Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

What We Know and Where We Go from here: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth Hookup Literature

Abstract

In this paper, we acknowledge and critique the absence of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) experiences in the recent proliferation of scholarship on “hooking up” among youth (aged 16 to 24). Although previous research has documented that LGB youth hookup at high rates (up to three-quarters of LGB youth), and oftentimes more than heterosexuals, the most basic aspects of hookups (e.g., motivations, experiences, and outcomes) have not been comprehensively explored. This is pertinent because young adulthood, in particular, is a time when young people explore their sexuality. Most scholarship on hooking up has focused on White heterosexual college students, mostly due to sampling constraints and impediments, and so we are left with a critical gap in our knowledge about LGB youth—a population that is typically at higher risk for sexual, mental, and emotional health issues. We begin by reviewing the literature on hooking up among heterosexual young adults as organized by four themes: hookup definitions/frequencies, contexts, motivations, and outcomes. We do this to explicitly highlight and contrast what little is known about LGB youth hookups. We then provide a research agenda that projects how future researchers can advance this area of scholarship and begin to fill its gaps, while considering the hookup experiences of diverse LGB youth.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Abara, W., Annang, L., Spencer, S. M., Fairchild, A. J., & Billings, D. (2014). Understanding internet sex-seeking behaviour and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men: Evidences from a cross-sectional study. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 90(8), 596–601. https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2014-051545.

  2. Armstrong, E. A., England, P., & Fogarty, A. C. K. (2009). Orgasm in college hook ups and relationships. In B. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362–377). New York: Norton.

  3. Barrett, D. C., & Pollack, L. M. (2005). Whose gay community? Social class, sexual self-expression, and gay community involvement. The Sociological Quarterly, 46(3), 437–456. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2005.00021.x.

  4. Barrios, R. J., & Lundquist, J. H. (2012). Boys just want to have fun? Masculinity, sexual behaviors, and romantic intentions of gay and straight males in college. Journal of LGBT Youth, 9(4), 271–296. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361653.2012.716749.

  5. Bauermeister, J. A., Leslie-Santana, M., Johns, M. M., Pingel, E., & Eisenberg, A. (2011). Mr. right and Mr. right now: Romantic and casual partner-seeking online among young men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 15(2), 261–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-010-9834-5.

  6. Baumle, A. K., & Compton, D. L. R. (2011). Legislating the family: The effect of state family laws on the presence of children in same-sex households. Law & Policy, 33(1), 82–115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9930.2010.00329.x.

  7. Baumle, A. K., & Compton, D. L. R. (2014). Identity versus identification: How LGBTQ parents identify their children on census surveys. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(1), 94–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12076.

  8. Baumle, A. K., & Poston Jr., D. L. (2009). Same-sex partners: The social demography of sexual orientation. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

  9. Blackwell, C., Birnholtz, J., & Abbott, C. (2014). Seeing and being seen: Co-situation and impression formation using Grindr, a location-aware gay dating app. New Media & Society, 17(7), 1117–1136. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444814521595.

  10. Bogle, K. A. (2008). Hooking up: Sex, dating, and relationships on campus. New York: University Press.

  11. Bostwick, W. B., Boyd, C. J., Hughes, T. L., & McCabe, S. E. (2010). Dimensions of sexual orientation and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 468–475. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2008.152942.

  12. Bostwick, W. B., Boyd, C. J., Hughes, T. L., West, B. T., & McCabe, S. E. (2014). Discrimination and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(1), 35–45. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0098851.

  13. Bradshaw, C., Kahn, A. S., & Saville, B. K. (2010). To hook up or date: Which gender benefits? Sex Roles, 62(9–10), 661–669. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9765-7.

  14. Carrillo, H., & Hoffman, A. (2016). From MSM to heteroflexibilities: Non-exclusive straight male identities and their implications for HIV prevention and health promotion. Global Public Health, 11(7–8), 923–936. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2015.1134272.

  15. Chow, E. P., Cornelisse, V. J., Read, T. R., Hocking, J. S., Walker, S., Chen, M. Y., … Fairley, C. K. (2016). Risk practices in the era of smartphone apps for meeting partners: A cross-sectional study among men who have sex with men in Melbourne, Australia. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 30(4), 151–154. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2015.0344.

