What We Know and Where We Go from here: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth Hookup Literature

Abstract

In this paper, we acknowledge and critique the absence of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) experiences in the recent proliferation of scholarship on “hooking up” among youth (aged 16 to 24). Although previous research has documented that LGB youth hookup at high rates (up to three-quarters of LGB youth), and oftentimes more than heterosexuals, the most basic aspects of hookups (e.g., motivations, experiences, and outcomes) have not been comprehensively explored. This is pertinent because young adulthood, in particular, is a time when young people explore their sexuality. Most scholarship on hooking up has focused on White heterosexual college students, mostly due to sampling constraints and impediments, and so we are left with a critical gap in our knowledge about LGB youth—a population that is typically at higher risk for sexual, mental, and emotional health issues. We begin by reviewing the literature on hooking up among heterosexual young adults as organized by four themes: hookup definitions/frequencies, contexts, motivations, and outcomes. We do this to explicitly highlight and contrast what little is known about LGB youth hookups. We then provide a research agenda that projects how future researchers can advance this area of scholarship and begin to fill its gaps, while considering the hookup experiences of diverse LGB youth.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

References

  1. Abara, W., Annang, L., Spencer, S. M., Fairchild, A. J., & Billings, D. (2014). Understanding internet sex-seeking behaviour and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men: Evidences from a cross-sectional study. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 90(8), 596–601. https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2014-051545.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Armstrong, E. A., England, P., & Fogarty, A. C. K. (2009). Orgasm in college hook ups and relationships. In B. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362–377). New York: Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Barrett, D. C., & Pollack, L. M. (2005). Whose gay community? Social class, sexual self-expression, and gay community involvement. The Sociological Quarterly, 46(3), 437–456. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2005.00021.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Barrios, R. J., & Lundquist, J. H. (2012). Boys just want to have fun? Masculinity, sexual behaviors, and romantic intentions of gay and straight males in college. Journal of LGBT Youth, 9(4), 271–296. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361653.2012.716749.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bauermeister, J. A., Leslie-Santana, M., Johns, M. M., Pingel, E., & Eisenberg, A. (2011). Mr. right and Mr. right now: Romantic and casual partner-seeking online among young men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 15(2), 261–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-010-9834-5.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Baumle, A. K., & Compton, D. L. R. (2011). Legislating the family: The effect of state family laws on the presence of children in same-sex households. Law & Policy, 33(1), 82–115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9930.2010.00329.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Baumle, A. K., & Compton, D. L. R. (2014). Identity versus identification: How LGBTQ parents identify their children on census surveys. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(1), 94–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12076.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Baumle, A. K., & Poston Jr., D. L. (2009). Same-sex partners: The social demography of sexual orientation. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Blackwell, C., Birnholtz, J., & Abbott, C. (2014). Seeing and being seen: Co-situation and impression formation using Grindr, a location-aware gay dating app. New Media & Society, 17(7), 1117–1136. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444814521595.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bogle, K. A. (2008). Hooking up: Sex, dating, and relationships on campus. New York: University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bostwick, W. B., Boyd, C. J., Hughes, T. L., & McCabe, S. E. (2010). Dimensions of sexual orientation and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 468–475. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2008.152942.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Bostwick, W. B., Boyd, C. J., Hughes, T. L., West, B. T., & McCabe, S. E. (2014). Discrimination and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(1), 35–45. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0098851.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Bradshaw, C., Kahn, A. S., & Saville, B. K. (2010). To hook up or date: Which gender benefits? Sex Roles, 62(9–10), 661–669. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9765-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Carrillo, H., & Hoffman, A. (2016). From MSM to heteroflexibilities: Non-exclusive straight male identities and their implications for HIV prevention and health promotion. Global Public Health, 11(7–8), 923–936. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2015.1134272.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Chow, E. P., Cornelisse, V. J., Read, T. R., Hocking, J. S., Walker, S., Chen, M. Y., … Fairley, C. K. (2016). Risk practices in the era of smartphone apps for meeting partners: A cross-sectional study among men who have sex with men in Melbourne, Australia. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 30(4), 151–154. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2015.0344.

  16. Claxton, S. E., & van Dulmen, M. H. (2013). Casual sexual relationships and experiences in emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, 1(2), 138–150. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696813487181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Cooper, M. L., Shapiro, C. M., & Powers, A. M. (1998). Motivations for sex and risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults: A functional perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(6), 1528–1558. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.6.1528.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Corrigan, P., & Matthews, A. (2003). Stigma and disclosure: Implications for coming out of the closet. Journal of Mental Health, 12(3), 235–248. https://doi.org/10.1080/0963823031000118221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. DeHaan, S., Kuper, L. E., Magee, J. C., Bigelow, L., & Mustanski, B. S. (2013). The interplay between online and offline explorations of identity, relationships, and sex: A mixed-methods study with LGBT youth. Journal of Sex Research, 50(5), 421–434. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2012.661489.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Diamond, L. M. (2005). From the heart or the gut? Sexual-minority women’s experiences of desire for same-sex and other-sex partners. Feminism & Psychology, 15(1), 10–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353505049697.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Eaton, A. A., Rose, S. M., Interligi, C., Fernandez, K., & McHugh, M. (2016). Gender and ethnicity in dating, hanging out, and hooking up: Sexual scripts among Hispanic and white young adults. The Journal of Sex Research, 53(7), 788–804. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2015.1065954.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. England, P., Shafer, E. F., & Fogerty, A. C. K. (2008). Hooking up and forming relationships on today’s college campuses. In M. Kimmel (Ed.), The gendered society reader (3rd ed., pp. 531–593). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Engler, K., Frigault, L. R., Léobon, A., & Lévy, J. J. (2007). The sexual superhighway revisited: A qualitative analysis of gay men's perceived repercussions of connecting in cyberspace. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 18(2), 3–37. https://doi.org/10.1300/J041v18n02_02.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Epstein, M., Calzo, J. P., Smiler, A. P., & Ward, L. M. (2009). “Anything from making out to having sex”: Men's Negotiations of hooking up and friends with benefits scripts. Journal of Sex Research, 46(5), 414–424. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490902775801.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Everett, B. G., Schnarrs, P. W., Rosario, M., Garofalo, R., & Mustanski, B. (2014). Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors and risk determinants among sexually active adolescent males: Results from a school-based sample. American Journal of Public Health, 104(6), 1107–1112. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301759.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Fielder, R. L., & Carey, M. P. (2010). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual hookups among first-semester female college students. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 36, 346–359. https://doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2010.488118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Fielder, R. L., Walsh, J. L., Carey, K. B., & Carey, M. P. (2014). Sexual hookups and adverse health outcomes: A longitudinal study of first-year college women. Journal of Sex Research, 51(2), 131–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2013.848255.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Fine, M., & McClelland, S. (2006). Sexuality education and desire: Still missing after all these years. Harvard Educational Review, 76(3), 297-338. 10.17763/Haer.76.3.w5042g23122n6703.

  29. Garcia, J. R., Reiber, C., Massey, S. G., & Merriwether, A. M. (2012). Sexual hookup culture: A review. Review of General Psychology, 16(2), 161–176. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027911.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Garofalo, R., Kuhns, L. M., Hidalgo, M., Gayles, T., Kwon, S., Muldoon, A. L., … Mustanski, B. (2014). Impact of religiosity on the sexual risk behaviors of young men who have sex with men. Journal of Sex Research, 52(5), 590–598. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.910290.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Gates, G. J. (2017). LGBT data collection amid social and demographic shifts of the US LGBT community. American Journal of Public Health, 102(8), 1220–1222. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.303927.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Glenn, N., & Marquardt, E. (2001). Hooking up, hanging out, and hoping for Mr. Right: College women on dating and men today. Institute for American Values Report to the Independent Women’s Forum. New York, NY: Institute for American Values.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Grello, C. M., Welsh, D. P., Harper, M. S., & Dickson, J. W. (2003). Dating and sexual relationship trajectories and adolescent functioning. Adolescent and Family Health, 3(3), 103–112.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Grello, C. M., Welsh, D. P., & Harper, M. S. (2006). No strings attached: The nature of casual sex in college students. Journal of Sex Research, 43(3), 255–267. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490609552324.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Grov, C., Breslow, A. S., Newcomb, M. E., Rosenberger, J. G., & Bauermeister, J. A. (2014). Gay and bisexual men's use of the internet: Research from the 1990s through 2013. Journal of Sex Research, 51(4), 390–409. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2013.871626.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Hawkins, B., & Watson, R. J. (2017). LGBT cyberspaces: A need for a holistic investigation. Children’s Geographies, 15(1), 122–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2016.1216877.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Heldman, C., & Wade, L. (2010). Hook-up culture: Setting a new research agenda. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 7(4), 323–333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-010-0024-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Hirshfield, S., Grov, C., Parsons, J. T., Anderson, I., & Chiasson, M. A. (2015). Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: Results of an online study in three US states. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(7), 1969–1978. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0513-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Jaspal, R. (2015). Gay men’s construction and management of identity on Grindr. Sexuality & Culture. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-016-9389-3.

  40. Johns, M. M., Pingel, E., Eisenberg, A., Santana, M. L., & Bauermeister, J. (2012). Butch tops and femme bottoms? Sexual positioning, sexual decision making, and gender roles among young gay men. American Journal of Men's Health, 6(6), 505–518. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988312455214.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Josiam, B. M., Hobson, J. P., Dietrich, U. C., & Smeaton, G. (1998). An analysis of the sexual, alcohol and drug related behavioural patterns of students on spring break. Tourism Management, 19(6), 501–513. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(98)00052-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Kalish, R., & Kimmel, M. (2011). Hooking up: Hot hetero sex or the new numb normative? Australian Feminist Studies, 26, 137–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/08164649.2011.546333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Kelly, C. (2012). Sexism in practice: Feminist ethics evaluating the hookup culture. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 28(2), 27–48. https://doi.org/10.2979/jfemistudreli.28.2.27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Kenney, S. R., Thadani, V., Ghaidarov, T., & LaBrie, J. W. (2013). First-year college women's motivations for hooking up: A mixed-methods examination of normative peer perceptions and personal hookup participation. International Journal of Sexual Health, 25(3), 212–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/19317611.2013.786010.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Kreager, D. A., Staff, J., Gauthier, R., Lefkowitz, E. S., & Feinberg, M. E. (2016). The double standard at sexual debut: Gender, sexual behavior and adolescent peer acceptance. Sex Roles, 75(7–8), 377–392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0618-x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Kubicek, K., Beyer, W. J., Weiss, G., Iverson, E., & Kipke, M. D. (2010). In the dark: Young men’s stories of sexual initiation in the absence of relevant sexual health information. Health Education & Behavior, 37(2), 243–263. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198109339993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Kuperberg, A., & Padgett, J. E. (2014). Dating and hooking up in college: Meeting contexts, sex, and variation by gender, partner's gender, and class standing. Journal of Sex Research. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.901284.

  48. Kuperberg, A., & Padgett, J. E. (2016a). The role of culture in explaining college students’ selection into hookups, dates, and long-term romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 33(8), 1070–1096. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407515616876.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Kuperberg, A., & Padgett, J. E. (2016b). Partner meeting contexts and risky behavior in college students’ other-sex and same-sex hookups. The Journal of Sex Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2015.1124378.

  50. Lehmiller, J. J., & Ioerger, M. (2014). Social networking smartphone applications and sexual health outcomes among men who have sex with men. PloS One, 9(1), e86603.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. Lewis, M. A., Granato, H., Blayney, J. A., Lostutter, T. W., & Kilmer, J. R. (2012). Predictors of hooking up sexual behavior and emotional reactions among U.S. college students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(5), 1219–1229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-011-9817-2.

