Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The Ranking of the Regions With Regard to Their Sports Facilities to Improve Their Planning in Sport: The Case of Spain

  • 598 Accesses

  • 12 Citations


Sports facility planning by the public authorities should be considered to be one of the main policies to have an indirect influence on the aim of ensuring a healthy population, as well as reducing its physical inactivity. Our research aims to study and compare the state of sports infrastructures in the regions of Spain, using a synthetic indicators. Our results should serve not only to detect the vast imparity between different regions, which has come about because of varying investment and management with regard to sports infrastructures, but also to redirect building planning and sports management policies onto the right path, and also give food for thought.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. Andrews, G. J., Sudwell, M. I., & Sparkes, A. C. (2005). Towards a geography of fitness: An ethnographic case study of the gym in British bodybuilding culture. Social Science & Medicine, 60(4), 877–891. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.06.029.

  2. Bale, J. (2001). Sport, place and the city. London: Routledge.

  3. Ball, K., Bauman, A., Leslie, E., & Owen, N. (2001). Perceived enviromental aesthetics and convenience and company are associated with walking for exercise among Australian adults. Preventive Medicine, 33, 434–440. doi:10.1006/pmed.2001.0912.

  4. Banús, E., Arbizu, N., Barcenilla, M., Gurbindo, S., & Ruiz-Villa, D. (2003). Decentralisation and cultural infrastructures: Some examples from democratic Spain (1980–2000). In XIIIth International Conference of RESER. Services and Regional Development. Ateliers des Fucam: Mons: Belgium.

  5. Bauman, A. (2004). Updating the evidence that physical activity is good for health: An epidemiological review 2000–2003. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7(1), 6–19. doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(04)80273-1.

  6. Browson, R. C., Baker, E. A., Houseman, R. A., Brennan, L. K., & Bacak, S. J. (2001). Environmental and policy determinants of physical activity in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1995–2003.

  7. Burillo, P. (2008). Las instalaciones deportivas en las Comunidades Autónomas, según el Censo Nacional de Instalaciones Deportivas-2005, y su incidencia en la actividad físico-deportiva de la población. Toledo: Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha.

  8. Burton, N. W., Turrell, G., & Oldenburg, B. (2003). Participation in recreational physical activity: Why do socioeconomic groups differ? Health Education & Behavior, 30, 225–244. doi:10.1177/1090198102251036.

  9. Chinn, D. J., White, M., Harland, J., Drinkwater, C., & Raybould, S. (1999). Barriers to physical activity and socioeconomic position: Implications for health promotion. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 53, 191–192.

  10. Coates, D., & Humphreys, B. R. (2003). Professional sports facilities, franchises and urban economic development. UMBC Economics Department Working Paper, 03(103), 1–23.

  11. Corti, B., Donovan, R. J., & Holman, C. D. J. (1996). Factors influencing the use of physical activity facilities: Results from qualitative research. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 6, 16–21.

  12. CSD. (2005). Manual del Agente censal. Censo 2005. Madrid: Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia.

  13. Di Lorenzo, T. M., Stucky-Ropp, R. C., Vander Wal, S. J., & Gotham, H. J. (1998). Determinants of exercise among children. II. A longitudinal analysis. Preventive Medicine, 27, 470–477. doi:10.1006/pmed.1998.0307.

  14. Diez-Roux, A. V., Link, B. G., & Northridge, M. E. (2000). A multilevel analysis of income inequality and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 673–687. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00320-2.

  15. Ecob, R., & Macintyre, S. (2000). Small area variations in health related behaviours; do these depend on the behaviour itself, its measurement, or on personal characteristics? Health & Place, 6, 261–274. doi:10.1016/S1353-8292(00)00008-3.

  16. Erikssen, G., Liestol, K., Bjornmholt, J., Thaulow, E., Sandvik, L., & Erikssen, J. (1998). Changes in physical fitness and changes in mortality. Lancet, 352, 759–762. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)02268-5.

  17. Estabrooks, P. A., Lee, R. E., & Gyurcsik, N. C. (2003). Resources for physical activity participation: Does availability and accessibility differ by neighbourhood socioeconomic status? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 100–104. doi:10.1207/S15324796ABM2502_05.

  18. Feser, E. (2005). Benchmark value chain industry clusters for applied regional research. Urbana-Champaign: Regional Economics Applications Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  19. Fulton, J. E., Garg, M., Galuska, D. A., Rattay, K. T., & Caspersen, C. J. (2004). Public health and clinical recommendations for physical activity and physical fitness: Special focus on overweight youth. Sports Medicine (Auckland, NZ), 34, 581–599. doi:10.2165/00007256-200434090-00003.

  20. Gallardo, L. (2007). Censo Nacional de Instalaciones Deportivas de España-2005. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Deportes. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia.

