Contribution of Perceived Freedom and Leisure Satisfaction to Life Satisfaction in a Sample of Turkish Women


Leisure is considered as a way of freedom and expression besides getting rid of limiting gender roles. Leisure is also a means of increasing competency in life for women. Therefore the aim of this study is to predict life satisfaction of a sample of Turkish women by some demographical variables, leisure participation frequency, perceived freedom in leisure and leisure satisfaction. A sample size of 1,437 female participants who were involving in recreational sport activities were selected randomly from Municipality parks of the main three districts of Antalya city. Data collection tools were “Satisfaction with Life Scale”, “Perceived Freedom in Leisure Scale” and “Leisure Satisfaction Measure”. In statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis was used. According to the results, demographic variables age, income were found to be significantly contributing to life satisfaction. Weekly leisure participation frequency did not have an impact on life satisfaction. As for leisure valuations, perceived freedom in leisure did not contribute significantly to life satisfaction meanwhile psychologic, social, physiologic and aesthetic subscales of leisure satisfaction scale were significantly related to life satisfaction of the participants.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Abu-Bader, S. H., Rogers, A., & Barusch, A. S. (2002). Predictors of life satisfaction in frail elderly. Journal of Gerontological Social Work. doi:10.1300/J083v38n03_02.

  2. Adams, K. B., Leibbrandt, S., & Moon, H. (2011). A critical review of the literature on social and leisure activity and wellbeing in later life. Ageing and Society,. doi:10.1017/S0144686x10001091.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Arab-Moghaddam, N., Henderson, K. A., & Sheikholeslami, R. (2007). Women’s leisure and constraints to participation: Iranian perspectives. Journal of Leisure Research, 39(1), 109–126.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Astrom, M., Asplund, K., & Astrom, T. (1992). Psychosocial function and life satisfaction after stroke. Stroke, 23(4), 527–531.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ateca-Amestoy, V., Serrano-del-Rosal, R., & Vera-Toscano, E. (2008). The leisure experience. The Journal of Socio-Economics. doi:10.1016/j.socec.2006.12.025.

  6. Baack, S. A. (1985). Recreation program participation by older adults: Its relationship to perceived freedom in leisure and life satisfaction. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Texas: North Texas State University.

  7. Beard, J. G., & Ragheb, M. G. (1980). Measuring leisure satisfaction. Journal of Leisure Research, 12(1), 20–33.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ben-Porat, A., & Itzhaky, H. (2008). Factors that influence life satisfaction among battered women in shelters: Those who stay versus those who leave. Journal of Family Violence. doi:10.1007/s10896-008-9182-7.

  9. Berg, E. C., Trost, M., Schneider, I., & Allison, M. T. (2001). Dyadic exploration of the relationship of leisure satisfaction, leisure time and gender to relationship satisfaction. Leisure Sciences. doi:10.1080/01490400150502234.

  10. Boyraz, G., & Sayger, T. V. (2009). An exploratory path analysis of the factors contributing to life satisfaction in fathers. The Journal of Positive Psychology. doi:10.1080/17439760802650592.

  11. Bramson, P., Pretty, G., & Chipuer, H. (2002). Unravelling subjective quality of life: An investigation of individual community determinants. Social Indicators Research, 59, 261–274.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Broughton, K., & Beggs, B. A. (2007). Leisure satisfaction of older adults. Activities, Adaptation & Aging. doi:10.1300/016v31n01_01.

  13. Brown, P. R., Brown, W. J., Miller, Y. D., & Hansen, V. (2001). Perceived constraints and social support for active leisure among mothers with young children. Leisure Sciences. doi:10.1080/014904001316896837.

  14. Brown, B. A., & Frankel, B. G. (1993). Activity through the years: Leisure, leisure satisfaction and life satisfaction. Sociology of Sport Journal, 10, 1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bulgu, N., Koca Arıtan, C., & Asci, F. H. (2007). Daily life, women and physical activity. Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 18(4), 167–181.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Burnay, N., Kiss, P., & Malchaire, J. (2005). Sociability, life satisfaction and mental health according to age and (un)employment Status. International Congress Series. doi:10.1016/j.ics.2005.02.048.

  17. Chen, C. (2001). Aging and life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 54, 57–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Chou, K.-L., & Chi, I. (1999). Determinants of life satisfaction in Hong Kong Chinese elderly: A longitudinal study. Aging & Mental Health. doi:10.1080/13607869956109.

