Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 147–166 | Cite as

Independent Correlates of Reported Gambling Problems Amongst Indigenous Australians

  • Matthew Stevens
  • Martin Young
Article

Abstract

To identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst the Indigenous population of Australia. A cross-sectional design was applied to a nationally representative sample of the Indigenous population. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented by remoteness and jurisdiction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst individuals and their social and family networks. The analysis was stratified by remoteness. Indigenous people living in remote locations reported significantly more gambling problems than those living in non-remote locations. In non-remote areas, being female, having high personal income, being more socially connected (i.e. involved in an Indigenous organisation or living in a household where all members were Indigenous) and reporting community problems were associated with higher levels of reported gambling problems. In remote areas, multifamily households, participation in sports and cultural events, and reporting of community problems were associated with higher reported gambling problems, while having a relative removed from their natural family was associated with lower reported problems. Problematic gambling is clearly related to the social and environmental contexts in which it occurs. Harm minimisation policies that focus on a reduction in crowding (especially in remote locations), increased public awareness of the negative consequences of gambling, improving access to support services, and lifting the socioeconomic status of Indigenous people may reduce gambling related harm in the medium to long term.

Keywords

Aboriginal populations Public health policy Gambling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank representatives of the Ministerial Council on Gambling for comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript. The authors thank Gambling Research Australia (GRA) for funding the research.

Competing interests

None.