  16. Claxton, S. E., & van Dulmen, M. H. (2013). Casual sexual relationships and experiences in emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, 1(2), 138–150. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696813487181.

  17. Cooper, M. L., Shapiro, C. M., & Powers, A. M. (1998). Motivations for sex and risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults: A functional perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(6), 1528–1558. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.6.1528.

  18. Corrigan, P., & Matthews, A. (2003). Stigma and disclosure: Implications for coming out of the closet. Journal of Mental Health, 12(3), 235–248. https://doi.org/10.1080/0963823031000118221.

  19. DeHaan, S., Kuper, L. E., Magee, J. C., Bigelow, L., & Mustanski, B. S. (2013). The interplay between online and offline explorations of identity, relationships, and sex: A mixed-methods study with LGBT youth. Journal of Sex Research, 50(5), 421–434. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2012.661489.

  20. Diamond, L. M. (2005). From the heart or the gut? Sexual-minority women’s experiences of desire for same-sex and other-sex partners. Feminism & Psychology, 15(1), 10–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353505049697.

  21. Eaton, A. A., Rose, S. M., Interligi, C., Fernandez, K., & McHugh, M. (2016). Gender and ethnicity in dating, hanging out, and hooking up: Sexual scripts among Hispanic and white young adults. The Journal of Sex Research, 53(7), 788–804. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2015.1065954.

  22. England, P., Shafer, E. F., & Fogerty, A. C. K. (2008). Hooking up and forming relationships on today’s college campuses. In M. Kimmel (Ed.), The gendered society reader (3rd ed., pp. 531–593). New York: Oxford University Press.

  23. Engler, K., Frigault, L. R., Léobon, A., & Lévy, J. J. (2007). The sexual superhighway revisited: A qualitative analysis of gay men's perceived repercussions of connecting in cyberspace. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 18(2), 3–37. https://doi.org/10.1300/J041v18n02_02.

  24. Epstein, M., Calzo, J. P., Smiler, A. P., & Ward, L. M. (2009). “Anything from making out to having sex”: Men's Negotiations of hooking up and friends with benefits scripts. Journal of Sex Research, 46(5), 414–424. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490902775801.

  25. Everett, B. G., Schnarrs, P. W., Rosario, M., Garofalo, R., & Mustanski, B. (2014). Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors and risk determinants among sexually active adolescent males: Results from a school-based sample. American Journal of Public Health, 104(6), 1107–1112. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301759.

  26. Fielder, R. L., & Carey, M. P. (2010). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual hookups among first-semester female college students. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 36, 346–359. https://doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2010.488118.

  27. Fielder, R. L., Walsh, J. L., Carey, K. B., & Carey, M. P. (2014). Sexual hookups and adverse health outcomes: A longitudinal study of first-year college women. Journal of Sex Research, 51(2), 131–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2013.848255.

  28. Fine, M., & McClelland, S. (2006). Sexuality education and desire: Still missing after all these years. Harvard Educational Review, 76(3), 297-338. 10.17763/Haer.76.3.w5042g23122n6703.

  29. Garcia, J. R., Reiber, C., Massey, S. G., & Merriwether, A. M. (2012). Sexual hookup culture: A review. Review of General Psychology, 16(2), 161–176. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027911.

  30. Garofalo, R., Kuhns, L. M., Hidalgo, M., Gayles, T., Kwon, S., Muldoon, A. L., … Mustanski, B. (2014). Impact of religiosity on the sexual risk behaviors of young men who have sex with men. Journal of Sex Research, 52(5), 590–598. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.910290.

  31. Gates, G. J. (2017). LGBT data collection amid social and demographic shifts of the US LGBT community. American Journal of Public Health, 102(8), 1220–1222. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.303927.

  32. Glenn, N., & Marquardt, E. (2001). Hooking up, hanging out, and hoping for Mr. Right: College women on dating and men today. Institute for American Values Report to the Independent Women’s Forum. New York, NY: Institute for American Values.

  33. Grello, C. M., Welsh, D. P., Harper, M. S., & Dickson, J. W. (2003). Dating and sexual relationship trajectories and adolescent functioning. Adolescent and Family Health, 3(3), 103–112.

  34. Grello, C. M., Welsh, D. P., & Harper, M. S. (2006). No strings attached: The nature of casual sex in college students. Journal of Sex Research, 43(3), 255–267. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490609552324.

  35. Grov, C., Breslow, A. S., Newcomb, M. E., Rosenberger, J. G., & Bauermeister, J. A. (2014). Gay and bisexual men's use of the internet: Research from the 1990s through 2013. Journal of Sex Research, 51(4), 390–409. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2013.871626.

  36. Hawkins, B., & Watson, R. J. (2017). LGBT cyberspaces: A need for a holistic investigation. Children’s Geographies, 15(1), 122–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2016.1216877.

  37. Heldman, C., & Wade, L. (2010). Hook-up culture: Setting a new research agenda. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 7(4), 323–333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-010-0024-z.

  38. Hirshfield, S., Grov, C., Parsons, J. T., Anderson, I., & Chiasson, M. A. (2015). Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: Results of an online study in three US states. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(7), 1969–1978. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0513-5.

  39. Jaspal, R. (2015). Gay men’s construction and management of identity on Grindr. Sexuality & Culture. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-016-9389-3.

  40. Johns, M. M., Pingel, E., Eisenberg, A., Santana, M. L., & Bauermeister, J. (2012). Butch tops and femme bottoms? Sexual positioning, sexual decision making, and gender roles among young gay men. American Journal of Men's Health, 6(6), 505–518. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988312455214.

  41. Josiam, B. M., Hobson, J. P., Dietrich, U. C., & Smeaton, G. (1998). An analysis of the sexual, alcohol and drug related behavioural patterns of students on spring break. Tourism Management, 19(6), 501–513. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(98)00052-1.

  42. Kalish, R., & Kimmel, M. (2011). Hooking up: Hot hetero sex or the new numb normative? Australian Feminist Studies, 26, 137–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/08164649.2011.546333.

  43. Kelly, C. (2012). Sexism in practice: Feminist ethics evaluating the hookup culture. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 28(2), 27–48. https://doi.org/10.2979/jfemistudreli.28.2.27.

  44. Kenney, S. R., Thadani, V., Ghaidarov, T., & LaBrie, J. W. (2013). First-year college women's motivations for hooking up: A mixed-methods examination of normative peer perceptions and personal hookup participation. International Journal of Sexual Health, 25(3), 212–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/19317611.2013.786010.

  45. Kreager, D. A., Staff, J., Gauthier, R., Lefkowitz, E. S., & Feinberg, M. E. (2016). The double standard at sexual debut: Gender, sexual behavior and adolescent peer acceptance. Sex Roles, 75(7–8), 377–392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0618-x.

  46. Kubicek, K., Beyer, W. J., Weiss, G., Iverson, E., & Kipke, M. D. (2010). In the dark: Young men’s stories of sexual initiation in the absence of relevant sexual health information. Health Education & Behavior, 37(2), 243–263. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198109339993.

  47. Kuperberg, A., & Padgett, J. E. (2014). Dating and hooking up in college: Meeting contexts, sex, and variation by gender, partner's gender, and class standing. Journal of Sex Research. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.901284.

  48. Kuperberg, A., & Padgett, J. E. (2016a). The role of culture in explaining college students’ selection into hookups, dates, and long-term romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 33(8), 1070–1096. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407515616876.

  49. Kuperberg, A., & Padgett, J. E. (2016b). Partner meeting contexts and risky behavior in college students’ other-sex and same-sex hookups. The Journal of Sex Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2015.1124378.

  50. Lehmiller, J. J., & Ioerger, M. (2014). Social networking smartphone applications and sexual health outcomes among men who have sex with men. PloS One, 9(1), e86603.

  51. Lewis, M. A., Granato, H., Blayney, J. A., Lostutter, T. W., & Kilmer, J. R. (2012). Predictors of hooking up sexual behavior and emotional reactions among U.S. college students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(5), 1219–1229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-011-9817-2.

  52. Maticka-Tyndale, E., Herold, E. S., & Mewhinney, D. (1998). Casual sex on spring break: Intentions and behaviors of Canadian students. Journal of Sex Research, 35(3), 254–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499809551941.

  53. Morgan, E. M. (2013). Contemporary issues in sexual orientation and identity development in emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, 1, 52–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696812469187.