  19. D’Amato, T.J. (1987). Factors causing variation in the life satisfaction of the elderly. National Journal of Sociology, 1(1), 54–72.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2000). A model of burnout and life satisfaction amongst nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.001.

  21. Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, R., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Diener, E., Kesebir, P., & Lucas, R.E. (2008). Benefits of accounts of well-being: For societies and for psychological science. Applied Psychology: An International Review. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00353.x.

  23. Diener, E., & Oishi, S. (2000). Money and happiness: Income and subjective wellbeing across nations. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being. Boston: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145056.

  25. Dixon, A. M. (2009) From their perspective: A qualitative examination of physical activity and sport programming for working mothers. Sport Management Review. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2008.09.002.

  26. Edwards, D. F., Hahn, M., Baum, C., & Dromerick, A. W. (2006). The impact of mild stroke on meaningful activity and life satisfaction. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2006.04.001.

  27. Ekstrom, H., Dahlin-Ivanoff, S., & Elmstahl, S. (2011). Effects of walking speed and results of timed get-up-and-go tests on quality of life and social participation in elderly individuals with a history of osteoporosis-related fractures. Journal of Aging and Health. doi:10.1177/0898264311418504.

  28. Elavsky, S., McAuley, E. (2005). Physical activity symptoms, esteem and life satisfaction during menopause. Maturitas. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2004.07.014.

  29. Fernandez-Ballesteros, R., Zamarron, M. D., & Ruiz, M. A. (2001). The contribution of socio-demographic and psychosocial factors to life satisfaction. Ageing and Society. doi:10.1017/S0144686X01008078.

  30. Frijters, P., Haisken-DeNew, J. P., & Shields, M. A. (2004). Money does matter! Evidence from increasing real income and life satisfaction in East Germany following reunification. The American Economic Review. doi:10.1257/0002828041464551.

  31. Fugl-Meyer, A. R., Melin, R., & Fugl-Meyer, S. (2002). Life satisfaction in 18 to 64-year-old Swedes: In relation to gender, age, partner and immigrant status. Journal Rehabilitation Medicine, 34, 239–246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Georgellis, Y., Tsitsianis, N., & Yin, Y. P. (2009). Personal values as mitigating factors in the link between income and life satisfaction: Evidence from the European social survey. Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s11205-008-9344-2.

  33. Hawkins, B., Foose, A. K., & Binkley, A. L. (2004). Contribution of leisure to the life satisfaction of older adults in Australia and the United States. World Leisure. doi:10.1080/04419057.2004.9674353.

  34. Headey, B., Veenhoven, R., & Wearing, A. (1991). Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 24, 81–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Heller, D., Judge, T. A., & Watson, D. (2002). The confounding role of personality and trait affectivity in the relationship between job and life satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior. doi:10.1002/job.168.

  36. Henderson, K. (1993). Feminist perspectives on leisure constraints. Agenda, 17, 29–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Heo J., Kim, J., & Won, Y.-S. (2011). Exploring the relationship between internet use and leisure satisfaction among older adults. Activities, Adaptation & Aging. doi:10.1080/01924788.2010.545975.

  38. Hills, P., Argyle, M., & Reeves, R., (2000). Individual differences in leisure satisfactions: An investigation of four theories of leisure motivation. Personality and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00137-3.

  39. Hofer, J., & Chasiotis, A. (2003). Congruence of life goals and implicit motives as predictors of life satisfaction: Cross-cultural implications of a study of Zambian male adolescents. Motivation and Emotion. doi:10.1023/A:1025011815778.

  40. Hou, J. J., Tu, H. H-J., & Yang, M-F. (2007). Agreeableness and leisure satisfaction in the context of online games. Social Behaviour and Personality. doi:10.2224/sbp.2007.35.10.1379.

  41. Huang, C.-Y., & Carleton, B. (2003). The relationships among leisure participation, leisure satisfaction, and life satisfaction of college students in Taiwan. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 2, 129–132.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Irving, H. R., & Giles, A. R. (2011). Examining the child’s impacts on single mothers’ leisure. Leisure Studies. doi:10.1080/02614361003716974.

  43. Jagodzinski, W. (2005). Structure and measurement of life satisfaction in Asian countries: An exploratory analysis. Japanese Journal of Political Science. doi:10.1017/S146810990500201X.

