Nations Global Frameworks. Social Indicators Research, 87(1), 111–126. doi: 10.1007/s11205-007-9161-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. United Nations (1970). Manual VI: Methods of measuring internal migration. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.Google Scholar
  36. Veenstra, G., Luginaah, I., Wakefield, S., Birch, S., Eyles, J., & Elliott, S. (2005). Who you know, where you live: Social capital, neighbourhood and health. Social Science and Medicine, 60, 2799–2818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. White, J. P., Beavon, D., & Spence, N. (Eds.). (2007). Aboriginal well-being: Canada’s continuing challenge. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. White, J. P., & Maxim, P. (2007). Community well-being: A comparable community’s analysis. In J. White, D. Beavon, & N. Spence (Eds.), Aboriginal well-being: Canada’s continuing challenge (pp. 185–208). Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Legal Studies & School of Public Health and Health SystemsUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Strategic Research DirectorateAboriginal Affairs and Northern Development CanadaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations