Australian Sports Commission. (2001). Body image and participation in sport. [Canberra]: Australian Sports Commission.
Barthes, R. (1977). Image, music, text (S. Heath, Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang.
Bernstein, A. (2002). Is it time for a victory lap?: Changes in the media coverage of women in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37, 415–428. doi:10.1177/101269020203700301.
Bishop, R. (2003). Missing in action: Feature coverage of women’s sports in sports illustrated. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 27, 184–194. doi:10.1177/0193732502250718.
Bowman, A., & Daniels, D. (1995). A shifting gaze? The changing photographic representation of women athletes. Canadian Woman Studies, 15(4), 84–88.
Buysse, J. A. M., & Embser-Herbert, M. S. (2004). Constructions of gender in sport: An analysis of intercollegiate media guide cover photographs. Gender and Society, 18, 66–81. doi:10.1177/0891243203257914.
Capranica, L., Minganti, C., Billat, V., Hanghoj, S., Piacentini, M. F., Cumps, E., & Meeusen, R. (2005). Newspaper coverage of women’s sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76, 212–223. doi:10.1080/02701367.2005.10599282.
Carvalho, J., Preston, T., Jr., Pokrywczynski, J., & Kirby, N. (2012). The evolution of “the toy department”: A content analysis of newspaper sports sections since 1956. Journal of Sports Media, 7(2), 61–73. doi:10.1353/jsm.2012.0011.
Cooky, C., Messner, M. A., & Hextrum, R. H. (2013). Women play sport, but not on TV: A longitudinal study of televised news media. Communication & Sport, 1, 203–230. doi:10.1177/2167479513476947.
Cranmer, G. A., Brann, M., & Bowman, N. D. (2014). Male athletes, female aesthetics: The continued ambivalence toward female athletes in ESPN’s The Body Issue. International Journal of Sport Communication, 7, 145–165. doi:10.1123/IJSC.2014-0021.
Daniels, E. A. (2009). Sex objects, athletes, and sexy athletes. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24, 399–422. doi:10.1177/0743558409336748.
Daniels, E. A. (2012). Sexy versus strong: What girls and women think of female athletes. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33, 79–90. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2011.12.002.
Daniels, E. A., & Wartena, H. (2011). Athlete or sex symbol: What boys think of media representations of female athletes. Sex Roles, 65, 566–579. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9959-7.
Duncan, M. (1990). Sports photographs and sexual difference: Images of women and men in the 1984 and 1988 Olympic games. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7, 22–43.
Duncan, M. C., & Messner, M. A. (1998). The media image of sport and sex. In L. A. Wenner (Ed.), Media sport (pp. 170–185). New York: Routledge.
Elueze, R., & Jones, R. L. (1998). A quest for equality: A gender comparison of the BBC’s TV coverage of the 1995 world athletics championships. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 7(1), 45–45.
Fink, J. S. (2014). Female athletes, women’s sport, and the sport mediacommercial complex: Have we really “come a long way, baby”? Sport Management Review. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2014.05.001.
Fink, J. S., & Kensicki, L. J. (2002). An imperceptible difference: visual and textual constructions of femininity in Sports Illustrated and Sports Illustrated for women. Mass Communication & Society, 5, 317–339. doi:10.1207/S15327825MCS0503_5.
French, S. (2013). Still not there: The continued invisibility of female athletes and sports in the New Zealand print media. Media International Australia, Incorporating Culture & Policy, 148, 39–50.
George, C., Hartley, A., & Paris, J. (2001). The representation of female athletes in textual and visual media. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 6, 94–101. doi:10.1108/13563280110391007.
Godoy-Pressland, A. (2014). “Nothing to report”: A semi-longitudinal investigation of the print media coverage of sportswomen in British Sunday newspapers. Media, Culture & Society, 36, 595–609. doi:10.1177/0163443714532977.
