The relationship between income and psychological well-being is well established. Yet, most of this research is conducted at the individual level without taking into account the role played by relative earnings at the couple level. In the present study we estimate the effect of share of family income on depressive symptoms of individuals. Specifically, we examine whether within-person change in the share of family income has differential effects on the level of depressive symptoms of mothers and fathers. Using data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY79), we follow the same individuals over 4 years and analyze their data using a cross-lagged structural equation model. Controlling for net income, we find that an increase in one’s share of family income is related to an increased level of depressive symptoms among mothers and a decreased level of depressive symptoms among fathers. When looking at a subsample of stay-at-home parents, we find that a change from providing some share of the family income to stay-at-home parent status over time is related to higher level of depressive symptoms among fathers but not mothers. Furthermore, we find that egalitarian gender ideology moderates this relationship for mothers but not for fathers. We discuss potential implications of our findings to the work-family and gender literature and to counselors and therapists who specialize in treating depression.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender and Society, 4, 139–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124390004002002.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Angrave, D., & Charlwood, A. (2015). What is the relationship between long working hours, over-employment, under-employment and the subjective well-being of workers? Longitudinal evidence from the UK. Human Relations; Studies Towards the Integration of the Social Sciences, 68, 1491–1515. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726714559752.
Antonakis, J., Bendahan, S., Jacquart, P., & Lalive, R. (2010). On making causal claims: A review and recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 1086–1120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.10.010.
Atkinson, M. P., Greenstein, T. N., & Lang, M. M. (2005). For women, breadwinning can be dangerous: Gendered resource theory and wife abuse. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1137–1148. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00206.x.
Bianchi, S. M., Milkie, M. A., Sayer, L. C., & Robinson, J. P. (2000). Is anyone doing the housework? Trends in the gender division of household labor. Social Forces, 79, 191–228. https://doi.org/10.2307/2675569.
Bianchi, S. M., Sayer, L. C., Milkie, M. A., & Robinson, J. P. (2012). Housework: Who did, does or will do it, and how much does it matter? Social Forces, 91, 55–63. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sos120.
Bittman, M., England, P., Sayer, L., Folbre, N., & Matheson, G. (2003). When does gender trump money? Bargaining and time in household work. American Journal of Sociology, 109, 186–214. https://doi.org/10.1086/378341.
Bourne, H. (2006). Gender ideology, depression, and marital quality in working-class, dual-earner couples across the transition to parenthood (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Boustan, L. P., & Collins, W. J. (2014). The origin and persistence of Black-White differences in women’s labor force participation. In L. Platt Boustan, C. Frydman, & R. A. Margo (Eds.), Human capital in history: The American record (pp. 205–240). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brayfield, A. (1995). Juggling jobs and kids: The impact of employment schedules on fathers' caring for children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 321–332. https://doi.org/10.2307/353686.
Brennan, R. T., Barnett, R. C., & Gareis, K. C. (2001). When she earns more than he does: A longitudinal study of dual-earner couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 168–182. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00168.x.
Brewster, K. L., & Padavic, I. (2000). Change in gender-ideology, 1977–1996: The contributions of intracohort change and population turnover. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 477–487. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00477.x.
Brines, J. (1994). Economic dependency, gender, and the division of labor at home. American Journal of Sociology, 100, 652–688. https://doi.org/10.1086/230577.
Chesley, N. (2011). Stay-at-home fathers and breadwinning mothers: Gender, couple dynamics, and social change. Gender and Society, 25, 642–664. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243211417433.
Chesley, N. (2016). What does it mean to be a “breadwinner” mother? Journal of Family Issues. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X16676857.
Chesley, N., & Flood, S. (2017). Signs of change? At-home and breadwinner parents' housework and child-care time. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79, 511–534. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12376.
Chesley, N., & Moen, P. (2006). When workers care: Dual-earner couples' caregiving strategies, benefit use, and psychological well-being. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 1248–1269. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629511410922.
Cinamon, R. G., & Rich, Y. (2002). Gender differences in the importance of work and family roles: Implications for work–family conflict. Sex Roles, 47, 531–541. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022021804846.
