Preliminary Development and Validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for Secondary School Students
- 1.9k Downloads
This study reports on the preliminary development and validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey (SEHS) with a sample of 4,189 (51 % female) California students in Grades 8, 10, and 12. The SEHS was designed to measure the psychological building blocks of adolescents’ positive mental health and is operationalized in the present study by a theoretical model comprised of 12 measured indicators that form four first-order domains (belief-in-self, belief-in-others, emotional competence, and engaged living) that, in turn, contribute to one underlying, second-order meta-construct called covitality. This study was the first to investigate the validity and utility of the adolescent covitality construct, which is conceptualized as the synergistic effect of positive mental health resulting from the interplay among multiple positive-psychological building blocks. Findings from confirmatory factor analyses, invariance analysis, and latent means testing all supported the theoretical model underlying the SEHS, indicating that the second-order covitality model was the best fit for both males and females. Results from a path-modeling analysis indicated that covitality was a strong predictor of students’ subjective well-being (operationalized as a composite of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect), and findings from additional concurrent validity analyses indicated that adolescents’ covitality level was significantly associated with self-reported academic achievement, perceptions of school safety, substance use, and experiences of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.
KeywordsCovitality Mental health Positive psychology Positive youth development Social-emotional learning Subjective well-being Resilience
- Aminzadeh, K., Denny, S., Utter, J., Milfont, T. L., Ameratunga, S., Teevale, T., et al. (2013). Neighbourhood social capital and adolescent self-reported wellbeing in New Zealand: A multilevel analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 84(May), 13–21. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.02.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
- California Department of Education. (n.d.). California school district secondary school survey results fall 2009/spring 2010: Core module A. Retrieved from http://chks.wested.org/resources/a-text_0910.pdf.
- Eaton, D. A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S., Flint, K. H., Hawkins, J., et al. (2012). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011. MMWR, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61(4), 1–168.Google Scholar
- Furlong, M. J., Froh, J. J., Muller, M. E., & Gonzalez, V. The role of gratitude in fostering school bonding. In D. J. Shernoff & J. Bempechat (Eds.), National Society for the Study of Education yearbook: Engaging youth in schools: Empirically-based model to guide future innovations. New York, NY: Teachers College Record (in press).Google Scholar
- Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., O’Malley, M. D., & Rebelez, J. (2013). Preliminary development of the positive experiences at School Scale for elementary school children. Child Indicators Research. Advanced online publication. doi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9193-7.
- Gilman, R., Huebner, E. S., & Furlong, M. J. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of positive psychology in schools. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P., O’Brien, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., et al. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466–474. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.58.6-7.466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hanson, T. L., & Kim, J. O. (2007). Measuring resilience and youth development: the psychometric properties of the Healthy Kids Survey. (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007–No. 034). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory West. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.
- Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2007). BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System manual. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Kelly, R. M., Hills, K. J., Huebner, E. S., & McQuillin, S. (2012). The longitudinal stability and dynamics of group membership in the dual-factor model of mental health: Psychosocial predictors of mental health. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 27, 337–355. doi: 10.1177/0829573512458505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kirschman, K. J. B., Johnson, R. J., Bender, J. A., & Roberts, M. C. (2009). Positive psychology for children and adolescents: Development, prevention, and promotion. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 133–148). Oxford: New York, NY.Google Scholar
- Knoop, H. H. (2011). Education in 2025: How positive psychology can revitalize education. In S. I. Donaldson, M. Csikszentmihalyi, & J. Nakamura (Eds.), Applied positive psychology: Improving everyday life, health, schools, work, and society (pp. 97–116). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Laurent, J., Catanzaro, S. J., Joiner, T. E, Jr, Rudolph, K. D., Potter, K. I., Lambert, S., et al. (1999). A measure of positive and negative affect for children: Scale development and preliminary validation. Psychological Assessment, 11, 326–338. doi: 10.1037//1040-35220.127.116.116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Masten, A. S., Cutuli, J. J., Herbers, J. E., & Reed, M. G. (2009). Resilience in development. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 117–132). Oxford: New York, NY.Google Scholar
- Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Thomson, K. C. (2010). Understanding the link between social and emotional well-being and peer relations in early adolescence: Gender-specific predictors of peer acceptance. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 1330–1342. doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9486-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Renshaw, T. L., Furlong, M. J., Dowdy, E., Rebelez, J., Smith, D. C., O’Malley, M. D., Lee, S.-Y., & Strøm, I.F. Covitality: A synergistic conception of adolescents’ mental health. In M. J. Furlong, R. Gilman, & E. S. Huebner (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in the schools (2nd ed). New York, NY: Routledge (in press).Google Scholar
- Schunk, D. H., & Meece, J. L. (2006). Self-efficacy development in adolescence. In F. Parjares & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 71–96). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishers.Google Scholar
- Sharkey, J. D., Furlong, M. J., Dowdy, E., Felix, E. D., Grimm, L., & Ritchey, K. (2012). The United States Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative: Turning a national initiative into local action. In S. R. Jimerson, A. B. Nickerson, M. J. Mayer, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), The handbook of school violence and school safety: International research and practice (pp. 487–502). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Shekhtmeyster, Z., Sharkey, J. D., & You, S. (2011). The influence of multiple ecological assets on substance use patterns of diverse adolescents. School Psychology Review, 40, 386–404.Google Scholar
- Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25, 78–90. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/209528.
- Steiger, J. H., & Lind, A. (1980). Statistically based tests for the number of common factors. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychometric Society, Iowa City, IAGoogle Scholar
- Stewart, D., & Wang, D. (2013). Building resilience through school-based health promotion: a systematic review. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion. First published online Feb 28, 2013. doi: 10.1080/14623730.2013.770319.
- Suldo, S. M., & Shaffer, E. J. (2008). Looking beyond psychopathology: The dual-factor model of mental health in youth. School Psychology Review, 37, 52–68.Google Scholar
- Suldo, S. M., Thalji, A., & Ferron, J. (2011). Longitudinal academic outcomes predicted by early adolescents’ subjective well-being, psychopathology, and mental health status yielded from a dual-factor model. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6, 17–30. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2010.536774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Torsheim, T., Aaroe, L. E., & Wold, B. (2001). Sense of coherence and school-related stress as predictors of subjective health complaints in early adolescence: Interactive, indirect or direct relationships? Social Science and Medicine, 53, 603–614. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00370-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tough, P. (2012). How children succeed: Grit, curiosity, and the hidden power of character. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
- Winheller, S., Hattie, J. A., & Brown, G. T. (2013). Factors influencing early adolescents’ mathematics achievement: High-quality teaching rather than relationships. Learning Environments Research. First published online 31, January 2013. doi: 10.1007/s10984-012-9106-6