Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

The Cultural Significance of Homophobia on Heterosexual Women’s Gendered Experiences in the United States: A Commentary

  • Feminist Forum Commentary
  • Published:
Sex Roles Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The focus of this Feminist Forum commentary is to both complement and extend McCormack and Anderson’s (2014, this issue) thesis by drawing relationships between homophobia, homohysteria, masculinity, and the gendered experiences of heterosexual women in the United States. I argue that the emerging culture of decreasing homonegativity in the United States and the simultaneous reimagining of masculinity and men’s gendered behaviors contribute to more diverse gendered experiences of heterosexual women. To support my argument, I provide direct counterpoints to three of the six characteristics of heterosexual men McCormack and Anderson (2014) draw upon as evidence of their argument and apply them to the gendered experiences of heterosexual women. These are: (1) social inclusion of lesbian and bisexual women peers, (2) the embrace of once-masculinized artifacts, (3) sexualization and the “party-time rule” of homosexuality, and one additional characteristic (4) increased assertiveness of heterosexual women. Furthermore, I highlight contradictory evidence and missing pieces to the puzzle, including a theoretical exploration of how changing levels homophobia affect LGBT people’s gendered experiences. Overall, through examining the relationships between changing levels of homophobia and heterosexual women’s and LGBT people’s gendered experiences, the current exploration provides a much needed theoretical extension and application of McCormack and Anderson’s (2014) research.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Adams, A. (2011). “Josh wears pink cleats”: Inclusive masculinity on the soccer field. Journal of Homosexuality, 58, 579–596. doi:10.1080/00918369.2011.563654.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Allan, A. (2009). The importance of being a ‘lady’: Hyper-femininity and heterosexuality in the private, single-sex primary school. Gender and Education, 21, 145–158. doi:10.1080/09540250802213172.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, E. (2008). “Being masculine is not about who you sleep with…” heterosexual athletes contesting masculinity and the one-time rule of homosexuality. Sex Roles, 58, 104–115. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9337-7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, E. (2009). Inclusive masculinity: The changing nature of masculinities. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, E., & Bullingham, R. (2013). Openly lesbian team sport athletes in an era of decreasing homohysteria. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/1012690213490520.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aspers, P., & Godart, F. (2013). Sociology of fashion: Order and change. Annual Review of Sociology, 39, 171–92. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071811-145526.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barton, B. (2010). “Abomination”—life as a bible belt gay. Journal of Homosexuality, 57, 465–484. doi:10.1080/00918361003608558.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baunach, D. M. (2012). Changing same-sex marriage attitudes in America from 1988 through 2010. Public Opinion Quarterly, 76, 364–378. doi:10.1093/poq/nfs022.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blinde, E., & Taub, D. (1992). Women athletes as falsely accused deviants: Managing the lesbian stigma. Sociological Quarterly, 33, 521–533. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1992.tb00141.x.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bolin, A. (2003). Beauty or the beast: The subversive soma. In A. Bolin & J. Granskog (Eds.), Athletic intruders: Ethnographic research on women, culture, and exercise (pp. 107–130). Albany: SUNY Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bortolin, S. (2010). “I don’t want him hitting on me”: The role of masculinities in creating a chilly climate. Journal of LGBT Youth, 7, 200–223. doi:10.1080/19361653.2010.486116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyle, L. (2005). Flexing the tensions of female muscularity: How female bodybuilders negotiate normative femininity in competitive bodybuilding. Women’s Studies Quarterly, 33, 134–149.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Women as a percent of total employed in selected occupations, 2011. U.S. Department of Labor, The Editor’s Desk. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2012/ted_20120501.htm

  • Center for American Women and Politics. (2014). Fact sheet: Women in elective office 2014. Retrieved from http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/documents/elective.pdf

  • Clarkson, J. (2005). Contesting masculinity’s makeover: Queer Eye, consumer masculinity, and “straight-acting” gays. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 29, 235–255. doi:10.1177/0196859905275234.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clarkson, J. (2006). “Everyday joe” versus “pissy, bitchy, queens”: Gay masculinity on straightacting.com. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 14, 191–207. doi:10.1177/0196859905275234.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connell, R. W. (1992). A very straight gay: Masculinity, homosexual experience, and the dynamics of gender. American Sociological Review, 57, 735–751. doi:10.2307/2096120.

    Google Scholar 

  • Craig, T., & LaCroix, J. (2011). Tomboy as protective identity. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 15, 450–465. doi:10.1080/10894160.2011.532030.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Crane, D. (1999). Clothing behavior as non-verbal resistance: Marginal women and alternative dress in the nineteenth century. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture, 3, 241–268. doi:10.2752/136270499779155078.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham, G., Pickett, A., Melton, E., Lee, W., & Miner, K. (2013). Psychological safety and the expression of sexual orientation personal identity. In J. Hargreaves & E. Anderson (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Sport, Gender and Sexuality (pp. 406–415). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Augelli, A., & Rose, M. (1990). Homophobia in a university community: Attitudes and experiences of heterosexual freshmen. Journal of College Student Development, 31, 484–491.

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Emilio, J. (2002). The world turned: Essays on gay history, politics, and culture. Durham: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, M. (2007). Seeking refuge under the umbrella: Inclusion, exclusion, and organizing within the category transgender. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 4, 60–80. doi:10.1525/srsp.2007.4.4.60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Delamont, S. (1978). The contradictions in ladies’ education. In S. Delamont & L. Duffin (Eds.), The nineteenth-century woman: Her cultural and physical world (pp. 134–63). London: Croom Helm.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, L. (2009). Sexual fluidity: Understanding women’s love and desire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diekman, A. B., & Eagly, A. H. (2000). Stereotypes as dynamic constructs: Women and men of the past, present, and future. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1171–1188. doi:10.1177/0146167200262001.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eliason, M., Donelan, C., & Randall, C. (1992). Lesbian stereotypes. Health Care for Women International, 13, 131–144. doi:10.1080/07399339209515986.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elsesser, K., & Lever, J. (2011). Does gender bias against female leaders persist? quantitative and qualitative data from a large-scale survey. Human Relations, 64, 1555–1578. doi:10.1177/0018726711424323.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erickson, J., & Cogan, J. (2013). Lesbians, levis, and lipstick: The meaning of beauty in our lives. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Faderman, L., & Timmons, S. (2006). Gay L.A.: A history of sexual outlaws, power politics, and lipstick lesbians. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fink, J., Burton, L., & Farrell, A. (2012). Playing it out: Female intercollegiate athletes’ experiences in revealing their sexual identities. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 6, 83–106. doi:10.1179/ssa.2012.6.1.83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Firestein, B. (1996). Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gallup. (2012). Gay and lesbian rights. Gallup Poll. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/1651/Gay-Lesbian-Rights.aspx#2

  • Galupo, M. P. (2007). Friendship patterns of sexual minority individuals in adulthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24, 139–151. doi:10.1177/0265407506070480.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galupo, M. P., & St. John, S. (2001). Benefits of cross-sexual orientation friendships among adolescent females. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 83–93. doi:10.1006/jado.2000.0364.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galupo, M. P., Sailer, C. A., & St. John, S. C. (2004). Friendships across sexual orientation: Experiences of bisexual women in early adulthood. Journal of Bisexuality, 4, 39–53. doi:10.1300/J159v04n01_04.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garnets, L. D. (1996). Life as a lesbian: What does gender have to do with it? In J. C. Chrisler, C. Golden, & P. D. Rozee (Eds.), Lectures on the psychology of women (pp. 137–151). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Geiger, W., Harwood, J., & Hummert, M. (2006). College students’ multiple stereotypes of lesbians: A cognitive perspective. Journal of Homosexuality, 51, 165–182. doi:10.1300/J082v51n03_08.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodwin, M. P., & Roscoe, B. (1988). AIDS: Students’ knowledge and attitudes at a midwestern university. Journal of American College Health, 36, 214–222. doi:10.1080/07448481.1988.9939016.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Green, E. (2010). Shifting paradigms: Moving beyond “trans 101” in sexuality education. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 5, 1–16. doi:10.1080/15546121003748798.

    Google Scholar 

  • Griffin, P. (1992). Changing the game: Homophobia, sexism, and lesbians in sport. Quest, 44, 251–265. doi:10.1080/00336297.1992.10484053.

    Google Scholar 

  • Griffin, P. (2012). LGBT equality in sports: Celebrating our successes and facing our challenges. In G. Cunningham (Ed.), Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Sport: Essays from Activists, Coaches, and Scholars (pp. 1–13). College Station: The Center for Sport Management Research and Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grogan, S., Evans, R., Wright, S., & Hunter, G. (2004). Femininity and muscularity: Accounts of seven women body builders. Journal of Gender Studies, 13, 49–61. doi:10.1080/0958923032000184970.