  44. Johnson, H. A., Zabriskie, R. B.,& Hill, B. (2006). The contribution of couple leisure involvement, leisure time, and leisure satisfaction to marital satisfaction. Marriage & Family Review. doi:10.1300/J002v40n01_05.

  45. Kang, S-M., Shaver, P. R., Sue, S., Min, K-H., & Jing, H. (2003). Culture-specific patterns in the prediction of life satisfaction: Roles of emotion, relationship quality and self esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. doi:10.1177/0146167203255986.

  46. Karli, U., Polat, E., Yilmaz, B., & Kocak, S. (2008). Reliability and validity study of Leisure Satisfaction Scale (LSS-long version). Hacettepe Journal of Sport Science, 19(2), 80–91.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Kim, B. (2010). A conceptual framework for leisure and subjective well-being. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 10(2), 85–116.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Korotkov, D., McLean, H., & Hamilton, L. (2011). Predicting leisure satisfaction: A comparative analysis of the agency and communion model with the five-factor model of personality. The American Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences Journal, 15, 1–20.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Kovacs, A. (2007). The leisure personality: Relationships between personality, leisure satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Indiana University.

  50. Lewis, V. G., & Borders, L. D. (1995). Life satisfaction of single middle aged professional women. Journal of Counselling & Development, 75, 94–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Lietchy, T., Freeman, P. A., & Zabriskie, R. B. (2006). Body image and beliefs about appearance: Constraints on the leisure of college-age and middle-age women. Leisure Sciences, 28. doi:10.1080/01490400600745845.

  52. Little, V. G. (2002). Women and adventure recreation: Reconstructing leisure constraints and adventure experiences to negotiate continuing participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(2), 157–177.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Lloyd, K. M., & Auld, C. J. (2002). The role of leisure in determining quality of life: Issues of content and measurement. Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1023/A:1013879518210.

  54. Lounsbury, J. W., Park, S-H.; Sundstrom, E., Williamson, J. M., & Pemberton, A. E. (2004). Personality, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction: Test of a directional model. Journal of Career Assessment. doi:10.1177/1069072704266658.

  55. Lu, L., & Kao, S. F. (2009). Direct and indirect effects of personality traits on leisure satisfaction: Evidence from a national probability sample in Taiwan. Social Behaviour and Personality, 37(2), 191–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Lucas, R. E., Clark, A. E., Georgellis, Y., & Diener, E. (2004). Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychological Science. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.01501002.x.

  57. Misra, R., & McKean, M. (2001). College students’ academic stress and its relation to their anxiety, time management and leisure satisfaction. American Journal of Health Studies, 16(1), 41–51.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Neto, F. (1995). Predictors of satisfaction with life among second generation migrants. Social Indicators Research, 35, 93–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Ngai, V. T. (2005). Leisure satisfaction and quality of life in Macao, China. Leisure Studies. doi:10.1080/02614360412331313502.

  60. Nimrod, G. (2007). Retirees’ leisure: Activities, benefits and their contribution to life satisfaction. Leisure Studies,. doi:10.1080/02614360500333937.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Palmore, E., & Luikart, C. (1972). Health and social factors related to life satisfaction. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 13(1), 68–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Parker, P. D., & Martin, A. J. (2008). Factors predicting life satisfaction: A process model of personality, multidimensional self-concept and life satisfaction. Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling. doi:10.1375/ajgc.18.1.15.

  63. Pearson, Q. M. (2008). Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction and psychological health among employed women. Journal of Counseling and Development,. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2008.tb00626.x.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Piccolo, F. P., Judge, T. A., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, N., & Locke, E. A. (2005). Core self evaluations in Japan: Relative effects on job satisfaction, life Satisfaction and happiness. Journal of Organizational Behavior. doi:10.1002/job.358.

  65. Poulsen, A. A., Ziviani, J. M., & Cuskelly, M.(2006). General self-concept and life satisfaction for boys with differing levels of physical coordination: The role of goal orientations and leisure participation. Human Movement Science. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2006.05.003.

  66. Poulsen, A.A., Ziviani, J.M., & Cuskelly, M. (2007). Perceived freedom in leisure and physical co-ordinationability: Impact on out-of-school activity participation and life satisfaction. Child: care, health and development. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2007.00730.x.

  67. Poulsen, A. A., Ziviani, J. M., Johnson, H., & Cuskelly, M. (2008). Loneliness and life satisfaction of boys with developmental coordination disorder: The impact of leisure participation and perceived freedom in leisure. Human Movement Science. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2008.02.004.

