Social Indicators Research

, Volume 96, Issue 3, pp 459–477 | Cite as

Ways that Social Change Predicts Personal Quality of Life

  • Chau-kiu CheungEmail author
  • Kwok Leung


A notable way that social change affects personal quality of life would rely on the person’s experience with social change. This experience may influence societal quality of life and quality of work life, which may in turn affect personal quality of life. Additionally, the experience of social change is possibly less detrimental to personal quality of life later in the presence of higher existing personal quality of life. These influences over time become transparent through a three-wave panel study of 531 working people in Hong Kong, China. Findings show that although social change experienced did not generally impair subsequent quality of life, it tended to be more detrimental to the person with lower quality of life before. In addition, social change experienced tended to erode societal quality of life and quality of work life experienced, which appeared to be predictors of personal quality of life. Hence, there are possible ways for social change to predict personal quality of life.


Quality of life Quality of work life Societal quality of life Social change Adaptation Need fulfillment Buffering 


  1. Abbott, P., & Sapsford, R. (2006). Life-satisfaction in Post-Soviet Russia and Ukraine. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 251–287. doi: 10.1007/s10902-005-5563-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, M. (2007). Self and social change. London, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, J. G. (1999). Changing labour markets, new social divisions and welfare state support. In S. Svallfors & P. Taylor-Gooby (Eds.), The end of the welfare state? Responses to state retrenchment (pp. 13–33). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Aneshensel, C. S. (1992). Social stress: Theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 15–38. doi: 10.1146/ Scholar
  5. Argyle, M. (1999). Causes and correlates of happiness. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 353–373). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Arthaud-Day, M. L., & Near, J. P. (2005). The wealth of nations and the happiness of nations: Why accounting matters. Social Indicators Research, 74, 511–548. doi: 10.1007/s11205-004-6397-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Au, K., & Cheung, M. W. L. (2004). Intra-cultural variation and job autonomy in 42 countries. Organization Studies, 25(8), 1339–1362. doi: 10.1177/0170840604046345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beasley, M., Thompson, T., & Davidson, J. (2003). Resilience response to life stress: The effects of coping style and cognitive hardiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 77–95. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00027-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bianchi, S., Cohen, P. N., Raley, S., & Nomaguchi, K. (2004). Inequality on parental investment in child-rearing: Expenditures, time, and health. In M. K. Neckerman (Ed.), Social inequality (pp. 189–219). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Booth, A. L., Francesconi, M., & Garcia-Serrano, C. (1999). Job tenure and job mobility in Britain. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 53(1), 43–70. doi: 10.2307/2696161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broman, C. L., Hamilton, V. L., Hoffman, W. S., & Mavaddat, R. (1995). Race, gender, and the response to stress: Autoworkers’ vulnerability to long-term unemployment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(6), 813–842. doi: 10.1007/BF02507017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks, J., & Prysby, C. (1999). Contextual effects on retrospective economic evaluations: The impact of the state and local economy. Political Behavior, 21(1), 1–16. doi: 10.1023/A:1023371328591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bryant, F. B., & Veroff, J. (1986). Dimensions of subjective mental health in American men and women. In F. M. Andrews (Ed.), Research on the quality of life (pp. 117–146). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research. The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  14. Bulmahn, T. (2000). Modernity and happiness: The case of Germany. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 375–400. doi: 10.1023/A:1010012331620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bygren, M. (2004). Pay reference standards and pay satisfaction: What do workers evaluate their pay against? Social Science Research, 33, 206–224. doi: 10.1016/S0049-089X(03)00045-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chan, R. K. H. (2004). Globalisation, unemployment and the welfare regime in Hong Kong. Social Policy and Society, 3(3), 273–282. doi: 10.1017/S1474746404001782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chang, E. C. (1998). Does dispositional optimism moderate the relation between perceived stress and psychological well-being: A preliminary investigation. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 233–240. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00028-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, C. (2003). Revisiting the disengagement theory with differentials in the determinants of life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 64, 209–224. doi: 10.1023/A:1024718321860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheung, C. (2005). Rational or demoralized responses to work restructuring in Hong Kong? Human Relations, 58(2), 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheung, C. K., & Leung, K. K. (2004). Economic and political conditions and modern and postmodern value orientations of Hong Kong citizens. Social Science Journal, 41(3), 347–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheung, C. K., & Tse, J. W. (2008). Institutional trust as a determinant of anxiety during the SARS crisis in Hong Kong. Social Work in Public Health, 23(5), 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  23. Coleman, J. S. (1987). Microfoundations and macrosocial behavior. In J. C. Alexander, B. Giesen, R. Munch, & J. N. Smelser (Eds.), The micro-macro link (pp. 153–173). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Cooper, J., & Hogg, M. A. (2007). Feeling the anguish of others: A theory of vicarious dissonance. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 359–403. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2601(06)39007-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crocker, J., Luhtanen, R., Blaine, B., & Broadnax, S. (1994). Collective self-esteem and psychological well-being among White, Black, and Asian College Students. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 503–513. doi: 10.1177/0146167294205007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cuddeback, G., Wilson, E., Orme, J. G., & Combs-Orme, T. (2004). Detecting and statistically correcting sample selection bias. Journal of Social Service Research, 30(3), 19–33. doi: 10.1300/J079v30n03_02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deutsch, F. M. (2004). How parents influence the life plans of graduating Chinese university students. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35(3), 393–424.Google Scholar
  28. Diener, E., Diener, M. L., & Diener, C. (1995). Factors predicting the subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 851–864. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.69.5.851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (2000). Explaining differences in societal levels of happiness: Relative standards, need fulfillment, culture, and evaluation theory. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 41–78. doi: 10.1023/A:1010076127199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Diener, E., & Oishi, S. (2000). Money and happiness: Income and subjective well-being across nations. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being (pp. 185–218). Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  31. Diener, E., & Suh, E. M. (1999). National differences in subjective well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 434–450). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.2.276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Easterlin, R. A. (2005a). Diminishing marginal utility of income? Caveat emptor. Social Indicators Research, 70, 243–255. doi: 10.1007/s11205-004-8393-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Easterlin, R. A. (2005b). Feeding the illusion of growth and happiness: A reply to hagerty and veenhoven. Social Indicators Research, 24, 429–443. doi: 10.1007/s11205-004-6170-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eikemo, T. A., Matekaasa, A., & Ringdal, K. (2008). Health and happiness. In H. Ervasti, T. Fridberg, M. Hjerm, & K. Ringdal (Eds.), Nordic social attitudes in a European perspective (pp. 48–64). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  36. Esser, H. (1993). Response set: Habit, frame, or rational choice. In D. Krebs & P. Schmidt (Eds.), New directions in attitude measurement (pp. 293–314). Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  37. Fairris, D., & Brenner, M. (2001). Workplace transformation and the rise in cumulative trauma disorders: Is there a connection? Journal of Labor Research, 22(1), 15–28. doi: 10.1007/s12122-001-1001-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Faunce, W. A. (2003). Work, status, and self esteem: Theory of selective self investment. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  39. Fenwick, R., & Tausig, M. (1994). The macroeconomic context of job stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 266–282. doi: 10.2307/2137280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Garstka, T. A., Schmitt, M. T., Branscombe, N. R., & Hummert, M. L. (2004). How young and older adults differ in their response to perceived age discrimination. Psychology and Aging, 19(2), 326–335. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.19.2.326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gomez Gonzalez Cosio, R. (1998). Social constructivism and capacity building for environmental governance. International Planning Studies, 3(3), 367–389.Google Scholar
  42. Graham, C., & Pettinato, S. (2001). Happiness, markets, and democracy: Latin America in comparative perspective. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2, 237–268. doi: 10.1023/A:1011860027447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Graham, C., & Pettinato, S. (2002). Frustrated achievers, winners, losers and subjective well-being in new market economies. The Journal of Development Studies, 38(4), 100–140. doi: 10.1080/00220380412331322431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Greenley, J. R., Greenberg, J. S., & Brown, R. (1997). Measuring quality of life: A new and practical survey instrument. Social Work, 42(3), 244–254.Google Scholar
  45. Greenwald, H. P., O’Keefe, S., & Dicamillo, M. (2004). The importance of public sector health care in an underserved population. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 27(2), 142–157.Google Scholar