    Google Scholar 

  • Halbert, C. (1997). Tough enough and woman enough: Stereotypes, discrimination, and impression management among women professional boxers. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 21, 7–36. doi:10.1177/019372397021001002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haltom, T. & Worthen, M.G.F. (2014). Male ballet dancers and heteromasculinity. Journal of College Student Development

  • Hamilton, L. (2007). Trading on heterosexuality: College women’s gender strategies and homophobia. Gender & Society, 21, 145–172. doi:10.1177/0891243206297604.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, M. (1964). Patterns of race in the Americas. New York: Walker.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harry, J. (1995). Sports ideology, attitudes toward women, and anti-homosexual attitudes. Sex Roles, 32, 109–116. doi:10.1007/BF01544760.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hennen, P. (2005). Bear bodies, bear masculinity: Recuperation, resistance, or retreat? Gender & Society, 19, 25–43. doi:10.1177/0891243204269408.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hennen, P. (2008). Faeries, bears, and leathermen: Men in community queering the masculine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hequembourg, A., & Arditi, J. (1999). Fractured resistances: The debate over assimilationism among gays and lesbians in the United States. The Sociological Quarterly, 40, 663–680. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1999.tb00573.x.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herbert, S. (2010). Butch/femme, f2m, pregnant man, tranny-boi: Gender issues in the lesbian community. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 14, 70–78. doi:10.1080/19359700903407973.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herek, G. (2004). Beyond homophobia: Thinking about sexual prejudice and stigma in the twenty-first century. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 1, 6–24. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.2.6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herman, D. (1997). The antigay agenda: Orthodox vision and the Christian Right. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hinrichs, D., & Rosenberg, P. (2002). Attitudes toward gay, lesbian, and bisexual persons among heterosexual liberal arts college students. Journal of Homosexuality, 43, 61–84. doi:10.1300/J082v43n01_04.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hitchcock, T. (1997). English sexualities, 1700–1800. New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hollandsworth, J., & Wall, K. (1977). Sex differences in assertive behavior: An empirical investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24, 217–222. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.24.3.217.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huber, B. (2013, July 10). A masculine silhouette, tailored for her. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/11/fashion/a-masculine-silhouette-tailored-for-her.html?_r=0