  52. Maticka-Tyndale, E., Herold, E. S., & Mewhinney, D. (1998). Casual sex on spring break: Intentions and behaviors of Canadian students. Journal of Sex Research, 35(3), 254–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499809551941.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Morgan, E. M. (2013). Contemporary issues in sexual orientation and identity development in emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, 1, 52–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696812469187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Murchison, G. R., Boyd, M. A., & Pachankis, J. E. (2017). Minority stress and the risk of unwanted sexual experiences in LGBQ undergraduates. Sex Roles, 77(3–4), 221–238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0710-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Mustanski, B., Lyons, T., & Garcia, S. C. (2011). Internet use and sexual health of young men who have sex with men: A mixed-methods study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(2), 289–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-009-9596-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2013). Racial differences in same-race partnering and the effects of sexual partnership characteristics on HIV risk in MSM: A prospective sexual diary study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 62(3), 329–333. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0b013e31827e5f8c.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Owen, J., & Fincham, F. D. (2011). Young adults’ emotional reactions after hooking up encounters. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(2), 321–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-010-9652-x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Paul, E. L., & Hayes, K. A. (2002). The casualties of ‘casual’ sex: A qualitative exploration of the phenomenology of college students’ hookups. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 19, 639–661. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407502195006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Paul, E. L., McManus, B., & Hayes, A. (2000). "Hookups": Characteristics and correlates of college students' spontaneous and anonymous sexual experiences. Journal of Sex Research, 37, 76–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490009552023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Paul, E. L., Wenzel, A., & Harvey, J. (2009). Hookups: A facilitator or a barrier to relationship initiation and intimacy development? In S. Sprecher, A. Wenzel, & J. Harvey (Eds.), Handbook of relationship initiation (pp. 375–390). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Persson, T. J., & Pfaus, J. G. (2015). Bisexuality and mental health: Future research directions. Journal of Bisexuality, 15(1), 82–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299716.2014.994694.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Pingel, E. S., Bauermeister, J. A., Johns, M. M., Eisenberg, A., & Leslie-Santana, M. (2013). “A safe way to explore”: Reframing risk on the internet amidst young gay men’s search for identity. Journal of Adolescent Research, 28(4), 453–478. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558412470985.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. Prestage, G., Van de Ven, P., Grulich, A., Kippax, S., McInnes, D., & Hendry, O. (2001). Gay men’s casual sex encounters: Discussing HIV and using condoms. AIDS Care, 13, 277–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540120120043928.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Reiber, C., & Garcia, J. R. (2010). Hooking up: Gender differences, evolution, and pluralistic ignorance. Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 390–404. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470491000800307.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Reid, J. A., Webber, G. R., & Elliott, S. (2015). “It's like being in church and being on a field trip:” The date versus party situation in college students' accounts of hooking up. Symbolic Interaction, 38(2), 175–194. https://doi.org/10.1002/symb.153.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Rice, E., Holloway, I., Winetrobe, H., Rhoades, H., Barman-Adhikari, A., Gibbs, J., … Dunlap, S. (2012). Sex risk among young men who have sex with men who use Grindr, a smartphone geosocial networking application. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research, S4(005), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6113.S4-005.

  67. Rudman, L. A., Glick, P., Marquardt, T., & Fetterolf, J. C. (2016). When women are urged to have casual sex more than men are: Perceived risk moderates the sexual advice double standard. Sex Roles. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0723-x.

  68. Rupp, L. J., Taylor, V., Regev-Messalem, S., Fogarty, A. C., & England, P. (2014). Queer women in the hookup scene: Beyond the closet? Gender & Society, 28(2), 212–235. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243213510782.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Diamond, L. M. (2000). Sexual identity trajectories among sexual-minority youths: Gender comparisons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29(6), 607–627.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Schneider, M. E., & Katz, J. (2017). Adult attachment and heterosexual college women’s hookup behaviors: Mediating effects of sexual motives. Sex Roles, 77, 419–429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0726-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Seage, G. R., Mayer, K. H., Lenderking, W. R., Wold, C., Gross, M., Goldstein, R., … & Holmberg, S. (1997). HIV and hepatitis B infection and risk behavior in young gay and bisexual men. Public Health Reports, 112(2), 158–167.