  46. Groot, W., & Van Den Brink, H. M. (1999). Life satisfaction and preference drift. Social Indicators Research, 50, 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hagerty, M. R. (2003). Was life better in the good old days? Intertemporal judgments of life satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 115–139. doi: 10.1023/A:1024406800912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haslam, S. A. (2004). Psychology in organizations: The social identity approach (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Haveman, H. A., & Cohen, L. E. (1994). The ecological dynamics of careers: The impact of organizational founding, dissolution, and merger on job mobility. American Journal of Sociology, 100(1), 104–152. doi: 10.1086/230501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haworth, J. T. (1997). Work, leisure and well-being. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Headey, B., & Headey, D. (2003). German reunification: Welfare gains and losses east and west. Social Indicators Research, 64, 107–138. doi: 10.1023/A:1024780114892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Heckman, J. J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica, 47, 153–161. doi: 10.2307/1912352. (Jan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Helliwell, J. F. (2003). Do borders matters for social capital? Economic justice and civic culture in US States and Canadian provinces. In L. Osberg (Ed.), Economic implications of social cohesion (pp. 19–42). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  54. Helliwell, J. F., & Putnam, R. D. (2005). The social context of well-being. In F. A. Huppert, N. Baylis, & B. Keverne (Eds.), The science of well-being (pp. 435–459). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Hicks, A., & Kenworthy, L. (2003). Varieties of welfare capitalism. Socio-Economic Review, 1, 27–61. doi: 10.1093/soceco/1.1.27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hischka, D., & Mau, S. (2005). Social anomie and racial segregation in South Africa. Social Indicators Research, 76, 467–498. doi: 10.1007/s11205-005-2903-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ho, S.-C., & Chan, C.-F. (2003). In search of a competitive policy in a competitive economy: The case of Hong Kong. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 37(1), 68–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. House, J. S. (1981). Social structure and personality. In M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives (pp. 525–561). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  59. Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Inglehart, R., & Klingemann, H.-D. (2000). Genes, culture, democracy, and happiness. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being (pp. 165–183). Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  61. Islam, M. K., Merlo, J., Kawachi, I., Lindstrom, M., Burstrom, K., & Ulf-G, G. (2006). Does it really matter where you live? A panel data multilevel social capital on individual health-related quality of life. Health Economics, Policy & Law, 1, 209–235. doi: 10.1017/S174413310600301X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Iverson, R. D., & Maguire, C. (2000). The relationship between job and life satisfaction: Evidence from a remote mining community. Human Relations, 53(6), 807–839. doi: 10.1177/0018726700536003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Pathon, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction—job performance relationship: A quantitative and qualitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127(3), 376–407. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.127.3.376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaestner, R. (1996). The effect of government-mandated benefits on youth employment. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 50(1), 122–142. doi: 10.2307/2524393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kenny, C. (2005). Does development make you happy? Subjective wellbeing and economic growth in developing countries. Social Indicators Research, 73, 199–219. doi: 10.1007/s11205-004-0986-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Keon, T. L., & McDonald, B. (1982). Job satisfaction and life satisfaction: An empirical evaluation of their interrelationship. Human Relations, 35(3), 167–180. doi: 10.1177/001872678203500301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kim, W. B. (2003). Economic crisis, downsizing and layoff survivors syndrome. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 33(4), 449–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kim, J., & Ng, S. H. (2008). Perceptions of social changes and social identity: Study focusing on Hong Kong society after reunification. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 232–240. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-839X.2008.00262.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kingston, P. W. (2000). The classless society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Kitayama, S., & Markus, A. R. (2000). The pursuit of happiness and the realization of sympathy: Cultural patterns of self, social relations, and well-being. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being (pp. 113–161). MIT: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  71. Kiyak, H. A., & Namazin, K. H. (1999). Job commitment and turnover among women working in facilities serving older persons. Research on Aging, 19(2), 223–246. doi: 10.1177/0164027597192004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kryson, M. (1998). Privacy and the expression of white racial attitudes: A comparison across three contexts. Public Opinion Quarterly, 60(4), 506–544. doi: 10.1086/297859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lai, G., & Lee, R. P. L. (2006). Market reforms and psychological distress in urban Beijing. International Sociology, 21(4), 551–579. doi: 10.1177/0268580906065301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lambert, E. G., Pasupuleti, S., Cluse-Tolar, T., Jennings, M., & Baker, D. (2006). The impact of work-family conflict on social work and human service worker job satisfaction and organizational commitment: An exploratory study. Administration in Social Work, 30(3), 55–74. doi: 10.1300/J147v30n03_05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lane, R. E. (1991). The market experience. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lane, R. E. (2000). The loss of happiness in market democracies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Leonardi, F., Spazzafumo, L., & Marcellini, F. (2005). Subjective well-being: The constructionist point of view: A longitudinal study to verify the predictive power of top-down effects and bottom-up processes. Social Indicators Research, 70, 53–77. doi: 10.1007/s11205-005-5016-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lever, J. P., Pinol, N. L., & Uralde, J. H. (2005). Poverty, psychological resources and subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 73, 375–408. doi: 10.1007/s11205-004-1072-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lewin, A. (2001). Changing work ethic and welfare dependence through welfare reform: The 100-hour rule waiver experiment for AFDC-U. Evaluation Review, 25(3), 370–388. doi: 10.1177/0193841X0102500304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Long, J. S. (1997). Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  81. Long, A. (2005). Happily even after? A study of job satisfaction in Australia. The Economic Record, 81(255), 303–321. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4932.2005.00271.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lyubomirsky, S. (2001). Why are some people happier than others? The role of cognitive and motivational processes in well-being. American Psychologist, 56, 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803–855. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Marks, G. N., & Fleming, N. (1999). Influences and consequences of well-being among Australian young people: 1980–1995. Social Indicators Research, 46, 301–323. doi: 10.1023/A:1006928507272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Marks, N., & Shah, H. (2005). A well-being manifesto for a flourishing society. In F. A. Huppert, N. Baylis & B. Keverne (Eds.), The science of well-being (pp. 503–531). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Meng, X. (2000). Labor market reform in China. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. E. (2003). Social causes of psychological distress. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  88. Mishra, A. K., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1998). Explaining how survivors respond to downsizing: The roles of trust, empowerment, justice, and work redesign. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 567–588. doi: 10.2307/259295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Moller, V., & Dickon, H. (2002). The role of quality of life surveys in managing change in democratic transitions: The South African case. Social Indicators Research, 58, 267–292. doi: 10.1023/A:1015792002279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Moskalenko, S., McCauley, C., & Rozin, P. (2007). Group identification under conditions of threat: College students’ attachment to country, family, ethnicity, religion, and university before and after September 11, 2001. Political Psychology, 27(1), 77–97. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2006.00450.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Muffels, R., & Fouarge, D. (2004). The role of European welfare states in explaining resources deprivation. Social Indicators Research, 68, 299–330. doi: 10.1023/B:SOCI.0000033576.40499.99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mutz, D. C. (1998). Impersonal influence: How perceptions of mass collectives affect political attitudes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Myers, D. G. (1999). Close relationships and quality of life. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 374–391). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  94. Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55, 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Niemi, R. G., Bremer, J., & Heel, M. (1999). Determinants of state economic perceptions. Political Behavior, 21(2), 175–193. doi: 10.1023/A:1022090800849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Oishi, S., Wyer, R. S., Jr, & Colombe, S. J. (2000). Cultural variation in the use of current life satisfaction to predict the future. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(3), 434–445. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.78.3.434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ovaska, T., & Takashima, R. (2006). Economic policy and the level of self-perceived well-being: An international comparison. Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 308–325. doi: 10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Peiro, A. (2006). Happiness, satisfaction and socio-economic conditions: Some international evidence. Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 348–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Petersen, T. (2004). Analyzing panel data: Fixed- and random-effects models. In M. Hardy & A. Bryman (Eds.), Handbook of data analysis (pp. 331–345). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  100. Phillips, M. R., Liu, H., & Zhang, Y. (1999). Suicide and social change in China. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 23, 25–50. doi: 10.1023/A:1005462530658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Podsakoff, N. P., LePine, J. A., & LePine, M. A. (2007). Differential challenge stressor, hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intention, turnover, and withdrawal behavior. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 438–454. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pollmann-Schult, M., & Buchel, F. (2005). Unemployment benefits, unemployment duration and subsequent job quality. Acta Sociologica, 48(1), 21–39. doi: 10.1177/0001699305050985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Reich, J. W., & Zautra, A. J. (1988). Direct and stress-moderating effects of positive life experiences. In L. H. Cohen (Ed.), Life events and psychological functioning: Theoretical and methodological issues (pp. 149–180). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  104. Saris, W. E. (2001). The strength of the causal relationship between living conditions and satisfaction. Sociological Methods & Research, 30(1), 11–34. doi: 10.1177/0049124101030001002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sarmiento, T. P., Lashinger, H. K. S., & Iwaviw, C. (2004). Nurse educators’ workplace employment, burnout, and job satisfaction: Testing Kanter’s theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 46((2), 134–143. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2003.02973.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schuessler, K. F., & Fisher, G. A. (1985). Quality of life research and sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 129–149. doi: 10.1146/ Scholar
  107. Schyns, P. (2001). Income and satisfaction in Russia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2, 173–204. doi: 10.1023/A:1011564631319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sin, W. M., & Chu, Y. W. (2000). Postcolonial law in the global economy: The case of Hong Kong. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 28, 291–309. doi: 10.1006/ijsl.2000.0132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sing, M. (2004). Hong Kong’s tortuous, democratization: A comparative analysis. London: RoutledgeCurzon.Google Scholar
  110. Sirgy, M. J. (2001). Handbook of quality-of-life research: An ethical marketing perspective. Dordrecht Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  111. Sirgy, M. J., Dong-jie, L., Miller, C., & Littlefield, J. E. (2004). The impact of globalization on a country’s quality of life: Toward an integrated model. Social Indicators Research, 68, 251–298. doi: 10.1023/B:SOCI.0000033577.34180.4b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sirgy, M. J., Efraty, D., Siegel, P., & Dong-jin, L. (2001). A new measure of quality of work life (QWL) based on need satisfaction and spillover theories. Social Indicators Research, 55(3), 241–302. doi: 10.1023/A:1010986923468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tang, K. L. (1998). Colonial state and social policy: Social welfare development in Hong Kong 1842–1997. Lamham, MY: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  114. Taylor-Gooby, P. (2004). New risks, new welfare. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Temes, N. (1986). Income distribution, happiness and satisfaction: A direct test of the interdependent preference model. Journal of Economic Psychology, 7, 425–446. doi: 10.1016/0167-4870(86)90032-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Thoits, P. A. (2006). Personal agency in the stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47(4), 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Thompson, M. P., & Norris, F. H. (1992). Crime, social status, and alienation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20(1), 97–119. doi: 10.1007/BF00942183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Triandis, H. C. (2000). Cultual syndromes and subjective well-being. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture subjective well-being (pp. 13–36). Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  119. Trougakos, J. P., Beal, D. J., Green, S. G., & Weiss, H. M. (2008). Making the break count: An episodic examination of recovery activities, emotional experiences, and positive affective displays. Academy of Management Journal, 51(1), 131–146.Google Scholar
  120. Turner, J. H. (2003). Human institutions: A theory of societal evolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  121. van Emmerik, I. J. H. (2004). The more you can get the better: Mentoring constellations and intrinsic career success. Career Development International, 9(6/7), 578–594. doi: 10.1108/13620430410559160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. van Praag, B., & Ferrer-I-Carbonell, A. (2004). Happiness quantified: A satisfaction calculus approach. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Veenhoven, R. (2000). Freedom and happiness: A comparative study in forty-four nations in the early 1990s. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture subjective well-being (pp. 257–288). Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  124. Veenhoven, R. (2005). Apparent quality-of-life in nations: How long and happy people live. Social Indicators Research, 71, 61–86. doi: 10.1007/s11205-004-8014-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Verbeke, G., & Molenberghs, G. (1997). Linear mixed models in practice: A SAS-oriented approach. Ann Arbor, MI: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  126. Wilkie, W. L., & Moore, E. S. (1999). Marketing’s contributions to society. Journal of Marketing, 63, 198–218. doi: 10.2307/1252112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wong, H. (2007). Misled intervention by a misplaced diagnosis: The Hong Kong sar government’s policies for alleviating poverty and social exclusion. China Review, 7(2), 123–147.Google Scholar
  128. Zhu, Q. (2001). Comprehensive analysis of socio-economic development since the reform (1979–1999). In L. Jiang, X. Lu, & T. Dan (Eds.), 2000: Analysis, forecast of China’s social situation (pp. 361–371). Beijing, China: China’s Social Situation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.City University of Hong KongKowloonHong Kong

Personalised recommendations