Social Indicators Research

, Volume 112, Issue 2, pp 363–390 | Cite as

Monitoring Progress in Child Poverty Reduction: Methodological Insights and Illustration to the Case Study of Bangladesh

Article

Abstract

Important steps have been taken at international summits to set up goals and targets to improve the wellbeing of children worldwide. Now the world also has more and better data to monitor progress. This paper presents a new approach to monitoring progress in child poverty reduction based on the Alkire and Foster adjusted headcount ratio and an array of complementary techniques. A theoretical discussion is accompanied by an assessment of child poverty reduction in Bangladesh based on four rounds of the demographic household survey (1997–2007). Emphasis is given to dimensional monotonicity and decomposability as desirable properties of multidimensional poverty measures. Complementary techniques for analysing changes over time are also illustrated, including the Shapley decomposition of changes in overall poverty, as well as a range of robustness tests and statistical significance tests. The results from Bangladesh illustrate the value added of these new tools and the information they provide for policy. The analysis reveals two paths to multidimensional poverty reduction by either decreasing the incidence of poverty or its intensity, and exposes an uneven distribution of national gains across geographical divisions. The methodology allows an integrated analysis of overall changes yet simultaneously examines progress in each region and in each dimension, retaining the positive features of dashboard approaches. The empirical evidence highlights the need to move beyond the headcount ratio towards new measures of child poverty that reflect the intensity of poverty and multiple deprivations that affect poor children at the same time.

Keywords

Child poverty Multidimensional poverty Poverty measurement FGT measures Capability approach Bangladesh 