  21. Gallardo, L., García-Tascón, M., & Burillo, P. (2008). New sports management software: A needs analysis by a panel of Spanish experts. International Journal of Information Management, 8(4), 235–245. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2007.09.005.

  22. García Ferrando, M. (2006). Posmodernidad y deporte: Entre la individualización y la masificación. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Deportes.

  23. García Ferrando, M., & Mestre, J. A. (2002). Los hábitos deportivos de la población de Valencia (2000). Valencia: Fundación Deportiva Municipal, Ayto. de Valencia.

  24. Giles-Corti, B., & Donovan, R. J. (2002a). The relative influence of individual, social and physical environment determinants of physical activity. Social Science and Medicine, 54, 1793–1812. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00150-2.

  25. Giles-Corti, B., & Donovan, R. J. (2002b). Socioeconomic status differences in recreational physical activity levels and real and perceived access to a supportive physical environment. Preventive Medicine, 35, 601–611. doi:10.1006/pmed.2002.1115.

  26. Giles-Corti, B., & Donovan, R. J. (2003). Relative influence of individual, social environmental, and physical environmental correlates of walking. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1583–1589.

  27. Hannon, C., Cradock, A., Gortmaker, S. L., Wiecha, J., El Ayadi, A., Keefe, L., et al. (2006). Play across Boston: A community initiative to reduce disparities in access to after-school physical activity programs for inner-city youths [electronic version]. Preventing chronic disease. Retrieved July 2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2006/jul/05_0125.htm.

  28. Hoehner, C. M., Brennan, L. K., Brownson, R. C., Handy, S. L., & Killingsworth, R. (2003). Opportunities for integrating public health and the urban planning approaches to promote active community environments. American Journal of Health Promotion, 19(1), 14–20.

  29. Holman, C. D. J. (1997). Measuring the ocurrence of health–promoting interactions within environment. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 21, 360–364. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.1997.tb01715.x.

  30. Humpel, N., Owen, N., Iverson, D., Leslie, E., & Bauman, A. (2004). Perceived environment attributes, residential location, and walking for particular purposes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26, 119–125. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2003.10.005.

  31. INE. (2006). España en cifras 2006. Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Estadística.

  32. Jones, S. (2001). A level playing field? Sports stadium infrastructure and urban development in the United Kingdom. Environment & Planning A, 33(5), 845–861. doi:10.1068/a33158.

  33. Kamphuis, C. B. M., Van Lenthe, F. J., Giskes, K., Brug, J., & Mackenbach, J. P. (2007). Perceived environmental determinants of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among high and low socioeconomic groups in the Netherlands. Health & Place, 13, 493–503. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2006.05.008.

  34. Kim, J., & Mueller, C. W. (1978). An introduction to factor analysis: What it is and how to do it. Beverly Hills: SAGE.

  35. Li, F., Fisher, K. J., Brownson, R. C., & Bosworth, M. (2005). Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 558–564. doi:10.1136/jech.2004.028399.

  36. Lin, Y., Huang, L., Young, H., & Chen, Y. (2007). Beliefs about physical activity-focus group results of Chinese community elderly in Seattle and Taipei. Geriatric Nursing, 28(4), 236–244. doi:10.1016/j.gerinurse.2006.12.003.

  37. Lindstrom, M., Hanson, B. S., & Ostergren, P. O. (2001). Socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity: The role of social participation and social capital in shaping health related behaviour. Social Science & Medicine, 52, 441–451. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00153-2.

  38. Mayer-Davis, E. J., D’agostino, R., Karter, A. J., Haffner, S. M., Rewers, M. J., Saad, M., et al. (1998). Intensity and amount of physical activity in relation to insulin sensitivity. The insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 669–674. doi:10.1001/jama.279.9.669.

  39. Metcalfe, A. (1993). The development of sporting facilities: A case study of East Northumberland England, 1958–1914. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 28(1), 107–120. doi:10.1177/101269029302800203.

  40. Norton, R. K. (2007). Planning for school facilities. School board decision making and local coordination in Michigan. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26(4), 478–496. doi:10.1177/0739456X07299844.

  41. Parks, S. E., Houseman, R. A., & Brownson, R. C. (2003). Differential correlates of physical activity in urban and rural adults of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57, 29–35. doi:10.1136/jech.57.1.29.

  42. Pascual, C., Regidor, E., Astasio, P., Ortega, P., Navarro, P., & Dominguez, V. (2007). The association of current and sustained area-based adverse socioeconomic environment with physical inactivity. Social Science & Medicine, 65, 454–466. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.03.023.

  43. Pate, R. R., Pratt, M., Blair, S. N., Haskell, W. L., Macera, C. A., Bouchard, C., et al. (1995). Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 402–407. doi:10.1001/jama.273.5.402.

  44. Pellegrini, A. D., Blatchford, P., Kato, K., & Baines, E. (2004). A short-term longitudinal study of children’s playground games in primary school: Implications for adjustment to school and social adjustment in the USA and the UK. Social Development, 13(1), 107–123. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2004.00259.x.

