Men’s Coercive Control, Partner Violence Perpetration, and Life Satisfaction in Bangladesh
In patriarchal settings like Bangladesh, men’s use of coercive control to sustain male dominance may increase their life satisfaction if such behavior is widely accepted and internalized. Yet, the influence of men’s perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) on their life satisfaction is unknown. We assess the associations of controlling behavior and IPV perpetration with life satisfaction using data from the Bangladesh component of the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence. This survey was conducted from January to June, 2011 in a multistage, random sample of men from urban Dhaka and rural Matlab sub-district of Chandpur district. Analyses included ever-partnered men (N = 1,572). In unadjusted structural equation models, men who reported controlling behavior had higher average life satisfaction; whereas, those reporting psychological IPV perpetration had lower life satisfaction. Adjusting for covariates, men’s controlling behavior remained positively associated with their life satisfaction, while psychological and physical IPV perpetration were negatively associated with life satisfaction. In Bangladesh, men’s controlling behavior may be so central to normative masculinity that it is internalized, and its instrumental success enhances men’s life satisfaction. Yet, the adverse influence of IPV perpetration on life satisfaction supports social-psychological theories of self-determination, whereby behaviors that are normative but not internalized undermine men’s psychological needs, contributing to lower life satisfaction. In settings like Bangladesh, integrated theories of masculinity under patriarchy and self-determination may be needed to understand men’s coercive control, IPV perpetration, and well-being.
KeywordsBangladesh Controlling behavior Intimate partner violence Life satisfaction Masculinity Patriarchy Self-determination
- Alam, S. (2007). Islam, culture, and women in a Bangladesh village. In V. J. Cornell (Ed.), Voices of Islam (pp. 35–53). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
- Baden, S., Green, C., Goetz, A. M., & Guhathakurta, M. (1994). Background report on gender issues in Bangladesh (BRIDGE Report No. 26). Brighton: Institute for Development Studies, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
- Bandalos, D. L., & Finney, S. J. (2010). Factor analysis: Exploratory and confirmatory. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), The reviewer’s guide to quantitative methods in the social sciences (pp. 93–114). New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Bergman, S. J. (1991). Men’s psychological development: A relational perspective [Working Paper No. 48]. Wellesley: Wellesley College, Stone Center.Google Scholar
- Binder, E., Bradley, R., Liu, W., Epstein, M., Deveau, T., Mercer, K., & Ressler, K. (2008). Association of FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse with risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 1291–1305. doi:10.1001/jama.299.11.1291.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Coker, A. L., McKeown, R. E., Sanderson, M., Davis, K. E., Valois, R. F., & Huebner, E. S. (2000). Severe dating violence and quality of life among South Carolina high school students. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19, 220–227. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(00)00227-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Suffolk: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
- Doneys, P., Mitra, S., Nazmull, A., & Mohiuddin, H. (2013). The male entity of the self never dies, it just leaps like a tiger: Masculinity and gender-based violence in Bangladesh. (Working Paper No. 7). Bangkok: Partners for Prevention.Google Scholar
- Feldman, S. (2001). Exploring theories of patriarchy: a perspective from contemporary Bangladesh. Signs, 26, 1097–1127. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3175358.