Cohn, D., Livingston, G., & Wang, W. (2014). After decades of decline, a rise in stay-at-home mothers. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/04/08/after-decades-of-decline-a-rise-in-stay-at-home-mothers/.
Coltrane, S. (2000). Research on household labor: Modeling and measuring the social embeddedness of routine family work. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 1208–1233. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.01208.x.
Cooke, L. P. (2006). “Doing” gender in context: Household bargaining and risk of divorce in Germany and the United States. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 442–472. https://doi.org/10.1086/506417.
Corrigall, E. A., & Konrad, A. M. (2007). Gender role attitudes and careers: A longitudinal study. Sex Roles, 56, 847–855. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9242-0.
Cotter, D., Hermsen, J. M., & Vanneman, R. (2011). The end of the gender revolution? Gender role attitudes from 1977 to 2008. American Journal of Sociology, 117, 259–289. https://doi.org/10.1086/658853.
Damaske, S. (2011). For the family? How class and gender shape women's work. New York: Oxford University Press.
Damaske, S., & Frech, A. (2016). Women’s work pathways across the life course. Demography, 53, 365–391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-016-0464-z.
Damaske, S., Smyth, J. M., & Zawadzki, M. J. (2014). Has work replaced home as a haven? Re-examining Arlie Hochschild’s time bind proposition with objective stress data. Social Science & Medicine, 115, 130–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.04.047.
Davis, S. N., & Greenstein, T. N. (2013). Why study housework? Cleaning as a window into power in couples. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 5, 63–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12004.
De Henau, J., & Himmelweit, S. (2013). Unpacking within-household gender differences in partners' subjective benefits from household income. Journal of Marriage and Family, 75, 611–624. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12027.
Dereuddre, R., Missinne, S., Buffel, V., & Bracke, P. (2014). Gender specific effects of financial and housework contributions on depression: A multi-actor study among three household types in Belgium. Health Sociology Review, 23, 78–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/14461242.2014.11081963.
Dillaway, H., & Paré, E. (2008). Locating mothers how cultural debates about stay-at-home versus working mothers define women and home. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 437–464.
DiPrete, T. A., & Buchmann, C. (2006). Gender-specific trends in the value of education and the emerging gender gap in college completion. Demography, 43, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X07310309.
Distefano, C., Zhu, M., & Mindrila, D. (2009). Understanding and using factor scores: Considerations for the applied researcher. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 14(20), 1–11.
Doucet, A. (2004). "It's almost like I have a job, but I don't get paid": Fathers at home reconfiguring work, care, and masculinity. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers, 2, 277–303. https://doi.org/10.3149/fth.0203.277.
Doucet, A. (2015). Parental responsibilities: Dilemmas of measurement and gender equality. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77, 224–242. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12148.
England, P. (2010). The gender revolution uneven and stalled. Gender and Society, 24, 149–166. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243210361475.
England, P. (2011). Reassessing the uneven gender revolution and its slowdown. Gender and Society, 25, 113–123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243210391461.
Fischer, J., & Anderson, V. N. (2012). Gender role attitudes and characteristics of stay-at-home and employed fathers. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 13, 16–31. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024359.
Frech, A., & Damaske, S. (2012). The relationships between mothers’ work pathways and physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 53, 396–412. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022146512453929.
Furdyna, H. E., Tucker, M. B., & James, A. D. (2008). Relative spousal earnings and marital happiness among African American and White women. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70, 332–344. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00485.x.
García-Manglano, J. (2015). Opting out and leaning in: The life course employment profiles of early baby boom women in the United States. Demography, 52, 1961–1993. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-015-0438-6.
Gerson, K. (2010). The unfinished revolution: How a new generation is reshaping family, work, and gender in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gjerdingen, D., McGovern, P., Bekker, M., Lundberg, U., & Willemsen, T. (2001). Women's work roles and their impact on health, well-being, and career: Comparisons between the United States, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Women & Health, 31, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1300/J013v31n04_01.
Goldberg, A. E., & Perry-Jenkins, M. (2004). Division of labor and working-class women's well-being across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 225–236. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-318.104.22.168.