Godoy-Pressland, A., & Griggs, G. (2014). The photographic representation of female athletes in the British print media during the London 2012 Olympic games. Sport in Society, 17, 1–16. doi:10.1080/17430437.2014.882908.
Goffman, E. (1979). Gender advertisements. London: Macmillan.
Grainey, T. F. (2012). Beyond “bend It like Beckham”: The global phenomenon of women’s soccer. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Hardin, M. (2005). Stopped at the gate: Women’s sports, “reader interest”, and decision making by editors. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 82, 62–77. doi:10.1177/107769900508200105.
Hardin, M., Chance, J., Dodd, J. E., & Hardin, B. (2002a). Olympic photo coverage fair to female athletes. Newspaper Research Journal, 23(2/3), 64–78.
Hardin, M., Lynn, S., Walsdorf, K., & Hardin, B. (2002b). The framing of sexual difference in SI for Kids editorial photos. Mass Communication and Society, 5, 341–359. doi:10.1207/S15327825MCS0503_6.
Hardin, M., Dodd, J. E., & Chance, J. (2005). On equal footing? The framing of sexual difference in Runner’s World. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 14(2).
Hughson, S., Kilpatrick, A., Paton, M.-A., & Simms, D. (2001). Sexploitation. Ausport. Retrieved from http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2000/ascweb/sexploitation.asp
International Olympic Committee. (2014). Women in the Olympic Movement. Lausanne, Switzerland: IOC.
Jones, D. (2004). Half the story? Olympic women on ABC News Online. Media International Australia, Incorporating Culture & Policy, 110, 132–146.
Jones, D. (2006). The representation of female athletes in online images of successive Olympic games. Pacific Journalism Review, 12(1), 108–129.
Jones, D. (2010). Women’s sports coverage: Online images of the 2008 Olympic games. Australian Journalism Review, 32(2), 89–102.
Jones, A., & Greer, J. (2011). You don’t look like an athlete: The effects of feminine appearance on audience perceptions of female athletes and women’s sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 34, 358–377. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.105.3.409.
Kachgal, T. (2001). Home court disadvantage? Examining the coverage of female athletes on leading sports websites: A pilot study. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Washington DC.
Kane, M. J. (2011). Sex sells sex, not women’s sports. The Nation, 293, 28–29. Retrieved from http://www.thenation.com/article/162390/sex-sells-sex-not-womens-sports.
Kane, M. J. (2013). The better sportswomen get, the more the media ignore them. Communication & Sport, 1, 231–236. doi:10.1177/2167479513484579.
Kane, M. J., & Maxwell, H. D. (2011). Expanding the boundaries of sport media research: Using critical theory to explore consumer responses to representations of women’s sports. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 202–216.
Kane, M. J., LaVoi, N. M., & Fink, J. S. (2013). Exploring elite female athletes’ interpretations of sport media images: A window into the construction of social identity and “selling sex” in women’s sports. Communication & Sport, 1, 269–298. doi:10.1177/2167479512473585.
Kang, M.-E. (1997). The portrayal of women’s images in magazine advertisements: Goffman’s gender analysis revisited. Sex Roles, 37, 979–996. doi:10.1007/BF02936350.
Kennedy, E. (2001). She wants to be a sledgehammer?: Tennis femininities on British television. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 25, 56–72. doi:10.1177/0193723501251005.
Kian, E. M., & Clavio, G. (2011). A comparison of online media and traditional newspaper coverage of the men’s and women’s U.S. Open tennis tournaments. Journal of Sports Media, 6(1), 55–84. doi:10.1353/jsm.2011.0004.
Kian, E. M., Fink, J. S., & Hardin, M. (2011). Examining the impact of journalists’ gender in online and newspaper tennis articles. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 20(2), 3–21.
Kim, K., & Sagas, M. (2014). Athletic or sexy? A comparison of female athletes and fashion models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues. Gender Issues, 31, 123–141. doi:10.1007/s12147-014-9121-2.