  54. Murchison, G. R., Boyd, M. A., & Pachankis, J. E. (2017). Minority stress and the risk of unwanted sexual experiences in LGBQ undergraduates. Sex Roles, 77(3–4), 221–238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0710-2.

  55. Mustanski, B., Lyons, T., & Garcia, S. C. (2011). Internet use and sexual health of young men who have sex with men: A mixed-methods study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(2), 289–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-009-9596-1.

  56. Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2013). Racial differences in same-race partnering and the effects of sexual partnership characteristics on HIV risk in MSM: A prospective sexual diary study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 62(3), 329–333. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0b013e31827e5f8c.

  57. Owen, J., & Fincham, F. D. (2011). Young adults’ emotional reactions after hooking up encounters. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(2), 321–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-010-9652-x.

  58. Paul, E. L., & Hayes, K. A. (2002). The casualties of ‘casual’ sex: A qualitative exploration of the phenomenology of college students’ hookups. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 19, 639–661. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407502195006.

  59. Paul, E. L., McManus, B., & Hayes, A. (2000). "Hookups": Characteristics and correlates of college students' spontaneous and anonymous sexual experiences. Journal of Sex Research, 37, 76–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490009552023.

  60. Paul, E. L., Wenzel, A., & Harvey, J. (2009). Hookups: A facilitator or a barrier to relationship initiation and intimacy development? In S. Sprecher, A. Wenzel, & J. Harvey (Eds.), Handbook of relationship initiation (pp. 375–390). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

  61. Persson, T. J., & Pfaus, J. G. (2015). Bisexuality and mental health: Future research directions. Journal of Bisexuality, 15(1), 82–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299716.2014.994694.

  62. Pingel, E. S., Bauermeister, J. A., Johns, M. M., Eisenberg, A., & Leslie-Santana, M. (2013). “A safe way to explore”: Reframing risk on the internet amidst young gay men’s search for identity. Journal of Adolescent Research, 28(4), 453–478. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558412470985.

  63. Prestage, G., Van de Ven, P., Grulich, A., Kippax, S., McInnes, D., & Hendry, O. (2001). Gay men’s casual sex encounters: Discussing HIV and using condoms. AIDS Care, 13, 277–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540120120043928.

  64. Reiber, C., & Garcia, J. R. (2010). Hooking up: Gender differences, evolution, and pluralistic ignorance. Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 390–404. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470491000800307.

  65. Reid, J. A., Webber, G. R., & Elliott, S. (2015). “It's like being in church and being on a field trip:” The date versus party situation in college students' accounts of hooking up. Symbolic Interaction, 38(2), 175–194. https://doi.org/10.1002/symb.153.

  66. Rice, E., Holloway, I., Winetrobe, H., Rhoades, H., Barman-Adhikari, A., Gibbs, J., … Dunlap, S. (2012). Sex risk among young men who have sex with men who use Grindr, a smartphone geosocial networking application. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research, S4(005), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6113.S4-005.

  67. Rudman, L. A., Glick, P., Marquardt, T., & Fetterolf, J. C. (2016). When women are urged to have casual sex more than men are: Perceived risk moderates the sexual advice double standard. Sex Roles. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0723-x.

  68. Rupp, L. J., Taylor, V., Regev-Messalem, S., Fogarty, A. C., & England, P. (2014). Queer women in the hookup scene: Beyond the closet? Gender & Society, 28(2), 212–235. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243213510782.

  69. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Diamond, L. M. (2000). Sexual identity trajectories among sexual-minority youths: Gender comparisons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29(6), 607–627.

  70. Schneider, M. E., & Katz, J. (2017). Adult attachment and heterosexual college women’s hookup behaviors: Mediating effects of sexual motives. Sex Roles, 77, 419–429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0726-7.

  71. Seage, G. R., Mayer, K. H., Lenderking, W. R., Wold, C., Gross, M., Goldstein, R., … & Holmberg, S. (1997). HIV and hepatitis B infection and risk behavior in young gay and bisexual men. Public Health Reports, 112(2), 158–167.

  72. Sewell, K. K., & Strassberg, D. S. (2015). How do heterosexual undergraduate students define having sex? A new approach to an old question. Journal of Sex Research, 52(5), 507–516. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.888389.