Greenstein, T. N. (2000). Economic dependence, gender, and the division of labor in the home: A replication and extension. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 322–335. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00322.x.
Gupta, S. (2006). Her money, her time: Women’s earnings and their housework hours. Social Science Research, 35, 975–999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2005.07.003.
Gupta, S. (2007). Autonomy, dependence, or display? The relationship between married women’s earnings and housework. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 399–417. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00373.x.
Hakim, C. (2002). Lifestyle preferences as determinants of women's differentiated labor market careers. Work and Occupations, 29, 428–459. https://doi.org/10.1177/0730888402029004003.
Higgins, C., Duxbury, L., & Lee, C. (1994). Impact of life-cycle stage and gender on the ability to balance work and family responsibilities. Family Relations, 43, 144–150. https://doi.org/10.2307/585316.
Hochschild, A. (1989). The second shift: Working parent and the revolution at home. New York: Viking.
Hofferth, S. L., & Sandberg, J. F. (2001). How American children spend their time. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 295–308. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00295.x.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3(4), 424–453. https://doi.org/10.1037//1082-989x.3.4.424.
Hudson, D. B., Elek, S. M., & Fleck, M. O. (2001). First-time mothers’ and fathers’ transition to parenthood: Infant care self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and infant sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 24, 31–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/014608601300035580.
Johnston, D., & Swanson, D. (2003). Invisible mothers: A content analysis of motherhood ideologies and myths in magazines. Sex Roles, 49, 21–33. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023905518500.
Johnston, D., & Swanson, D. (2004). Moms hating moms: The internalization of mother war rhetoric. Sex Roles, 51, 497–510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-004-5460-x.
Jones, B. (2012). Women who opt out: The debate over working mothers and work-family balance. New York: New York University Press.
Kaukinen, C. (2004). Status compatibility, physical violence, and emotional abuse in intimate relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 452–471. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2004.00031.x.
Keene, O. N. (1995). The log transformation is special. Statistics in Medicine, 14, 811–819. https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.4780140810.
Kendler, K. S., & Prescott, C. A. (1999). A population-based twin study of lifetime major depression in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 39–44. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.1.39.
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K. R., ... Wang, P.S. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA, 289, 3095–3105. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.23.3095.
Killewald, A., & Gough, M. (2010). Money isn’t everything: Wives’ earnings and housework time. Social Science Research, 39, 987–1003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2010.08.005.
Klein, M. H., Hyde, J. S., Essex, M. J., & Clark, R. (1998). Maternity leave, role quality, work involvement, and mental health one year after delivery. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22, 239–266. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1998.tb00153.x.
Kleiner, S., & Pavalko, E. K. (2010). Clocking in: The organization of work time and health in the United States. Social Forces, 88, 1463–1486. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.0.0301.
Kluwer, E. S. (2011). Psychological perspectives on gender deviance neutralization. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 3, 14–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-2589.2010.00075.x.
Kramer, K. Z., & Kramer, A. (2016). At-home father families in the United States: Gender ideology, human capital, and unemployment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78, 1315–1331. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12327.
Kramer, K. Z., Kelly, E. L., & McCulloch, J. B. (2015). Stay-at-home fathers: Definition and characteristics based on 34 years of CPS data. Journal of Family Issues, 36, 1651–1673. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X13502479.
Lam, C. B., McHale, S. M., & Crouter, A. C. (2012). The division of household labor: Longitudinal changes and within-couple variation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 944–952. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.01007.x.
Lang, J., Bliese, P. D., Lang, J. W., & Adler, A. B. (2011). Work gets unfair for the depressed: Cross-lagged relations between organizational justice perceptions and depressive symptoms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 602–618. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022463.
Lee, C. Y. S., Lee, J., & August, G. J. (2011). Financial stress, parental depressive symptoms, parenting practices, and children's externalizing problem behaviors: Underlying processes. Family Relations, 60, 476–490. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2011.00656.x.
Legerski, E. M., & Cornwall, M. (2010). Working-class job loss, gender, and the negotiation of household labor. Gender and Society, 24, 447–474. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243210374600.