  45. Rahman, M. M. (2004). Regionalization of urbanization and spatial development: Planning regions in Bangladesh. The Journal of Geo-Environment, 4, 31–46.

  46. Rodríguez, G. (2001). La profundidad de los vasos polivalentes cubiertos: una respuesta a las diferentes demandas y un factor de ahorro en la gestión. Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Educación Física, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

  47. Rodríguez, G., Mayorga, J. I., Merino, A., Garrido, M., & Fernández, M. (2005). Hábitos deportivos de la población de la Comunidad de Madrid 2005. Madrid: Dirección General de Deportes, Consejería de Cultura y Deportes de la Comunidad de Madrid.

  48. Sallis, J. F., & Owen, N. (1996). Ecological models. Paper presented at the K. Glanz, F. M. Lewis, & B. K. Rimer (Eds.), Health behaviour and health education: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco.

  49. Sallis, J. F., & Owen, N. (1998). Physical activity and behavioural medicine. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

  50. Sallis, J. F., Bauman, A., & Pratt, M. (1998). Environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 15, 379–397. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00076-2.

  51. Sallis, J. F., Johnson, M. F., Calfas, K. J., Caparosa, S., & Nichols, J. F. (1997). Assessing perceived physical environmental variables that may influence physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68, 345–351.

  52. Sooman, A., & Macintyre, S. (1995). Health and perception of the local environment in socially contrasting neighbourhoods in Glasgow. Health & Place, 1, 15–26. doi:10.1016/1353-8292(95)00003-5.

  53. Spracklen, K., Hylton, K., & Long, J. (2006). Managing and monitoring equality and diversity in UK sport. An evaluation of the sporting equals racial equality standard and its impact on organizational change. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 30(3), 289–305. doi:10.1177/0193723506290083.

  54. Stahl, T., Rütten, A., Nutbeam, D., Bauman, A., Kannas, L., Abel, T., et al. (2001). The importance of the social environment for physically active lifestyle-results from an international study. Social Science & Medicine, 52, 1–10. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00116-7.

  55. Stokols, D. (1996). Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10(4), 282–298.

  56. Stone, E. J., Mckenzie, T. L., Welk, G. J., & Booth, M. L. (1998). Effects of physical activity interventions in youth review and synthesis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 15, 298–314. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00082-8.

  57. Takano, T., Nakamura, K., & Watanabe, M. (2002). Urban residential environments and senior citizens’ longevity in megacity areas: The importance of walkable green spaces. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56, 913–918. doi:10.1136/jech.56.12.913.

  58. Thomas, J., Nelson, J., & Silverman, S. (2005). Research methods in physical activity (5th ed.). Illinois: Human Kinetics.

  59. Thompson, A. M., Rehman, L. A., & Humbert, M. L. (2005). Factors influencing the physically active leisure of children and youth: A qualitative study. Leisure Sciences, 27(5), 421–438. doi:10.1080/01490400500227324.

  60. Trianti-Stourna, E., Spyropoulou, K., Theofylaktos, C., Droutsa, K., Balaras, C. A., Santamouris, M., et al. (1998). Energy conservation strategies for sports centers: Part B. Swimming pools. Energy and Building, 27, 123–135. doi:10.1016/S0378-7788(97)00041-8.

  61. Van Lenthe, F. J., Brug, J., & Mackenbach, J. P. (2005). Neighbourhood inequalities in physical inactivity: The role of neighbourhood attractiveness, proximity to local facilities and safety in the Netherlands. Social Science & Medicine, 60, 763–775. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.06.013.

  62. Van Weeghel, J., & Kroon, H. (2004). Profiling rehabilitation research perceptions of stakeholders. European Journal of Psychiatry, 18(2), 73–82.

  63. Varo, J. J., Martínez-González, M. A., De Irala-Estévez, J., Kearney, J., Gibney, M., & Martínez, J. A. (2003). Distribution and determinants of sedentary lifestyles in the European Union. International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 138–146. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg116.

  64. Wendel-Vos, G. C., Schuit, A. J., Boshuizen, H. C., Saris, W. H., & Kromhout, D. (2004). Factors of the physical environment associated with walking and bicycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 725–730. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000121955.03461.0A.

  65. Wilson, D. K., Kirtland, K. A., Ainsworth, B. E., & Addy, C. L. (2004). Socioeconomic status and perceptions of access and safety for physical activity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 28, 20–28. doi:10.1207/s15324796abm2801_4.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Leonor Gallardo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gallardo, L., Burillo, P., García-Tascón, M. et al. The Ranking of the Regions With Regard to Their Sports Facilities to Improve Their Planning in Sport: The Case of Spain. Soc Indic Res 94, 297–317 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-008-9424-3

Download citation


  • Synthetic indicator
  • Sports facilities
  • Planning
  • Regions
  • Physical activity