Skip to main content

Effects of Compaction Effort on Compaction Behavior and Particle Crushing of a Crushed Sandstone-Mudstone Particle Mixture

The present study focuses on the effects of compaction effort on the compaction behavior and particle crushing of a mixture of crushed sandstone particles and mudstone particles. Compaction tests under five different compaction efforts on the mixture were performed. Testing results indicate that the values of the maximum dry density and the average relative breakage of the mixture are nonlinearly increasing with the increase of the compaction effort, but the variation of the optimum moisture content is independent of the increase of the effort. Compared to a crushed sandstone particle mixture with the same grain size distribution and the same compaction effort, the maximum dry density of the crushed sandstone-mudstone particle mixture may be increased, the optimum moisture content reduced, and the average relative breakage during compaction reduced too, by the mixing of a small quantity of mudstone particles.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. L.R. Blotz, C.H. Benson, G.P. Boutwell, “Estimating optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight for compacted clays,” Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 124(9), 907-912, (1998).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. G.-C. Cho, J. Dodds, J.C.Santamarina, “Particle shape effects on packing density, stiffness, and strength: natural and crushed sands,” Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 132(5), 591-602 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. T.E. Frank, I.G. Krapac, T.D. Stark, G.D. Strack, “Long-term behavior of water content and density in an earthen liner,” Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 131(6), 800-803 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. L. Trauner, B. Dolinar, M. Mišič , “Relationship between the undrained shear strength, water content, and mineralogical properties of fine-grained soils,” Int. J.Geomech., 5(4), 350-355 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. P.V. Lade, J.A. Yamamuro, P.A. Bopp, “Significance of particle crushing in granular materials,” Geotech. Eng., 122(4), 309-316 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. S. Lobo-Guerrero, L.E. Vallejo, “Discrete element method evaluation of granular crushing under direct shear test conditions,” Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 131(10), 1295-1300 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. M. R. Coop, K. K. Sorensen, T. Bodas, G. Georgoutsos, “Particle breakage during shearing of a carbonate sand,” Geotechnique, 54(3): 157-163. (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. F. Casini, G.M.B. Viggiani, Experimental investigation of the evolution of grading of an artificial material with crushable grains under different loading conditions, Proc. of the 5th International Symposium on Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials, Seoul, Korea, 957-964 (2011).

  9. M. Jamei, H. Guiras, Y. Chtourou, A. Kallel, E. Romero, I. Georgopoulos, “Water retention properties of perlite as a material with crushable soft particles,” Eng. Geol., 122, 261-271 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Trade Standard of P. R. China, SL237-055, Standard method for moisture-density test of coarse soil. In Specification of Soil Test [in Chinese] The Ministry of Water Resources of P. R. China, Beijing, P. R. China (1999)

  11. B.O. Hardin, “Crushing of soil particles,” Geotech. Eng., 111(10), 1177-1192 (1985).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Additional information

Translated from Osnovaniya, Fundamenty i Mekhanika Gruntov, No. 2, pp. 12-14, March-April, 2014.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

WANG, JJ., ZHANG, HP. & DENG, DP. Effects of Compaction Effort on Compaction Behavior and Particle Crushing of a Crushed Sandstone-Mudstone Particle Mixture. Soil Mech Found Eng 51, 67–71 (2014).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Compaction
  • Mudstone
  • Grain Size Distribution
  • Direct Shear Test
  • Optimum Moisture Content