  • Jamieson, K. (1995). Beyond the double bind: Women and leadership. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, S., Murphy, S., Zewdie, S., & Reichard, R. (2008). The strong, sensitive type: Effects of gender stereotypes and leadership prototypes on the evaluation of male and female leaders. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 106, 39–60. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.12.002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones, A., & Greer, J. (2011). You don’t look like an athlete: The effects of feminine appearance on audience perceptions of female athletes and women’s sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 34, 358–377.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kane, M., LaVoi, N., & Fink, K. (2013). Exploring elite female athletes’ interpretations of sport media images: A window into the construction of social identity and “selling sex” in women’s sports. Communication & Sport, 1, 269–298. doi:10.1177/2167479512473585.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keleher, A., & Smith, E. (2012). Growing support for gay and lesbian equality since 1990. Journal of Homosexuality, 59, 1307–1326. doi:10.1080/00918369.2012.720540.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly, J., Kern, J., Kirkley, B., & Patterson, J. (1980). Reactions to assertive versus unassertive behavior: Differential effects for males and females and implications for assertiveness training. Behavior Therapy, 11, 670–682. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(80)80006-2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kimmel, M. S. (1994). Masculinity as homophobia. In H. Brod & M. Kaufman (Eds.), Theorizing masculinities (pp. 119–141). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kimmel, M. S. (2009). Masculinity as homophobia: Fear, shame, and silence in the construction of gender identity. In A. Ferber, K. Holcomb, & T. Wentling (Eds.), Sex, gender, and sexuality (pp. 58–70). NY: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kite, M. (1984). Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexuals: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Homosexuality, 10, 69–81. doi:10.1300/J082v10n01_05.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kite, M., & Whitley, B. (1998). Do heterosexual women and men differ in their attitudes toward homosexuality? A conceptual and methodological analysis. In G. Herek (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on lesbians and gay issues: Stigma and sexual orientation (Vol. 4, pp. 39–61). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koenig, A., Eagly, A., Mitchell, A., & Ristikari, T. (2011). Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 616–642. doi:10.1037/a0023557.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kurdek, L. (1988). Correlates of negative attitudes toward homosexuals among heterosexual college students. Sex Roles, 18, 727–738. doi:10.1007/BF00288057.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lafferty, Y., & McKay, J. (2004). ‘Suffragettes in satin shorts’? gender and competitive boxing. Qualitative Sociology, 27, 249–76. doi:10.1023/B:QUAS.0000037618.57141.53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Larsen, K., Reed, M., & Hoffman, S. (1980). Attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuality: A likert-type scale and construct validity. The Journal of Sex Research, 16, 245–257. doi:10.1080/00224498009551081.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levitt, H., & Horne, S. (2008). Explorations of lesbian-queer genders: Butch, femme, androgynous or “other”. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 6, 25–39. doi:10.1300/J155v06n02_05.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lippa, R. (2002). Gender-related traits of heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 83–98. doi:10.1023/A:1014035302843.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Loftus, J. (2001). America’s liberalization in attitudes toward homosexuality, 1973 to 1998. American Sociological Review, 66, 762–782. doi:10.2307/3088957.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lowe, M. (1998). Women of steel: Female bodybuilders and the struggle for self-definition. New York: NYU Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marsiglio, W. (1993). Attitudes toward homosexual activity and gays as friends: A national survey of heterosexual 15- to 19-year-old males. Journal of Sex Research, 30, 12–17. doi:10.1080/00224499309551673.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCormack, M. (2011). Mapping the terrain of homosexually-themed language. Journal of Homosexuality, 58, 664–679. doi:10.1080/00918369.2011.563665.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • McCormack, M. (2012). The declining significance of homophobia: How teenage boys are redefining masculinity and homophobia. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCormack, M. (2014). The intersections of youth masculinities, decreasing homophobia and class: An ethnography. British Journal of Sociology, 65, 130–149. doi:10.1111/1468-4446.12055.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McCormack, M., & Anderson, E. (2014). The influence of declining homophobia on men’s gender in the United States: An argument for the study of homohysteria. Sex Roles. doi:10.1007/s11199-014-0358-8.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCreary, D. R. (1994). The male role and avoiding femininity. Sex Roles, 31, 517–531. doi:10.1007/BF01544277.

    Google Scholar 

  • Melton, E. N., & Cunningham, G. B. (2012). When identities collide: Exploring minority stress and resilience among college athletes with multiple marginalized identities. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 6, 45–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mennesson, C. (2000). ‘Hard’ women and ‘soft’ women: The social construction of identities among female boxers.”. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 35, 21–33. doi:10.1177/101269000035001002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mierzwinski, M., Velija, P., & Malcolm, D. (2014). Women’s experiences in the mixed martial arts: A quest for excitement? Sociology of Sport Journal, 31, 66–84. doi:10.1123/ssj.2013-0125.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moeran, B. (2010). The portrayal of beauty in women’s fashion magazines. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture, 14, 491–510. doi:10.2752/175174110X12792058833933.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moss, C. (2003). Madonna smooches with Britney and Christina; Justin, Coldplay win big at VMAs. Retrieved from http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1477729/justin-coldplay-win-big-at-vmas.jhtml.

  • Negy, C., & Eisenman, R. (2005). A comparison of African american and white college students’ affective and attitudinal reactions to lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: An exploratory study. The Journal of Sex Research, 42, 291–298. doi:10.1080/00224490509552284.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perry, K. (2008). I kissed girl. On One of the boys [Digital recording]. Los Angeles: Capitol Records.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, D. (2011). Neoliberal homophobic discourse: Heteronormative human capital and the exclusion of queer citizens. Journal of Homosexuality, 58, 742–757. doi:10.1080/00918369.2011.581918.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • PEW. (2012). Behind gay marriage momentum, regional gaps persist: Two-to-one support in New England, opposition in south. Washington, D.C.: PEW Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.people-press.org/2012/11/09/behind-gay-marriage-momentum-regional-gaps-persist/

  • Poovey, M. (1984). The proper lady and the woman writer: Ideology as style in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley and Jane Austen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Riddle, D. (1996). Riddle homophobia scale. In M. Adams, P. Brigham, P. Dalpes, & L. Marchesani (Eds.), Social diversity and social justice: Gay, lesbian and bisexual oppression (p. 31). Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rivers, I. (2011). Homophobic bullying: Research and theoretical perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, B. C. (1997). “The many faces of bisexuality”: The 4th international bisexual symposium. Journal of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity, 2, 65–76. doi:10.1023/A:1026341216421.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rothblum, E. D. (2010). The complexity of butch and femme among sexual minority women in the 21st century. Psychology of Sexualities Review, 1, 29–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rupp, L., & Taylor, V. (2010). Straight girls kissing. Contexts, 9, 28–32. doi:10.1525/ctx.2010.9.3.28.