References

  1. Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council of NSW. (2007). Pressing problems: Gambling issues and responses for NSW Aboriginal communities. Sydney: NSW Government.Google Scholar
  2. Altman, J. (1985). Gambling as a mode of redistributing and accumulating cash among Aborigines: A case study from Arnhem Land. In G. Caldwell, B. Haig, M. Dickerson, & L. Sylvan (Eds.), Gambling in Australia (pp. 50–67). Sydney: Croon Helm.Google Scholar
  3. Austin-Broos, D. (2003). Places, practices, and things: The articulation of Arrente kinship with welfare and work. American Ethnologist, 30(1), 118–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2002). Housing and infrastructure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait communities, Australia, 2001. Canberra: ABS.Google Scholar
  5. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2003). Population characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2001. Canberra.Google Scholar
  6. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004a). General Social Survey: Summary results, Australia, 2002. Canberra: ABS.Google Scholar
  7. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004b). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey, Australia, 2002. Canberra.Google Scholar
  8. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004c). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey, Northern Territory, 2002. Canberra.Google Scholar
  9. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004d). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey: Technical manual, 2002. Canberra.Google Scholar
  10. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006a). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Expanded Confidentialised Unit Record File, Technical Manual, Australia, 2004–05. Canberra.Google Scholar
  11. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006b). Remote access data laboratory (RADL) user guide. Version 4. Canberra.Google Scholar
  12. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007a). ABS directions in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Statistics, Jun 2007. Canberra.Google Scholar
  13. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007b). Housing and infrastructure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait communities, Australia, 2006. Canberra: ABS.Google Scholar
  14. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007c). Population distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006. Canberra: ABS.Google Scholar
  15. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008a). Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC). Canberra: ABS.Google Scholar
  16. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008b). Population characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006. Canberra.Google Scholar
  17. Bailie, R., & Runcie, M. (2001). Household infrastructure in aboriginal communities and the implications for health improvement. MJA, 175(7), 363–366.Google Scholar
  18. Bailie, R., Stevens, M., McDonald, E., Halpin, S., Brewster, D., Robinson, G., et al. (2005). Skin infection, housing and social circumstances in children living in remote Indigenous communities: Testing conceptual and methodological approaches. BMC Public Health, 5(1), 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Battersby, M. W., Thomas, L. J., Tolchard, B., & Esterman, A. (2002). The South Oaks gambling screen: A review with reference to Australian use. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18(3), 257–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Berndt, R. M., & Berndt, C. H. (1946-47). Card games among the Aborigines of Northern Territory. Oceania, 17, 248–269.Google Scholar
  21. Berndt, R. M., & Tonkinson, R. (1988). Social anthropology and Australian Aboriginal studies: A contemporary overview. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.Google Scholar
  22. Brady, M. (2004). Regulating social problems: The pokies, the Productivity Commission and an Aboriginal community (No. 1036–1774 CNO: online only). Canberra: Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research.Google Scholar
  23. Cultural Perspectives Pty Ltd. (2005). Research into health promotion and best practice services for Indigenous diverse communities. Melbourne, VIC, Australia: Victorian Government Department of Justice, Office for Gaming and Racing.Google Scholar
  24. Department of Indigenous Affairs. (2008). Western Australia State Government response to the Hope Report. Perth: Government of Western Australia.Google Scholar
  25. Dickerson, M., Allcock, C., Blaszczynski, A., Nicholls, B., Williams, J., & Maddern, R. (1996). A preliminary exploration of the positive and negative impacts of gaming and wagering on Indigenous people in New South Wales. Sydney: Australian Institute of Gambling Studies.Google Scholar
  26. Dickerson, M., Baxter, P., Boreham, P., Harley, W., & Williams, J. (1995). The impacts of the introduction of gaming machines on Queensland. Brisbane: Queensland Government, Department of Family Services and Aboriginal and Islander Affairs.Google Scholar
  27. Dodd, R., & Vaughn, R. (1985). Aboriginal gambling and self-determination in Queensland. In G. Caldwell, B. Haig, M. Dickerson, & L. Sylvan (Eds.), Gambling in Australia. Sydney: Croon Helm.Google Scholar
  28. Duvarci, I., Varan, A., Coskunol, H., & Ersoy, M. A. (1997). DSM-IV and the South Oaks gambling screen: Diagnosing and assessing pathological gambling in Turkey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13(3), 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Toronto: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  30. Fogarty, M. (2008). Out of harms way: An Indigenous-centric approach to harm minimisation. Paper presented at the National Association for Gambling Studies 18th Annual Conference: Finding Common Ground.Google Scholar
  31. Foote, R. J. (1996). Aboriginal gambling: A pilot study of casino attendance and the introduction of poker machines into community venues in the Northern Territory. Darwin: Centre for Social Research, Northern Territory University.Google Scholar
  32. Goodale, J. C. (1987). Gambling is hard work: Card playing in Tiwi society. Oceania, 58(1), 6–21.Google Scholar
  33. Gove, W. R. (1979). Overcrowding in the home: An empirical investigation of its possible pathological consequences. American Sociological Review, 44(1), 59–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Holden, A., Dickerson, M., Boreham, P., Harley, W., & Hogan, B. (1996). Long term study into the social impacts of gaming machines in Queensland: An issues paper: The social and economic impact of gaming machines on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland. Brisbane: Queensland Government.Google Scholar
  35. Hunter, E. M. (1993). Aboriginal health and history, power and prejudice in remote Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunter, E. (2007). Disadvantage and discontent: A review of issues relevant to the mental health of rural and remote Indigenous Australians. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 15(2), 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hunter, E. M., & Spargo, R. M. (1988). What’s the big deal? Aboriginal gambling in the Kimberley region. Medical Journal of Australia, 149(11–12), 668–672.Google Scholar
  38. Jones, R. (1994). The housing need of Indigenous Australians, 1991. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal and Economic Policy Research, ANU.Google Scholar
  39. Jones, R. (1999). Indigenous housing 1996 census analysis. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal and Economic Policy Research, ANU.Google Scholar