References

  1. Addison, T., Hulme, D., & Kanbur, S. M. R. (2009). Poverty dynamics: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkire, S. (2008). Choosing dimensions: The capability approach and multidimensional poverty. In N. Kakwani & J. Silber (Eds.), The many dimensions of poverty. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2007). Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement. OPHI working papers no. 7. Oxford: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  4. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2011a). Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement. Journal of Public Economics, 95(7–8).Google Scholar
  5. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2011b). Understandings and misunderstandings of multidimensional poverty measurement. Journal of Economic Inequality, 9(2), 289–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alkire, S., Foster, J., & Santos, M. (2011a). Where did identification go? Journal of Economic Inequality, 9(3), 501–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alkire, S., & Roche, J. M. (2012). Beyond headcount: measures that reflect the breadth and components of child poverty. In A. Minujin & S. Nandy (Eds.), Global child poverty and well-being. Measurement, concepts, policy and action. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  8. Alkire, S., Roche, J. M., Santos, M. E., & Seth, S. (2011b). Multidimensional poverty index 2011: Brief methodological note. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). Available at: www.ophi.org.uk/multidimensional-poverty-index/.
  9. Alkire, S., & Santos, M. E. (2010). Acute multidimensional poverty: A new index for developing countries. OPHI working paper no. 38. Oxford: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  10. Angulo Salazar, R. C., Diaz Cuervo, Y., & Pardon Pinzon, R. (2011). Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional para Colombia (IPM-Colombia) 1997–2010. Archivos de Economia, Documento 382. República de Colombia, Departamento de Planeación Nacional, Dirección de Estudios Económicos.Google Scholar
  11. Apablaza, M., & Yalonetzky, G. (2011). Measuring the dynamics of multiple deprivations among children: The cases of Andhra Pradesh, Ethiopia, Peru and Vietnam. Young lives research in progress. Oxford: University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  12. Asselin, L.-M., Ki, J.-B., & Anh, V. T. (2009). Analysis of multidimensional poverty: Theory and case studies. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Atkinson, A. B. (2003). Multidimensional deprivation. Contrasting social welfare and counting approaches. Journal of Economic Inequality, 1(51–65).Google Scholar
  14. Atkinson, A. B., & Lugo, M. A. (2010). Growth, poverty and distribution in Tanzania. International Growth Centre, working paper 10/0831.Google Scholar
  15. Azam, M. S., & Imai, K. (2009). Vulnerability and poverty in Bangladesh. Working paper no. 141, Chronic Poverty Research Centre. Manchester: University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  16. Biggeri, M., Libanora, R., Mariani, S., & Menchini, L. (2006). Children conceptualizing their capabilities: Results of a survey conducted during the first children’s world congress on child labour. Journal of Human Development, 7(1), 59–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bourguignon, F., & Chakravarty, S. R. (2003). The measurement of multidimensional poverty. Journal of Economic Inequality, 1(1), 25–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burchardt, T., & Vizard, P. (2011). Operationalizing’ the capability approach as a basis for equality and human rights monitoring in twenty-first-century Britain. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 12(1), 91–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chakravarty, S. R., Mukherjee, D., & Renade, R. R. (1998). On the family of subgroup and factor decomposable measures of multidimensional poverty. Research on Economic Inequality, 8(175–194).Google Scholar
  20. Chiappero-Martinetti, E., & Roche, J. M. (2009). Operationalization of the capability approach, from theory to practice: a review of techniques and empirical applications. In E. Chiappero-Martinetti (Ed.), Debating global society: Reach and limits of the capability approach. Milan: Fondazione Feltrinelli.Google Scholar
  21. CONEVAL. (2010). Methodology for multidimensional poverty measurement in Mexico. Mexico: Consejo Nacional para la Evaluacion de la Politica Nacional.Google Scholar
  22. Delamonica, E. E., & Minujin, A. (2007). Incidence, depth and severity of children in poverty. Social Indicators Research, 82(2), 361–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dercon, S. (2012). Understanding child poverty in developing countries: Measurement and analysis. In J. Boyden & M. Bourdillon (Eds.), Childhood poverty: Multidisciplinary approaches. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  24. di Tommaso, M. L. (2007). Children capabilities: A structural equation model for India. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 36, 436–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Duclos, J.-Y., & Araar, A. (2006). Poverty and equity: Measurement, policy and estimation with DAD. New York, Springer, Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  26. Duclos, J.-Y., Sahn, D. E., & Younger, S. D. (2006). Robust multidimensional poverty comparisons. Economic Journal, 116(514), 943–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Erikson, R. (1993). Descriptions of inequality. The Swedish approach to welfare research. In M. Nussbaum & A. Sen (Eds.), The quality of life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  28. Fajth, G., Kurukulasuriya, S., & Engilbertsdottir, S. (2012). A multidimensional response to tackling child poverty and disparities: Reflections from the global study on child poverty and disparities. In A. Minujin & S. Nandy (Eds.), Global child poverty and well-being. Measurement, concepts, policy and action. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  29. Feres, J. C., & Mancero, X. (2001). El método de las necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI) y sus aplicaciones a América Latina. Series Estudios Estadísticos y Prospectivos. ECLAC-United Nations.Google Scholar
  30. Ferreira, F. (2011). Poverty is multidimensional. But what are we going to do about it? Journal of Economic Inequality, 9(3), 493–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ferreira, F. H. G., & Lugo, M. A. (2012). Multidimensional poverty analysis: Looking for a middle ground. World Bank policy research working paper no. 5964.Google Scholar
