Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 114, Issue 2, pp 273–285 | Cite as

Gratitude and Adolescent Athletes’ Well-Being: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Perceived Social Support from Coaches and Teammates

  • Lung Hung Chen
Article

Abstract

Since the positive psychology was emerged from 2000s, these positive constructs contribute to athlete’s well-being received much attention in sport. However, gratitude is a topic rarely discussed in the sport psychology. Thus, the current study aims at investigated the relationship between gratitude and athlete well-being. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlie the relationship was also explored. We proposed that the perceived social support from coach and teammate would be mediators. Participants were 291 adolescent athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesis. Results indicated that gratitude is a positive related to athlete’s well-being. Besides, multiple-mediators analysis indicated that both perceived coach and teammate social support partially mediated the relationship between gratitude and athlete’s well-being. This study contributes to the gratitude and well-being literature by unpacking the essential psychological process behind the relationship. Implication and application were discussed in term of gratitude theory and social support.

Keywords

Positive psychology Multiple mediators Broaden-and-build theory of positive emotion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

My research on gratitude was supported by Ministry of Education (2012 project of elastic salary for outstanding teacher) and National Science Council (NSC 101-2410-H-179-003), Taiwan, R.O.C. I am grateful for Chia-Huei Wu, Yun-Ci Ye, and Yen-Ping Chang for their statistics assistant as well as insightful comments on the manuscript. Thanks also go to Kuo-Fong Pan for his permission to use the Student-Athlete Perceived Social Support Scale for this study.

References

  1. Abrahamsen, F. E., Roberts, G. C., Pensgaard, A. M., & Ronglan, L. T. (2008). Perceived ability and social support as mediators of achievement motivation and performance anxiety. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 18(6), 810–812. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00707.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amiot, C. E., Gaudreau, P., & Blanchard, C. M. (2004). Self-determination, coping, and goal attainment in sport. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26(3), 396–411.Google Scholar
  3. Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54(5), 317–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bai, X., Wu, C.-H., Zheng, R., & Ren, X. (2011). The psychometric evaluation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale using a nationally representative sample of China. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(2), 183–197. doi: 10.1007/s10902-010-9186-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, W. J. (2000). If Christ came to the Olympics. Kensington, NSW: UNSW Press.Google Scholar
  6. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachment as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 230–258. doi: 10.1177/0049124192021002005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, L. H., Chen, M.-Y., Kee, Y. H., & Tsai, Y.-M. (2009). Validation of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ) in Taiwanese undergraduate students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(6), 655–664. doi: 10.1007/s10902-008-9112-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, L. H., & Kee, Y. H. (2008). Gratitude and adolescent athletes’ well-being. Social Indicators Research, 89(2), 361–373. doi: 10.1007/s11205-008-9237-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, L. H., Tsai, I. M., & Cheng, C. C. (2005). The relationships between paternalistic leadership, negative impressing of emotion, dropout intention and group satisfaction. Journal of Physical Education and Sports, 15(2), 205–216.Google Scholar
  12. Coleman, J., & Rocker, D. (1998). Adolescent. The Psychologist, 11, 539–596.Google Scholar
  13. Curran, T., Appleton, P. R., Hill, A. P., & Hall, H. K. (2011). Passion and burnout in elite junior soccer players: The mediating role of self-determined motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(6), 655–661. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.06.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dyrdal, G., Røysamb, E., Nes, R., & Vittersø, J. (2011). Can a happy relationship predict a happy life? A population-based study of maternal well-being during the life transition of pregnancy, infancy, and toddlerhood. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(6). doi: 10.1007/s10902-010-9238-2.
  16. Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377–389. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Erdogan, B., Bauer, T. N., Truxillo, D. M., & Mansfield, L. R. (in press). Whistle while you work: A review of the life satisfaction literature. Journal of Management. doi: 10.1177/0149206311429379.
  18. Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 300–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226. doi: 10.1037//0003X.56.3.2.218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1367–1377. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Freeman, P., & Rees, T. (2010). Perceived social support from team-mates: Direct and stress-buffering effects on self-confidence. European Journal of Sport Science, 10(1), 59–67. doi: 10.1080/17461390903049998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Froh, J. J., Fan, J., Emmons, R. A., Bono, G., Huebner, E. S., & Watkins, P. (2011). Measuring gratitude in youth: Assessing the psychometric properties of adult gratitude scales in children and adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 23(2), 311–324. doi: 10.1037/a0021590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gagné, M., & Blanchard, C. (2007). Self-determination theory and well-being in athletes. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 243–254). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  24. Gould, D., Tuffey, S., Udry, E., & Loehr, J. (1996a). Burnout in competitive junior tennis players: II. A quantitative analysis. The Sport Psychologist, 10(4), 341–366.Google Scholar
  25. Gould, D., Udry, E., Tuffey, S., & Loehr, J. (1996b). Burnout in competitive junior tennis players: I. A quantitative psychological assessment. The. Sport Psychologist, 10(4), 322–340.Google Scholar
  26. Grant, A. M., & Gino, F. (2010). A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(6), 946–955. doi: 10.1037/a0017935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haber, M., Cohen, J., Lucas, T., & Baltes, B. (2007). The relationship between self-reported received and perceived social support: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1), 133–144. doi: 10.1007/s10464-007-9100-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Headey, B., Veenhoven, R., & Wearing, A. (1991). Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 24(1), 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. House, J. S., Landis, K. R., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoyle, R. H. (1995). The structural equation modeling approach: Basic concepts and fundamental issues. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 1–15). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huang, Y. C., & Chi, L. (1994). The relationship of perceived motivational climate and perceived ability to competitive anxiety and team satisfaction in basketball. Physical Education Journal, 18, 321–323. In Chinese.Google Scholar
  33. Jowett, S. (2005). The coach-athlete partnership. Psychologist, 18(7), 412–415.Google Scholar
  34. Jowett, S., & Cockerill, I. M. (2003). Olympic medallists’ perspective of the althlete-coach relationship. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 4(4), 313–331. doi: 10.1016/s1469-0292(02)00011-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jowett, S., & Ntoumanis, N. (2004). The Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q): Development and initial validation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 14(4), 245–257. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2003.00338.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lafrenière, M. A. K., Jowett, S., Vallerand, R. J., & Carbonneau, N. (2011). Passion for coaching and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship: The mediating role of coaching behaviors. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(2), 144–152. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lakey, B., & Orehek, E. (2011). Relational regulation theory: A new approach to explain the link between perceived social support and mental health. Psychological Review, 118(3), 482–495. doi: 10.1037/a0023477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lambert, N. M., Clark, M. S., Durtschi, J., Fincham, F. D., & Graham, S. M. (2010). Benefits of expressing gratitude: Expressing gratitude to a partner changes one’s view of the relationship. Psychological Science, 21, 574–580. doi: 10.1177/0956797610364003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lambert, N. M., & Fincham, F. (2011). Expressing gratitude to a partner leads to more relationship maintenance behavior. Emotion, 11(1), 52–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee, R. M., Draper, M., & Lee, S. (2001). Social connectedness, dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors, and psychological distress: Testing a mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(3), 310–318. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.48.3.310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee, D. J., Sirgy, M. J., Larsen, V., & Wright, N. D. (2002). Developing a subjective measure of consumer well-being. Journal of Macromarketing, 22(2), 158–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lewis, C., & Marx, J. (1990). Inside track: My professional life in amateur track and field. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  43. Li, C. H. (2003). The prediction of dispositional goal orientation, perceived motivational climate and perceived ability on intrinsic motivation and satisfaction. Journal of Physical Education in Higher Education, 5(3), 143–157.Google Scholar
  44. Lyubomirsky, S., Dickerhoof, R., Boehm, J. K., & Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Becoming happier takes both a will and a proper way: An experimental longitudinal intervention to boost well-being. Emotion, 11(2), 391–402. doi: 10.1037/a0022575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mauss, I. B., Shallcross, A. J., Troy, A. S., John, O. P., Ferrer, E., Wilhelm, F. H., et al. (2011). Don’t hide your happiness! Positive emotion dissociation, social connectedness, and psychological functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(4), 738–748. doi: 10.1037/a0022410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J.-A. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112–127. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.82.1.112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect. Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 249–266. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.127.2.249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J.-A., & Emmons, R. A. (2004). Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: Links of grateful mood to individual differences and daily emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 295–309. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.86.2.295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  50. Ntoumanis, N., Taylor, I. M., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2012). A longitudinal examination of coach and peer motivational climates in youth sport: Implications for moral attitudes, well-being, and behavioral investment. Developmental Psychology, 48(1), 213–223 doi: 10.1037/a0024934.Google Scholar
  51. Pan, K.-F. (2008). The effects of social support on elite high school athletes’ intention to persist in sport participation: Based on The Stress-Buffering Model. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Sport University.Google Scholar
  52. Proctor, C., Linley, P., & Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5), 583–630. doi: 10.1007/s10902-008-9110-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Raedeke, T. D., & Smith, A. L. (2001). Development and preliminary validation of an athlete burnout measure. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 23(4), 281–306.Google Scholar
  54. Rees, T., & Hardy, L. (2000). An investigation of the social support experiences of high-level sports performers. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 327–347.Google Scholar
  55. Rees, T., & Hardy, L. (2004). Matching social support with stressors: Effects on factors underlying performance in tennis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 319–337. doi: 10.1016/S1469-0292(03)00018-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rees, T., Hardy, L., & Freeman, P. (2007). Stressors, social support, and effects upon performance in golf. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(1), 33–42. doi: 10.1080/02640410600702974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rees, T., Mitchell, I., Evans, L., & Hardy, L. (2010). Stressors, social support and psychological responses to sport injury in high- and low-performance standard participants. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(6), 505–512. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reinboth, M., & Duda, J. L. (2006). Perceived motivational climate, need satisfaction and indices of well-being in team sports: A longitudinal perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(3), 269–286. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2005.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Reis, H. T., Sheldon, K. M., Gable, S. L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Daily well-being: The role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 419–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rosenberg, E. L. (1998). Levels of analysis and the organization of affect. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 247–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rosenfeld, L. B., Richman, J. M., & Hardy, C. J. (1989). Examining social support networks among athletes: Description and relationship to stress. The Sport Psychologist, 3, 23–33.Google Scholar
  62. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3–33). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  64. Sarrazin, P., Vallerand, R., Guillet, E., Pelletier, L., & Cury, F. (2002). Motivation and dropout in female handballers: A 21-month prospective study. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(3), 395–418. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–15. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Vallerand, R. J., Salvy, S. J., Mageau, G. A., Elliot, A. J., Denis, P., Grouzet, F. M. E., et al. (2007). On the role of passion in performance. Journal of Personality, 75, 505–534. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00447.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Walling, N., Duda, J. L., & Chi, L. (1993). The perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire: Construct and predictive validity. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15, 172–183.Google Scholar
  68. Wood, A. M., Froh, J. J., & Geraghty, A. W. A. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 890–905. doi: 810.1016/j.cpr.2010.1003.1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wood, A. M., Maltby, J., Gillett, R., Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2008). The role of gratitude in the development of social support, stress, and depression: Two longitudinal studies. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(4), 854–871. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2007.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wu, C.-H., Chen, L. H., & Tsai, Y.-M. (2009a). Investigating important weighting of satisfaction score from formative model with partial least squares analysis. Social Indicators Research, 90, 351–363. doi: 10.1007/s11205-008-9264-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wu, C.-H., Tsai, Y.-M., & Chen, L. H. (2009b). How do positive views maintain life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 91(2), 169–281. doi: 10.1007/s11205-008-9282-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wu, C.-H., & Wu, C.-Y. (2008). Life satisfaction in persons with schizophrenia living in the community: Validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Social Indicators Research, 85, 447–460. doi: 10.1007/s11205-007-9136-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wu, C.-H., & Yao, G. (2006). Analysis of factorial invariance across gender in the Taiwan version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(6), 1259–1268. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wu, C.-H., & Yao, G. (2008). Psychometric analysis of the short-form UCLA loneliness scale (ULS-8) in Taiwanese undergraduate students. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1762–1771. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Recreation and Leisure Industry ManagementNational Taiwan Sport UniversityTaoyuan CountyTaiwan

Personalised recommendations