Kim, K., Sagas, M., & Walker, N. A. (2011). Replacing athleticism with sexuality: Athlete models in sports illustrated swimsuit issues. International Journal of Sport Communication, 4(2), 148–162.
King, C. (2007). Media portrayals of male and female athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 42, 187–199. doi:10.1177/1012690207084751.
Kinnick, K. (1998). Gender bias in newspaper profiles of 1996 Olympic athletes: A content analysis of five major dailies. Women’s Studies in Communication, 21, 213–237. doi:10.1080/07491409.1998.10162557.
Kinsey, F. (2011a). Reading photographic portraits of Australian women cyclists in the 1890s: From costume and cycle choices to constructions of feminine identity. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 28, 1121–37. doi:10.1080/09523367.2011.567767.
Kinsey, F. (2011b). Stamina, speed and adventure: Australian women and competitive cycling in the 1890s. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 28, 1375–87. doi:10.1080/09523367.2011.580574.
Knight, J. L., & Giuliano, T. A. (2001). He’s a laker; She’s a “looker”: The consequences of gender-stereotypical portrayals of male and female athletes by the print media. Sex Roles, 45, 217–229. doi:10.1023/A:1013553811620.
Knight, J. L., & Giuliano, T. A. (2003). Blood, sweat, and jeers: The impact of the media’s heterosexist portrayals on perceptions of male and female athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26, 272.
Knoppers, A., & Anthonissen, A. (2008). Gendered managerial discourses in sport organizations: Multiplicity and complexity. Sex Roles, 58, 93–103. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9324-z.
Knoppers, A., & Elling, A. (2004). “We do not engage in promotional journalism”: Discursive strategies used by sport journalists to describe the selection process. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39, 57–73. doi:10.1177/1012690204040523.
Koivula, N. (1999). Gender stereotyping in televised media sport coverage. Sex Roles, 41, 598–604. doi:10.1023/A:1018899522353.
Krane, V., Ross, S. R., Miller, M., Rowse, J. L., Ganoe, K., Andrzejczyk, J. A., & Lucas, C. B. (2010). Power and focus: Self-representation of female college athletes. Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise, 2, 175–195. doi:10.1080/19398441.2010.488026.
Krane, V., Ross, S. R., Miller, M., Ganoe, K., Lucas-Carr, C., & Barak, K. S. (2011). “It’s cheesy when they smile”: What girl athletes prefer in images of female college athletes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, 755–768. doi:10.1080/02701367.2011.10599812.
Lumby, K., Caple, H., & Greenwood, K. (2010). Towards a level playing field: Sport and gender in Australian media, January 2008–July 2009. Canberra: Australian Sports Commission.
Lumpkin, A. (2007). A descriptive analysis of race/ethnicity and sex of individuals appearing on the covers of Sports Illustrated in the 1990s. Physical Educator, 64, 29–37.
Lumpkin, A. (2009). Female representation in feature articles published by Sports Illustrated in the 1990s. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 18(2), 38–51.
Lynn, S., Walsdorf, K., Hardin, M., & Hardin, B. (2002). Selling girls short: advertising and gender images in Sports Illustrated For Kids. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 11(2), 77–102.
MacKay, S., & Dallaire, C. (2009). Campus newspaper coverage of varsity sports: Getting closer to equitable and sports-related representations of female athletes? International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 44, 25–40. doi:10.1177/1012690208101484.
Mason, F., & Rail, G. (2006). The creation of sexual difference in Canadian newspaper photographs of the Pan-american games. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 15(1), 28–41.
Messner, M. A. (1988). Sports and male domination: The female athlete as contested ideological terrain. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 197–211.
Messner, M. A., Duncan, M. C., & Wachs, F. L. (1990). The gender of audience building: Televised coverage of women’s and men’s NCAA basketball. Sociological Inquiry, 60, 422–439. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682X.1990.tb00125.x.
Messner, M. A., Duncan, M. C., & Cooky, C. (2003). Silence, sports bras, and wrestling porn: Women in televised sports news and highlights shows. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 27, 38–51. doi:10.1177/0193732502239583.
Palmer, F. R., & Leberman, S. I. (2009). Elite athletes as mothers: Managing multiple identities. Sport Management Review, 12, 241–254. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2009.03.001.
Pedersen, P. M. (2003). Examining stereotypical written and photographic reporting on the sports page: An analysis of newspaper coverage of interscholastic athletics. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 12(1), 67–86.
Phillips, M. (1996). An illusory image: A report on the media coverage and portrayal of women’s sport in Australia. Canberra: Australian Sports Commission.
Pirinen, R. M. (1997). The construction of women’s positions in sport: A textual analysis of articles on female athletes in Finnish women’s magazines. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14, 290–301.
Shugart, H. A. (2003). She shoots, she scores: Mediated constructions of contemporary female athletes in coverage of the 1999U.S. U.S. women’s soccer team. Western Journal of Communication, 67, 1–31. doi:10.1080/10570310309374756.
Smallwood, R. R., Brown, N. A., & Billings, A. C. (2014). Female bodies on display: Attitudes regarding female athlete photos in Sports Illustrated’s swimsuit issue and ESPN: The Magazine’s body issue. Journal of Sports Media, 9(1), 1–22. doi:10.1353/jsm.2014.0005.
Smith, L. R. (2011). The less you say: An initial study of gender coverage in sports on twitter. In A. C. Billings (Ed.), Sports media: transformation, integration, consumption (pp. 146–161). New York: Routledge.
Stevenson, D. (2002). Women, sport, and globalization: Competing discourses of sexuality and nation. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 26, 209–225. doi:10.1177/0193723502262006.
Theberge, N., & Birrell, S. (2007). Structural constraints facing women in sport. In J. O’Reilly & S. K. Cahn (Eds.), Women and sports in the United States: A documentary reader (pp. 167–176). Lebanon: Northeastern University Press.
Vincent, J. (2003). Newspaper coverage of female athletes competing in selected sports in the 1996 centennial Olympic games: The more things change the more they stay the same. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 12(1), 1–21.
Vincent, J., Imwold, C., Masemann, V., & Johnson, J. T. (2002). A comparison of selected ‘serious’ and ‘popular’ British, Canadian, and United States newspaper coverage of female and male athletes competing in the centennial Olympic games: Did female athletes receive equitable coverage in the “games of the women”? International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37, 319–335. doi:10.1177/101269020203700312.
Vincent, J., Pedersen, P. M., Whisenant, W. A., & Massey, D. (2007). Analysing the print media coverage of professional tennis players: British newspaper narratives about female competitors in the Wimbledon Championships. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2, 281–300. doi:10.1504/IJSMM.2007.012406.
Walton, T. (2005). Pinned by gender construction?: Media representations of girls’ wrestling. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 14(2), 52–68.
Weber, J., & Barker-Ruchti, N. (2012). Bending, flirting, floating, flying: A critical analysis of female figures in 1970s gymnastics photographs. Sociology of Sport Journal, 29, 22–41.
Weber, J. D., & Carini, R. M. (2013). Where are the female athletes in sports illustrated? A content analysis of covers (2000–2011). International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48, 196–203. doi:10.1177/1012690211434230.
Wensing, E. H., & Bruce, T. (2003). Bending the rules: Media representations of gender during an international sporting event. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 38, 387–396. doi:10.1177/1012690203384001.
Women’s Sports Foundation U.K. (2004). An investigation into coverage of women’s sport on the BBC Sport website: A review of stories from 25 February to 10 March 2004. Women’s Sports Foundation U.K. Retrieved from http://www.ews-online.org/de/menu_2/downloads/docdown-women-sports-and-media-CVGoEw2Gt5gFI
Yu, C.-C. (2009). A content analysis of news coverage of Asian female Olympic athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 44, 283–305. doi:10.1177/1012690209104796.