  32. Foster, J., Greer, J., & Thorbecke, E. (1984). A class of decomposable poverty measures. Econometrica, 52(3), 761–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gallo, C., & Roche, J. M. (2011). Las dimensiones de la pobreza en Venezuela y sus cambios entre 1997 y 2010: Propuesta de una medida multidimensional. Serie de Documentos No. 126. Caracas: Banco Central de Venezuela.Google Scholar
  34. Gallo, C., & Roche, J. M. (2012). Análisis multidimensional de la pobreza en Venezuela por entidades federales entre 2001 y 2010. Serie de Documentos no. 131. Caracas: Banco Central de Venezuela.Google Scholar
  35. Gordon, D., Nandy, S., Pantazis, C., Pemberto, S., & Townsend, P. (2003). Child poverty in the developing world. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kakwani, N., & Silber, J. (Eds.). (2008). Quantitative approaches to multidimensional poverty measurement. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  37. Koen, D., & Lugo, M.A. (2010). Weights in multidimensional indices of well-being: An Overview. Discussion Paper. Centrum voor Economische Studiën: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.Google Scholar
  38. Kuklys, W. (2005). Amartya sen’s capability approach: Theoretical insights and empirical applications. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  39. Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1958). Evidence and inference in social research. Daedalus, 87(4), 99–130.Google Scholar
  40. Lemmi, A., & Betti, G. (2006). Fuzzy set approach to multidimensional poverty measurement. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewis, D. (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, economy and civil society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mack, J., & Lansley, S. (1985). Poor Britain. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.Google Scholar
  43. Nussbaum, M. (2003). Capabilities as fundamental entitlements: sen and social justice. Feminist Economics, 9(2/3), 33–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. ODI. (2010). Millenium development goals report card: Measuring progress across countries. London: Overseas Development Institute Publications.Google Scholar
  45. Ranis, G., & Stewart, F. (2010). Success and failure in human development, 19702007. Human development research paper 2010/10. New York: UNDP-HDRO.Google Scholar
  46. Ravallion, M. (2011). On multidimensional indices of poverty. Journal of Economic Inequality, 9(2), 235–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ravallion, M., & Huppi, M. (1991). Measuring changes in poverty: A methodological case study of Indonesia during an adjustment period. World Bank Economic Review, 5(1), 57–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Robeyns, I. (2003). Sen’s capability approach and gender inequality: Selecting relevant capabilities. Feminist Economics, 9(2/3), 61–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Roche, J. M. (2008). Monitoring inequality among social groups: A methodology combining fuzzy set theory and principal component analysis. Journal of Human Development, 9(3), 427–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roche, J. M. (2012). Shapley decomposition of change over time for the Alkire & Foster adjusted FGT class of multidimensional poverty measures (Mα) Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative. Work in progress.Google Scholar
  51. Roelen, K., & Camfield, L. (2012). A mixed-method taxonomy of child poverty—the case of Ethiopia. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1–19.Google Scholar
  52. Roelen, K., Gassmann, F., & De Neubourg, C. (2010). Child poverty in Vietnam: Providing insights using a country-specific and multidimensional model. Social Indicators Research, 98(1), 129–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sen, A. K. (1976). Poverty: An ordinal approach to measurement. Econometrica, 44, 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sen, A. K. (1980). Equality of what? (1979 Tanner Lecure at Stanford). In S. Mcmurrin (Ed.), The tanner lectures on human values. Salt Lake City: University of Utha Press.Google Scholar
  55. Sen, A. K. (1992). Inequality reexamined. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  56. Sen, A. K. (2004). Dialogue capabilities, list, and public reason: Continuing the conversation, and interview with Amartya Sen, conducted by Bina Agarwal, Jane Humphries and Ingrid Robeyns. Feminist Economics, 10(3), 77–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shorrocks, A. (1999). Decomposition procedures for distributional analysis: a unified framework based on the Shapley value. Journal of Economic Inequality, 1–28.Google Scholar
  58. Tsui, K. (2002). Multidimensional poverty indices. Social Choice and Welfare, 19(1), 69–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. UNDP (2010a). Beyond the midpoint: Achieving the millennium development goals. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  60. UNDP (2010b). Human development report 2010–2020th anniversary edition, the real wealth of nations: Pathways to human development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  61. UNICEF (2004). The state of the world’s children 2005: Childhood under threat. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  62. UNICEF (2007). Global study on child poverty and disparity 2007–2008: GUIDE. New York: Global Policy Section, Division of Policy and Planning, UNICEF.Google Scholar
  63. UNICEF (2010). Narrowing the gaps to meet the goals. New York.Google Scholar
  64. United Nations (1995). The Copenhagen declaration and programme of action: World summit for social development 6–12 March 1995. New York: United Nations Department of Publications.Google Scholar
  65. WHO (2006). WHO child growth standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development.Google Scholar
  66. WHO/UNICEF (2006). Core questions on drinking-water and sanitation for household surveys. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  67. World Bank (2008). Poverty assessment for Bangladesh: Creating opportunities and bridging the east-west divide. Bangladesh development series paper no. 26.Google Scholar
  68. World Bank (2012). World development indicators 2012. Washington, DC. Data retrieved December 18, 2012.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Queen Elizabeth House (QEH)University of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations