Two studies investigate subjective wellbeing (SWB) homeostasis. The first investigates the contribution of job satisfaction (JS) and partner satisfaction (PS) to the homeostatic defense of SWB. The extant model of homeostasis does not include either variable. The second study investigates the relationship between Homeostatically Protected Mood (HPMood) and other factors involved in the homeostatic model. It has been proposed that HPMood is the basic, biologically determined, positive mood that saturates SWB and other related variables, and forms the basis of the SWB set-point. Thus, if HPMood is an individual difference and it perfuses other homeostatic variables, then HPMood should be responsible for much of the shared variance between such variables. Two comparative samples are involved. One is a group of 171 Hong Kong Chinese recruited through convenience sampling. The other is a group of 343 Australians recruited via a general population survey. Results indicate that both JS and PS predict significant variance in Global Life Satisfaction beyond the existing factors in the homeostatic model. It is also found that, after controlling for the effect of HPMood, the strength of correlations between SWB and other homeostatic variables is significantly diminished. The implications of these findings are discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alloy, L. B., & Athrens, A. H. (1987). Depression and pessimism for the future: Biased use of statistically relevant information in predictions for self versus others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 366–378.
Block, J., & Robins, R. W. (1993). A longitudinal study of consistency and change in self-esteem from early adolescence to early adulthood. Child Development, 64, 909–923.
Blore, J. D., Stokes, M. A., Mellor, D., Firth, D., Firth, L., & Cummins, R. A. (2010). Comparing multiple discrepancies theory to affective models of subjective wellbeing. Social Indicators Research, 100(1), 1–16.
Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Carver, C. S., & Connor-Smith, J. (2010). Personality and coping. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 679–704.
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. (2003). Optimism. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Sydner (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: Handbook of models and measures. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chambers, S., Cummins, R. A., Mellor, D., Firth, L., & Stokes, M. (2005). Test of Cummins’ homeostatic theory of subjective wellbeing. Melbourne: School of Psychology, Deakin University.
Chambers, S., Hollway, J., Parsons, E-R., & Wallage, C. (2003). Perceived control and wellbeing. Paper presented at the 5th Australian Conference on Quality of Life, Melbourne, Australia, November.
Chiu, R. K. (1998). Relationships among role conflicts, role satisfaction and life satisfaction: Evidence from Hong Kong. Social Behavior and Personality, 26(4), 409–414.
Chu, P. S., Saucier, D. A., & Hafner, E. (2010). Meta-analysis of the relationships between social support and well-being in children and adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(6), 624–645.
Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cummins, R. A. (1995). On the trail of the gold standard for subjective wellbeing. Social Indicators Research, 35, 179–200.
Cummins, R. A. (1996). The domains of life satisfaction: An attempt to order chaos. Social Indicators Research, 38, 303–328.
Cummins, R. A. (1998). The second approximation to an international standard for life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 43, 307–334.
Cummins, R. A. (2003). Normative life satisfaction: Measurement issues and a homeostatic model. Social Indicators Research, 64, 225–256.
Cummins, R. A. (2010). Subjective wellbeing, homeostatically protected mood and depression: A Synthesis. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 1–17.
Cummins, R. A., Gibson, A., Weinberg, M., Collard, J., & Chester, M. (2009). Australian unity wellbeing index: Report 21.0. The wellbeing of Australians—gambling, chocolate and swine flu. Melbourne: Australian Centre on Quality of Life, School of Psychology, Deakin University. ISBN 978 1 74156 125 8. http://www.deakin.edu.au/research/acqol/index_wellbeing/index.htm.
Cummins, R. A., Gullone, E., & Lau, A. L. D. (2002). A model of subjective wellbeing homeostasis: The role of personality. The Universality of Subjective Wellbeing Indicators, pp. 7–46.
Cummins, R. A., & Nistico, H. (2002). Maintaining life satisfaction: The role of positive cognitive bias. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 37–69.
Cummins, R. A., Woerner, J., Weinberg. M., Perera, C., Gibson-Prosser, A., Collard, J., & Horfiniak, K. (2010). Australian unity wellbeing index: Report 24.0—The wellbeing of Australians—trust, life better/worse and climate change. Melbourne: Australian Centre on Quality of Life, School of Psychology, Deakin University. ISBN 978 1 74156 148 7. http://www.deakin.edu.au/research/acqol/index_wellbeing/index.htm.
Davern, M., Cummins, R. A., & Stokes, M. (2007). Subjective wellbeing as an affective/cognitive construct. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 429–449.
Diener, E., Scollon, C. K. N., Oishi, S., Dzokoto, V., & Suh, E. M. (2000). Positivity and the construction of life satisfaction judgments: Global happiness is not the sum of its parts. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 159–176.
Fujita, F., Diener, E., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Gender differences in negative affect and wellbeing: The case for emotional intensity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 427–434.
Hateley, L. (2005). Experiential influences on subjective wellbeing: The role of loneliness, transport accessibility and geographic location. Thesis, Melbourne: Deakin University.
Helgeson, V. S. (1992). Moderators of the relation between perceived control and adjustment to chronic illness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 656–666.
Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2001a). Happiness, introversion-extraversion and happy introverts. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 595–608.
Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2001b). Emotional stability as a major dimension of happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 1357–1364.
International Wellbeing Group. (2005). Personal Wellbeing Index-Adult (2nd ed). Retrieved on 11 January 2006, from http://www.deakin.edu.au/research/acqo1/instruments/wellbeing_index.htm.
International Wellbeing Group. (2006). Personal Wellbeing Index-Adult (PWI-A). Retrieved on 1 April 2010, from http://www.deakin.edu.au/research/acqo1/instruments/wellbeing_index.htm.
Lau, A. L. D., Cummins, R. A., & McPherson, W. (2005). An investigation into the cross-cultural equivalence of the Personal Wellbeing Index. Social Indicators Research, 72, 404–432.
Lauber, C., & Bowen, J. L. (2010). Low mood and employment: When affective disorders are intertwined with the workplace—A UK perspective. International Review of Psychiatry, 22(2), 173–182.
Leelakulthanit, O., & Day, R. D. (1993). Cross cultural comparisons of quality of life of Thais and Americans. Social Indicators Research, 30, 49–70.
Lu, L. (2001). Understanding happiness: A look into the Chinese folk psychology. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2, 407–432.
Matikka, L. M. (1996). Effects of psychological factors on the perceived quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 9(2), 115–128.
McLennan, J., & Bates, G. W. (1993). Vulnerability to psychological distress: Empirical and conceptual distinctions between measures of neuroticism and negative affect. Psychological Reports, 73, 1315–1323.
Miller, B. L. (2005). The relationship of healthy eating, exercise and sleep with subjective wellbeing. Thesis, Melbourne: Deakin University.
O’Brien, W. H., VanEgeren, L., & Mumby, P. B. (1995). Predicting health behaviors using measures of optimism and perceived risk. Health Values, 19, 21–28.
Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55, 44–56.
Piccolo, R. F., Judge, T. A., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, N., & Locke, E. A. (2005). Core self-evaluations in Japan: Relative effects on job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and happiness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 965–984.
Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.
Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110(1), 145–172.
Schmitt, N., & Bedeian, A. G. (1982). A comparison of LISREL and two-stage least squares analyses of a hypothesized life-job satisfaction reciprocal relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 806–817.
Schwarz, N. (1999). Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers. American Psychologist, 93–105.
Schwarz, N., & Strack, F. (1991). Evaluating one’s life: A judgement model of subjective well-being. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Subjective well-being: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 27–47). New York: Plenum Press.
Silver, R. L., & Wortman, C. B. (1980). Coping with undesirable life events. In J. Garber & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Human helplessness: Theory and application. New York: Academic Press.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Tong, Y., & Song, S. (2004). A study on general self-efficacy and subjective wellbeing of low SES college students in a Chinese university. College Student Journal, 38(4), 637–643.
Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1992). On traits and temperament: General and specific factors of emotional experience and their relation to the five-factor model. Journal of Personality, 60, 441–476.
Wilson, K., & Gullone, E. (1999). The relationship between personality and affect over the life span. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 1141–1156.
Wong, P. S. (1993). Satisfaction with life. In S. K. Lau, M. K. Lee, P. S. Wan, & S. L. Wong (Eds.), Indicators of social development (pp. 399–438). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies.
About this article
Cite this article
Lai, L.C.H., Cummins, R.A. The Contribution of Job and Partner Satisfaction to the Homeostatic Defense of Subjective Wellbeing. Soc Indic Res 111, 203–217 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9991-6
- Subjective wellbeing
- Personal Wellbeing Index
- Homeostatically protected mood
- Homeostatic model
- Global life satisfaction
- Cultural response bias