  72. Sewell, K. K., & Strassberg, D. S. (2015). How do heterosexual undergraduate students define having sex? A new approach to an old question. Journal of Sex Research, 52(5), 507–516. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.888389.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Silva, T. (2017). Bud-sex: Constructing normative masculinity among rural straight men that have sex with men. Gender & Society, 31(1), 51–73. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243216679934.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Snapp, S., Lento, R., Ryu, E., & Rosen, K. S. (2014). Why do they hook up? Attachment style and motives of college students. Personal Relationships, 21(3), 468–481. https://doi.org/10.1111/pere.12043.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Snapp, S., Ryu, E., & Kerr, J. (2015). The upside to hooking up: College students’ positive hookup experiences. International Journal of Sexual Health, 27(1), 43–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/19317611.2014.939247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Spell, S. A. (2017). Not just black and white: How race/ethnicity and gender intersect in hookup culture. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 3(2), 172–187. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649216658296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Stepp, L. S. (2007). Unhooked: How young women pursue sex, delay love and lose at both. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Stinson, R. D. (2010). Hooking up in young adulthood: A review of factors influencing the sexual behavior of college students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 24(2), 98–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/87568220903558596.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Sumter, S. R., Vandenbosch, L., & Ligtenberg, L. (2017). Love me tinder: Untangling emerging adults’ motivations for using the dating application tinder. Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2016.04.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Uecker, J. E., Pearce, L. D., & Andercheck, B. (2015). The four U’s: Latent classes of hookup motivations among college students. Social Currents, 2(2), 163–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/2329496515579761.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. van den Boom, W., Stolte, I., Sandfort, T., & Davidovich, U. (2012). Serosorting and sexual risk behaviour according to different casual partnership types among MSM: The study of one-night stands and sex buddies. AIDS Care, 24, 167–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2011.603285.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Veale, J., Watson, R. J., Adjei, J., & Saewyc, E. (2016). Prevalence of pregnancy involvement among Canadian transgender youth and its relation to mental health, sexual health, and gender identity. International Journal of Transgenderism, 17(3–4), 107–113. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2016.1216345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Vrangalova, Z. (2014). Hooking up and psychological well-being in college students: Short-term prospective links across different hookup definitions. Journal of Sex Research, 52(5), 485–498. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.910745.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Wade, L. (2017). American hookup: The new culture of sex on campus. New York, NY: WW Norton & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Ward, J. (2008). Dude-sex: White masculinities and authentic heterosexuality among dudes who have sex with dudes. Sexualities, 11(4), 414–434. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460708091742.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Ward, J. (2015). Not gay: Sex between straight white men. New York, NY: NYU Press.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Westbrook, L., & Saperstein, A. (2015). New categories are not enough: Rethinking the measurement of sex and gender in social surveys. Gender & Society, 29(4), 534–560. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243215584758.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Winetrobe, H., Rice, E., Bauermeister, J., Petering, R., & Holloway, I. W. (2014). Associations of unprotected anal intercourse with Grindr-met partners among Grindr-using young men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. AIDS Care, 26(10), 1303–1308. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2014.911811.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. World Values Survey 1981–2014. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSContents.jsp. Accessed 20 March 2016.

  90. Worth, H., Reid, A., & McMillan, K. (2002). Somewhere over the rainbow: Love, trust and monogamy in gay relationships. Journal of Sociology, 38(3), 237–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/144078302128756642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Wright, M. O. D., Norton, D. L., & Matusek, J. A. (2010). Predicting verbal coercion following sexual refusal during a hookup: Diverging gender patterns. Sex Roles, 62(9–10), 647–660. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9763-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Yost, M. R., & McCarthy, L. (2012). Girls gone wild? Heterosexual women’s same-sex encounters at college parties. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36(1), 7–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684311414818.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Zaikman, Y., Marks, M. J., Young, T. M., & Zeiber, J. A. (2016). Gender role violations and the sexual double standard. Journal of Homosexuality, 63(12), 1608–1629. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2016.1158007l.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ryan J. Watson.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest and that they have complied with the APA ethical standards.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Watson, R.J., Snapp, S. & Wang, S. What We Know and Where We Go from here: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth Hookup Literature. Sex Roles 77, 801–811 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-017-0831-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Hookup culture
  • LGB hookups
  • Casual sex
  • MSM
  • Sexual initiation