Levine, B. E. (2007). Surviving America's depression epidemic: How to find morale, energy, and community in a world gone crazy. White River Junction: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Livingston, G. (2014a). Growing number of dads home with kids. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/06/05/growing-number-of-dads-home-with-the-kids/#fn-19605-3.
Livingston, B. A. (2014b). Bargaining behind the scenes spousal negotiation, labor, and work–family burnout. Journal of Management, 40, 949–977. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311428355.
Martikainen, P., Adda, J., Ferrie, J. E., Smith, G. D., & Marmot, M. (2003). Effects of income and wealth on GHQ depression and poor self-rated health in white collar women and men in the Whitehall II study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 57, 718–723. https://doi.org/10.1136/JECH.49.1.48.
Martin, L. A., Neighbors, H. W., & Griffith, D. M. (2013). The experience of symptoms of depression in men vs women: Analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. JAMA Psychiatry, 70, 1100–1106. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1985.
Maynard, M. T., Luciano, M. M., D’Innocenzo, L., Mathieu, J. E., & Dean, M. D. (2014). Modeling time-lagged reciprocal psychological empowerment–performance relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 1244–1253. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037623.
McKee-Ryan, F., Song, Z., Wanberg, C. R., & Kinicki, A. J. (2005). Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 53–76. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.1.53.
Morrissey, T. W., & Warner, M. E. (2009). Employer-supported child care: Who participates? Journal of Marriage and Family, 71, 1340–1348. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00672.x.
NLS. (2016). NLS annotated bibliography. Retrieved from https://www.nlsinfo.org/bibliography/search/cohort=NLSY79.
NLSY79. (2016). Retention & reasons for noninterview. Retrieved from https://www.nlsinfo.org/content/cohorts/nlsy79/intro-to-the-sample/retention-reasons-noninterview .
Nock, S. L. (2001). The marriages of equally dependent spouses. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 755–775.
Nordenmark, M. (2004). Does gender ideology explain differences between countries regarding the involvement of women and of men in paid and unpaid work? International Journal of Social Welfare, 13, 233–243. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251301022006005.
Perry-Jenkins, M., Seery, B., & Crouter, A. C. (1992). Linkages between women’s provider-role attitudes, psychological well-being, and family relationships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16, 311–329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1992.tb00257.x.
Poortman, A. R., & Van der Lippe, T. (2009). Attitudes toward housework and child care and the gendered division of labor. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71, 526–541. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00617.x.
Potuchek, J. L. (1992). Employed wives’ orientations to breadwinning: A gender theory analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 548–558. https://doi.org/10.2307/353241.
Raley, S. B., Mattingly, M. J., & Bianchi, S. M. (2006). How dual are dual-income couples? Documenting change from 1970 to 2001. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 11–28. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00230.x.
Raley, S., Bianchi, S. M., & Wang, W. (2012). When do fathers care? Mothers’ economic contribution and fathers’ involvement in child care. American Journal of Sociology, 117, 1422–1459. https://doi.org/10.1086/663354.
Ridgeway, C. L. (1997). Interaction and the conservation of gender inequality: Considering employment. American Sociological Review, 62, 218–235. https://doi.org/10.2307/2657301.
Rochlen, A. B., McKelley, R. A., & Whittaker, T. A. (2010). Stay-at-home fathers' reasons for entering the role and stigma experiences: A preliminary report. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 11, 279–285. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017774.
Rogers, S. J., & DeBoer, D. D. (2001). Changes in wives' income: Effects on marital happiness, psychological well-being, and the risk of divorce. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 458–472. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00458.x.
Rosenzweig, M. H., & Amsterdam, J. D. (1992). Serious depression. JAMA, 267, 2960–2960.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1249.
Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1999.
Sanchez, L., & Thomson, E. (1997). Becoming mothers and fathers parenthood, gender, and the division of labor. Gender and Society, 11, 747–772. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124397011006003.
Sanderson, S., & Thompson, V. L. S. (2002). Factors associated with perceived paternal involvement in childrearing. Sex Roles, 46, 99–111. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016569526920.