  40. Kowall, E., Gunthorpe, W., & Bailie, R. (2007). Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: An analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale. International Journal for Equity in Health, 6(18), 1–12.Google Scholar
  41. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks gambling screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of problem gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(9), 1184–1188.Google Scholar
  42. Long, J. P. M. (1970). Aboriginal settlements: A survey of Institutional communities in Eastern Australia. Canberra: ANU.Google Scholar
  43. Martin, D. F. (1993). Autonomy and relatedness: An ethnography of Wik people of Aurukun, western Cape York Peninsula. Unpublished PhD thesis. Canberra: Australia National University.Google Scholar
  44. McKnight, D. (2002). From hunting to drinking: The devastating effects of alcohol on an Australian Aboriginal community. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McMillen, J., & Donnelly, K. (2008). Gambling in Australian Indigenous communities: The state of play. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 43(3), 397–426.Google Scholar
  46. McMillen, J., & Doran, B. (2006). Problem gambling and gaming machine density: Socio-spatial analysis of three Victorian localities. International Gambling Studies, 6(1), 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McMillen, J., & Marshall, D. (2004). 2003 Victorian Longitudinal Community Attitudes Survey. Melbourne: Victorian Government, Community Support Fund.Google Scholar
  48. McMillen, J., & Togni, S. (2000). Study of gambling in the Northern Territory 1996–97. Sydney: Australian Institute of Gambling Research, University of Western Sydney.Google Scholar
  49. McMillen, J., & Wenzel, M. (2006). Measuring problem gambling: Assessment of three prevalence screens. International Gambling Studies, 6(2), 147–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Memmot, P. C., Long, S. J., Bell, M. J., Taylor, J., & Brown, D. (2006). Between places: Indigenous mobility in remote and rural Australia. Brisbane: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute.Google Scholar
  51. Memmot, P., Stacy, R., Chambers, C., & Keys, C. (2001). Violence in Indigenous communities. Canberra: Attorney Generals Department.Google Scholar
  52. Moody, M. (2008). Serial reciprocity: A preliminary statement. Sociological Theory, 26(2), 130–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mullighan, E. P. (2008). Children on Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (Apy) lands, Commission Of Inquiry, a report into sexual abuse. Adelaide: South Australian Government, Office of the Commissioner.Google Scholar
  54. Neal, P., Delfabbro, P. H., & O’Neil, M. (2005). Problem gambling and harm: Towards a national definition. Melbourne: Report prepared for the National Gambling Research Program Working Party.Google Scholar
  55. Neutze, M., Sanders, W., & Jones, R. (2000). Estimating Indigenous housing need for public funding allocation: A multi-measure approach (No. 197). Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal and Economic Policy Research, ANU.Google Scholar
  56. Paterson, M. (2006). A future now; not a past too late: An analysis of Aboriginal gambling in Australia. Paper presented at the ‘gambling: The future now’ the National Association for Gambling Studies 16th Annual Conference, Sydney.Google Scholar
  57. Paterson, M. (2007). The regulation of ‘unregulated’ Indigenous gambling. Paper presented at the National Association for Gambling Studies 17th Annual Conference, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  58. Phillips, G. (2003). Addictions and healing in Aboriginal country. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.Google Scholar
  59. Productivity Commission. (1999). Australia’s gambling industries: Inquiry Report No.10. Melbourne: Productivity Commission.Google Scholar
  60. Queensland Government. (2005). Games people play—Problem gambling among offenders in Queensland corrections centres. Brisbane: Queensland Treasury.Google Scholar
  61. Queensland Government (Ed.). (2006). Queensland Household Gambling Survey, 2003–04. Brisbane: Treasury and Department of Corrective Services, QLD Govt.Google Scholar
  62. Queensland Government (Ed.). (2007). Queensland Household Gambling Survey, 2006-07. Brisbane: Treasury and Department of Corrective Services, QLD Govt.Google Scholar
  63. Roberts, J. (1981). Massacres to mining: The colonisation of Aboriginal Australia. Blackburn, VIC: Dove Communications.Google Scholar
  64. Roy Morgan Research. (2006). The fourth study into the extent and impact of gambling in Tasmania with particular reference to problem gambling. Hobart: Gambling Support Bureau.Google Scholar
  65. Senate Committee. (2008). Senate select committee on regional and remote Indigenous communities. Canberra: Commonwealth Government of Australia.Google Scholar
  66. Sibthorpe, B., Anderson, I., & Cunningham, J. (2001). Self-assessed health among Indigenous Australians: How valid is a global question? American Journal of Public Health, 91(10), 1660–1663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Svetieva, E., & Walker, M. (2008). Inconsistency between concept and measurement: The Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI). Journal of Gambling Issues, 22, 157–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tonkinson, R. (1974). The Jigalong mob: Aboriginal victors of the desert crusade. Menlo Park, CA: Cummings Publishing Co. Inc.Google Scholar
  69. Wild, R., & Anderson, P. (2007). Ampe Akelyernemane Meke Mekarle “Little Children are Sacred”: Report of the Northern Territory Board of Inquiry into the protection of Aboriginal children from sexual abuse. Darwin: Northern Territory Government.Google Scholar
  70. Winter, N. (2008). Programs for Stata. Retrieved December 19, 2008 from http://www.faculty.virginia.edu/nwinter/progs/.
  71. Young, M., Barnes, T., Stevens, M., Paterson, M., & Morris, M. (2007). The changing landscape of Indigenous gambling in Northern Australia: Current knowledge and future directions. International Gambling Studies, 7(3), 327–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Young, M., Morris, M., Barnes, T., Stevens, M., & Paterson, M. (2006). Indigenous gambling scoping study: A summary. Darwin: School for Social and Policy Research, Charles Darwin University.Google Scholar
  73. Young, M., & Stevens, M. (2009). Player preferences and social harm: An analysis of the relationships between player characteristics, gambling modes, and problem gambling. International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, 7(1), 262–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Young, M., Stevens, M., & Morris, M. (2008a). Problem gambling within the non-Indigenous population of the Northern Territory of Australia: A multivariate analysis of risk factors. International Gambling Studies, 8(1), 77–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Young, M., Stevens, M., & Morris, M. (2008b). Problem gambling within the non-Indigenous population of the Northern Territory of Australia: A multivariate analysis of risk factors. International Gambling Studies, 8(1), 77–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zubrick, S. R., Silburn, S. R., Lawrence, D. M., Mitrou, F. G., Dalby, R. B., Blair, E. M., et al. (2005). The Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey: The social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal children and young people (Vol. 2). Perth: Curtin University of Technology and Telethon Institute for Child Health Research.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Advanced Studies, School for Social and Policy ResearchCharles Darwin UniversityDarwinAustralia

Personalised recommendations