Sex Roles

, Volume 78, Issue 3–4, pp 220–227 | Cite as

Trans Prejudice in Sport: Differences from LGB Prejudice, the Influence of Gender, and Changes over Time

  • George B. CunninghamEmail author
  • Andrew C. Pickett
Original Article


The purpose of our study was to examine prejudice toward trans individuals in sport. Questionnaire data were collected from separate, albeit demographically similar, samples of students in 2007 (n = 199) and 2014 (n = 124). Results indicate that trans prejudice was higher than prejudice expressed toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals and that these differences remained over time. There were no gender differences as women and men expressed the same degrees of trans prejudice. Finally, trans prejudice significantly decreased over time, although the magnitude of the change was not as large as the corresponding decrease in LGB prejudice. Study findings suggest that although prejudice against trans individuals has decreased, additional interventions and prejudice reduction efforts are needed.


LGBT Transgender Trans Prejudice Gender Sport 



The authors contributed equally to this work, and their names are listed alphabetically.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

All participants provided informed consent to participate.

Ethical Approval

The study was approved by the Texas A&M University Institutional Review Board.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Diversity in SportTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health and KinesiologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  3. 3.Women’s and Gender Studies ProgramTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  4. 4.Department of Kinesiology and Sport ManagementUniversity of South DakotaVermillionUSA

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