  73. Silva, T. (2017). Bud-sex: Constructing normative masculinity among rural straight men that have sex with men. Gender & Society, 31(1), 51–73. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243216679934.

  74. Snapp, S., Lento, R., Ryu, E., & Rosen, K. S. (2014). Why do they hook up? Attachment style and motives of college students. Personal Relationships, 21(3), 468–481. https://doi.org/10.1111/pere.12043.

  75. Snapp, S., Ryu, E., & Kerr, J. (2015). The upside to hooking up: College students’ positive hookup experiences. International Journal of Sexual Health, 27(1), 43–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/19317611.2014.939247.

  76. Spell, S. A. (2017). Not just black and white: How race/ethnicity and gender intersect in hookup culture. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 3(2), 172–187. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649216658296.

  77. Stepp, L. S. (2007). Unhooked: How young women pursue sex, delay love and lose at both. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.

  78. Stinson, R. D. (2010). Hooking up in young adulthood: A review of factors influencing the sexual behavior of college students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 24(2), 98–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/87568220903558596.

  79. Sumter, S. R., Vandenbosch, L., & Ligtenberg, L. (2017). Love me tinder: Untangling emerging adults’ motivations for using the dating application tinder. Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2016.04.009.

  80. Uecker, J. E., Pearce, L. D., & Andercheck, B. (2015). The four U’s: Latent classes of hookup motivations among college students. Social Currents, 2(2), 163–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/2329496515579761.

  81. van den Boom, W., Stolte, I., Sandfort, T., & Davidovich, U. (2012). Serosorting and sexual risk behaviour according to different casual partnership types among MSM: The study of one-night stands and sex buddies. AIDS Care, 24, 167–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2011.603285.

  82. Veale, J., Watson, R. J., Adjei, J., & Saewyc, E. (2016). Prevalence of pregnancy involvement among Canadian transgender youth and its relation to mental health, sexual health, and gender identity. International Journal of Transgenderism, 17(3–4), 107–113. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2016.1216345.

  83. Vrangalova, Z. (2014). Hooking up and psychological well-being in college students: Short-term prospective links across different hookup definitions. Journal of Sex Research, 52(5), 485–498. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.910745.

  84. Wade, L. (2017). American hookup: The new culture of sex on campus. New York, NY: WW Norton & Company.

  85. Ward, J. (2008). Dude-sex: White masculinities and authentic heterosexuality among dudes who have sex with dudes. Sexualities, 11(4), 414–434. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460708091742.

  86. Ward, J. (2015). Not gay: Sex between straight white men. New York, NY: NYU Press.

  87. Westbrook, L., & Saperstein, A. (2015). New categories are not enough: Rethinking the measurement of sex and gender in social surveys. Gender & Society, 29(4), 534–560. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243215584758.

  88. Winetrobe, H., Rice, E., Bauermeister, J., Petering, R., & Holloway, I. W. (2014). Associations of unprotected anal intercourse with Grindr-met partners among Grindr-using young men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. AIDS Care, 26(10), 1303–1308. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2014.911811.

  89. World Values Survey 1981–2014. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSContents.jsp. Accessed 20 March 2016.

  90. Worth, H., Reid, A., & McMillan, K. (2002). Somewhere over the rainbow: Love, trust and monogamy in gay relationships. Journal of Sociology, 38(3), 237–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/144078302128756642.

  91. Wright, M. O. D., Norton, D. L., & Matusek, J. A. (2010). Predicting verbal coercion following sexual refusal during a hookup: Diverging gender patterns. Sex Roles, 62(9–10), 647–660. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9763-9.

  92. Yost, M. R., & McCarthy, L. (2012). Girls gone wild? Heterosexual women’s same-sex encounters at college parties. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36(1), 7–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684311414818.

  93. Zaikman, Y., Marks, M. J., Young, T. M., & Zeiber, J. A. (2016). Gender role violations and the sexual double standard. Journal of Homosexuality, 63(12), 1608–1629. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2016.1158007l.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Ryan J. Watson.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest and that they have complied with the APA ethical standards.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Watson, R.J., Snapp, S. & Wang, S. What We Know and Where We Go from here: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth Hookup Literature. Sex Roles 77, 801–811 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-017-0831-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Hookup culture
  • LGB hookups
  • Casual sex
  • MSM
  • Sexual initiation