- Franchina, J., Eisler, R., & Moore, T. (2001). Masculine gender role stress and intimate abuse: Effects of masculine gender relevance of dating situations and female threat on men’s attributions and affective responses. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 2, 34–41. doi:10.1037/1524-922.214.171.124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fulu, E., Jewkes, R., Garcia-Moreno, C., & Roselli, T. (2013). Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence: Findings from the UN multi-country cross-sectional study on men and violence in Asia and the Pacific. Lancet Global Health, 1, e187–e207. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70074-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hindin, M. J., Kishor, S., & Ansara, D. L. (2008). Intimate partner violence among couples in 10 DHS countries: Predictors and health outcomes. (DHS Analytical Studies No. 18.). Calverton: MACRO International.Google Scholar
- International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. (2007). Health and demographic surveillance system – Matlab, volume 38. 2005 socio-economic census. (Scientific Report Number 96). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Author.Google Scholar
- International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. (2012). Health and demographic surveillance system – volume 45. Registration of health and demographic events 2011. (Scientific Report Number 121). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Author.Google Scholar
- International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. (2014). Health and demographic surveillance system Matlab – volume 46. Registration of health and demographic events 2012. (Scientific Report Number 124). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Author.Google Scholar
- Jewkes, R., Flood, M., & Lang, J. (2015). From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: A conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls. Lancet, 385, 1580–1589. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61683-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Johnson, M. P. (2008). A typology of domestic violence: Intimate terrorism, violent resistance and situational couple violence. Lebanon: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
- Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Be careful what you wish for: Optimal functioning and the relative attainment of extrinsic and intrinsic goals. In P. Schmuk & K. M. Sheldon (Eds.), Life goals and well-being (pp. 116–131). Gottingen: Hogrefer and Huber.Google Scholar
- Kimmel, M. (1987). Changing men: New directions in research on men and masculinity. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Lansfod, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Crozier, J., & Kaplow, J. A. (2002). 12-year prospective study of the long-term effects of early child physical maltreatment on psychological, behavioral, and academic problems in adolescence. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156, 824–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- National Institute of Population Research and Training, Mitra and Associates, & Macro International. (2009). Bangladesh demographic and health survey 2007. Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Calverton, Maryland, USA: NIPORT, Mitra and Associates, and Macro International.Google Scholar
- National Institute of Population Research and Training, Mitra and Associates, & Macro International. (2013). Bangladesh demographic and health survey 2011. Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Calverton, Maryland, USA: NIPORT, Mitra and Associates, and Macro International.Google Scholar
- Naved, R. T., Huque, H., Farah, S., & Shuvra, M. M. R. (2011). Men's attitudes and practices regarding gender and violence against women in Bangladesh (International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Special Publication No. 135). Dhaka, Bangladesh: icddr,b, UNFPA and Partners for Prevention.Google Scholar
- Neighbors, C., Walker, D. D., Roffman, R. A., Mbilinyi, L. F., & Edelson, J. L. (2008). Self-determination theory and motivational interviewing: Complementary models to elicit voluntary engagement by partner-abusive men. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 36, 126–136.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sambisa, W., Angeles, G., Lance, P. M., Naved, R. T., & Thornton, J. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of physical spousal violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 2592–2618. doi:10.1177/0886260510388282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schuler, S.R., & Islam, F. (2008). Women’s acceptance of intimate partner violence within marriage in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, 39, 49–58. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20454436.
- Schuler, S.R., Lenzi, R., & Yount, K.M. (2011). Justification of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh: What survey questions fail to answer. Studies in Family Planning, 42, 21–28. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096063/.
- Springer, K., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2007). Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 517–530. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.01.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wahed, T., & Bhuiya, A. (2007). Battered bodies & shattered minds: Violence against women in Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 126, 341–354. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18032809.
- Widom, C., White, H., Czaja, S., & Marmorstein, N. (2007). Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on alcohol use and excessive drinking in middle adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 317–326. doi: 10.15288/jsad.2007.68.317Google Scholar
- Yount, K. M., Pham, H. T., Minh, T. H., Krause, K. E., Hoang, T. A., Schuler, S. R., & Kramer, M. (2014). Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam. Annals of Epidemiology, 24, 333–339. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.02.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Yount, K. M., Higgins, E., VanderEnde, K. E., Krause, K. H., Minh, T. H., Schuler, S. R., & Hoang, T. A. (2015). Men’s perpetration of intimate partner violence in Vietnam: Gendered social learning in boyhood and the challenges of masculinity. Men and Masculinities. doi:10.1177/1097184X15572896. Advance online publication.