Sayer, L. C., & Bianchi, S. M. (2000). Women's economic independence and the probability of divorce: A review and reexamination. Journal of Family Issues, 21, 906–943. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251300021007005.
Schneider, D. (2012). Gender deviance and household work: The role of occupation. American Journal of Sociology, 117, 1029–1072. https://doi.org/10.1086/662649.
Schnittker, J. (2007). Working more and feeling better: Women’s health, employment, and family life, 1974-2004. American Sociological Review, 72, 221–238. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240707200205.
Shows, C., & Gerstel, N. (2009). Fathering, class, and gender: A comparison on physicians and emergency medical technicians. Gender and Society, 23, 161–187. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243209333872.
Simister, J. (2013). Is men's share of housework reduced by 'gender deviance neutralization'? Evidence from seven countries. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 44, 311–325. https://doi.org/10.2307/23644604.
Simon, R. W. (2014). Twenty years of the sociology of mental health: The continued significance of gender and marital status for emotional well-being. In R. J. Johnson, J. R. Turner, & B. G. Link (Eds.), Sociology of Mental Health (pp. 21–51). New York: Springer.
Sullivan, O. (2011a). An end to gender display through the performance of housework? A review and reassessment of the quantitative literature using insights from the qualitative literature. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 3(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-2589.2010.00074.x.
Sullivan, O. (2011b). Gender deviance neutralization through housework: Where does it fit in the bigger picture? Response to England, Kluwer, and Risman. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 3(1), 27–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-2589.2010.00078.x.
Sussman, D., & Bonnell, S. (2006). Wives as primary breadwinners. Perspectives on Labour and Income, 18, 20–27 Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/index-eng.htm.
Teachman, J. (2010). Wives’ economic resources and risk of divorce. Journal of Family Issues, 31, 1305–1323. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X10370108.
Thébaud, S. (2010). Masculinity, bargaining, and breadwinning understanding men’s housework in the cultural context of paid work. Gender and Society, 24, 330–354. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243210369105.
Thompson, L., & Walker, A. J. (1989). Gender in families: Women and men in marriage, work, and parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 845–871. https://doi.org/10.2307/353201.
United States Census Bureau. (2016). Poverty thresholds. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/income-poverty/historical-poverty-thresholds.html.
Van de Velde, S., Bracke, P., & Levecque, K. (2010). Gender differences in depression in 23 European countries: Cross-national variation in the gender gap in depression. Social Science & Medicine, 71, 305–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.03.035.
Wang, W., Parker, K., & Taylor, P. (2013). Breadwinner moms. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2013/05/Breadwinner_moms_final.pdf.
Warr, P., & Parry, G. (1982). Paid employment and women's psychological well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 498–516. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.3.498.
Wilkie, J. R., Ferree, M. M., & Ratcliff, K. S. (1998). Gender and fairness: Marital satisfaction in two-earner couples. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 577–594. https://doi.org/10.2307/353530.
Winslow-Bowe, S. (2006). The persistence of wives’ income advantage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 824–842. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00298.x.
World Health Organization. (2017). Depression. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/.
Yavorsky, J. E., Kamp Dush, C. M., & Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J. (2015). The production of inequality: The gender division of labor across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77, 662–679. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12189.
Zimmerman, F. J., & Katon, A. (2005). Socioeconomic status, depression disparities, and financial strain: what lies behind the income-depression relationship? Health Economics, 14, 1197–1215. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.1011.
This work was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch project 232659. We would like to thank Deborah Ostrovsky for her helpful review and comments.
This paper and its authors fully comply with the ethical standards set forth by the University of Illinois and Sex Roles.
Conflict of Interest
There is no conflict of interest and the research utilizes publicly available data.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Kramer, K.Z., Pak, S. Relative Earnings and Depressive Symptoms among Working Parents: Gender Differences in the Effect of Relative Income on Depressive Symptoms. Sex Roles 78, 744–759 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-017-0848-6
- Depressive symptoms
- Gender ideology
- Relative earnings
- Share of family income