  68. Putzke, J. D., Richards, J. S., Hicken, B. L., & DeVivo, M. J. (2002). Predictors of life satisfaction: A spinal cord injury cohort study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. doi:10.1053/apmr.2002.31173.

  69. Ragheb, M. G., & Griffith, C. A. (1982). The contribution of leisure participation and leisure satisfaction to life satisfaction of older adults. Journal of Leisure Research, 14(4), 295–306.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Ramírez-Marrero, F. A., & Smith, B. A., Meléndez-Brau, N., Santana-Bagur, J. L. (2004). Journal Of The Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. doi:10.1177/1055329003261966.

  71. Rodriguez, A., Latkova, P., & Sun, Y-Y. (2008). The relationship between leisure and life satisfaction: application of activity and need theory. Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s11205-007-9101-y.

  72. Russell, R. V. (1987). The importance of recreation satisfaction and activity participation to the life satisfaction of age-segregated retirees. Journal of Leisure Research, 19(4), 273–283.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Salgueiro, M. F. (2010). Latent growth curve modelling of Portuguese life satisfaction trajectories. International Journal of Academic Research, 2(2), 188–194.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Sam, D. L. (2001). Satisfaction with life among international students: An exploratory study. Social Indicators Research, 53, 315–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Sener, A., Terzioglu, R. G., & Karabulut, E. (2007). Life satisfaction and leisure activities during men’s retirement: A Turkish sample. Aging & Mental Health. doi:10.1080/13607860600736349.

  76. Siegenthaler, K. L., & O’Dell, J. (2000). Leisure attitude, leisure satisfaction and perceived freedom in leisure within family dyads. Leisure Sciences, 22(4), 281–296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Sirgy, M. J., Michalos, A. C., Ferriss, A. L., Easterlin, R. A., Patrick, D., Pavot, W. (2006). The quality-of-life (QOL) research movement: Past, present and future. Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s11205-005-2877-8.

  78. Spiers, A., & Walker, G. J. (2009). The effects of ethnicity and leisure satisfaction on happiness, peacefulness and quality of life. Leisure Sciences. doi:10.1080/01490400802558277.

  79. Subasi, F., & Hayran, O. (2005). Evaluation of life satisfaction index of the elderly people living in nursing homes. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2004.10.005.

  80. Veronese, G., Castiglioni M., Barola, G., & Said, M. (2012). Living in the shadow of occupation: Life satisfaction and positive emotion as protective factors in a group of Palestinian school children. Children and Youth Services Review. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.10.002.

  81. Wang, E. S.-T., Chen, L. S.-L., Lin, J. Y.-C., & Wang, M. C.-H. (2008). The relationship between leisure satisfaction and life satisfaction of adolescents concerning online games. Adolescence, 43(169), 177–184.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Warner-Smith, P., & Brown, P. (2002). The town dictates what I do: The leisure, health and well-being of women in a small Australian country town, Leisure Studies. doi:10.1080/02614360110112688.

  83. Wendel-Vos, G. C. W., Schuit, A. J., Tijhuis, M. A. R., Kromhout, D. (2004). Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Quality of Life Research. doi:10.1023/B:QURE.0000021313.51397.33.

  84. Whiteneck, G., Meade, M. A., Dijkers, M., Tate, D. G., Bushnik, T., & Forchheimer, M. B. (2004). Environmental factors and their role in participation and life satisfaction after spinal cord injury. Archive of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.04.024.

  85. Witt, P. A., & Ellis, G. D. (1985). Development of a short form to assess perceived freedom in leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 17(3), 225–233.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Yerlisu Lapa, T., & Agyar, E. (2011). Cross-cultural adaptation of perceived freedom in leisure scale. World Applied Sciences Journal, 14(7), 980–986.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Young, M. H., Miller, B. C., Norton, M. C., & Hill, E. J. (1995). The effect of parental supportive behaviors on life satisfaction of adolescent offspring. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 813–822.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Evren Agyar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Agyar, E. Contribution of Perceived Freedom and Leisure Satisfaction to Life Satisfaction in a Sample of Turkish Women. Soc Indic Res 116, 1–15 (2014).

Download citation


  • Leisure satisfaction
  • Perceived freedom in leisure
  • Life satisfaction
  • Women’s leisure
  • Subjective well-being