  • Savin-Williams, R. (2005). The new gay teenager. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seltzer, R. (1992). The social location of those holding antihomosexual attitudes. Sex Roles, 26, 391–398. doi:10.1007/BF00291550.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skeggs, B. (1997). Formations of class and gender. London: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skerski, J. (2011). Tomboy chic: Re-fashioning gender rebellion. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 15, 466–479. doi:10.1080/10894160.2011.532031.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, C., & Greig, C. (2003). Women in pants. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

    Google Scholar 

  • Søland, B. (2000). Becoming modern: Young women and the reconstruction of womanhood in the 1920s. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein, A. (1997). Sex and sensibility: Stories of a lesbian generation. Oakland: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone, A., & Gorga, A. (2014). Containing pariah femininities: Lesbians in the sorority rush process. Sexualities, 17, 348–364. doi:10.1177/1363460713516336.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stryker, S. (2008). Transgender history. Berkeley: Seal Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swim, J., Ferguson, M., & Hyers, L. (1999). Avoiding stigma by association: Subtle prejudice against lesbians in the form of social distancing. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 2, 61–68. doi:10.1207/15324839951036560.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taub, J. (1999). Bisexual women and beauty norms: A qualitative examination. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 3(4), 27–36. doi:10.1300/J155v03n04_04.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Torregrosa, L. (2010, June 7). Sandra Bullock and Scarlett Johansson on MTV: The perfect kiss? Politics Daily. Retrieved from http://www.politicsdaily.com/2010/06/07/sandra-bullock-and-scarlett-johansson-on-mtv-the-perfect-kiss/.

  • Twenge, J. (2011). The duality of individualism: Attitudes toward women, generation me, and the method of cross-temporal meta-analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 193–196. doi:10.1177/0361684310395918.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wakeman, J. (2014, May 1). A brief history of Hillary Clinton lesbian rumors. The Frisky Retrieved from http://www.thefrisky.com/2014-05-01/a-brief-history-of-hillary-clinton-lesbian-rumors/

  • Walker, J., Golub, S., Bimbi, D., & Parsons, J. (2012). Butch bottom–femme top? an exploration of lesbian stereotypes. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 16, 90–107. doi:10.1080/10894160.2011.557646.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wall, V. (1995). Beyond tolerance: Gays, lesbians and bisexuals on campus. A handbook of structured experiences and exercises for training and development. Washington: American College Personnel Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weaving, C. (2014). Cage fighting like a girl: Exploring gender constructions in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 41, 129–42. doi:10.1080/00948705.2013.858393.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weinberg, G. (1972). Society and the healthy homosexual. New York: St. Martin’s.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weinstock, J. S., & Bond, L. S. (2002). Building bridges: Examining lesbians’ and heterosexual women’s close friendships with each other. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 6, 149–161. doi:10.1300/J155v06n01_14.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Worthen, M. G. F. (2012). Understanding college student attitudes toward LGBT individuals. Sociological Focus, 45, 285–305. doi:10.1080/00380237.2012.712857.

    Google Scholar 

  • Worthen, M. G. F. (2013). An argument for separate analyses of attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual men, bisexual Women, MtF and FtM transgender individuals. Sex Roles, 68, 703–723. doi:10.1007/s11199-012-0155-1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Worthen, M. G. F. (2014a). The interactive impacts of high school gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on college student attitudes toward LGBT individuals: An investigation of high school characteristics. Journal of Homosexuality, 61, 217–250. doi:10.1080/00918369.2013.839906.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Worthen, M. G. F. (2014b). Blaming the jocks and the greeks?: Exploring collegiate athletes’ and fraternity/sorority members’ attitudes toward LGBT individuals. Journal of College Student Development, 55, 168–195. doi:10.1353/csd.2014.0020.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Meredith G. F. Worthen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Worthen, M.G.F. The Cultural Significance of Homophobia on Heterosexual Women’s Gendered Experiences in the United States: A Commentary. Sex Roles 71, 141–151 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-014-0389-1

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-014-0389-1

Keywords

Navigation