Sex Roles

, Volume 71, Issue 11–12, pp 363–377 | Cite as

Social Media Effects on Young Women’s Body Image Concerns: Theoretical Perspectives and an Agenda for Research

Feminist Forum Review Article

Abstract

Although there is a voluminous literature on mass media effects on body image concerns of young adult women in the U.S., there has been relatively little theoretically-driven research on processes and effects of social media on young women’s body image and self-perceptions. Yet given the heavy online presence of young adults, particularly women, and their reliance on social media, it is important to appreciate ways that social media can influence perceptions of body image and body image disturbance. Drawing on communication and social psychological theories, the present article articulates a series of ideas and a framework to guide research on social media effects on body image concerns of young adult women. The interactive format and content features of social media, such as the strong peer presence and exchange of a multitude of visual images, suggest that social media, working via negative social comparisons, transportation, and peer normative processes, can significantly influence body image concerns. A model is proposed that emphasizes the impact of predisposing individual vulnerability characteristics, social media uses, and mediating psychological processes on body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Research-based ideas about social media effects on male body image, intersections with ethnicity, and ameliorative strategies are also discussed.

Keywords

Body dissatisfaction Eating disorders Social comparisons Transactional media effects Social media Mass media 

References

  1. Amichai-Hamburger, Y. (2007). Personality, individual differences and Internet use. In A. N. Joinson, K. Y. A. McKenna, T. Postmes, & U.-D. Reips (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology (pp. 187–204). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, D. A., & Paulosky, C. A. (2004). Psychological assessment of eating disorders and related features. In J. K. Thompson (Ed.), Handbook of eating disorders and obesity (pp. 112–129). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson-Fye, E. P. (2011). Body images in non-Western cultures. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 244–252). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  4. Arroyo, A., & Segrin, C. (2013). Family interactions and disordered eating attitudes: The mediating roles of social competence and psychological distress. Communication Monographs, 80, 399–424. doi:10.1080/03637751.2013.828158.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (2009). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 94–124). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Barak, A. (2007). Phantom emotions: Psychological determinants of emotional experiences on the Internet. In A. N. Joinson, K. Y. A. McKenna, T. Postmes, & U.-D. Reips (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology (pp. 303–329). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bardone-Cone, A. M., & Cass, K. M. (2006). Investigating the impact of pro-anorexia websites: A pilot study. European Eating Disorders Review, 14, 256–262. doi:10.1002/erv.714.Google Scholar
  8. Bardone-Cone, A. M., & Cass, K. M. (2007). What does viewing a pro-anorexia website do? An experimental examination of website exposure and moderating effects. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40, 537–548. doi:10.1002/eat.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bell, B. T., & Dittmar, H. (2011). Does media type matter? The role of identification in adolescent girls’ media consumption and the impact of different thin-ideal media on body image. Sex Roles, 65, 478–490. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9964-x.Google Scholar
  10. Berk, L. E. (2000). Child development (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  11. Bilandzic, H., & Busselle, R. (2013). Narrative persuasion. In J. P. Dillard & L. Shen (Eds.), The Sage handbook of persuasion: Developments in theory and practice (2nd ed., pp. 200–219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Blumler, J. G., & Katz, E. (Eds.). (1974). The uses of mass communication: Current perspectives on gratifications research. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Boepple, L., & Thompson, J. K. (2013). A content analysis of healthy living blogs: Evidence of content thematically consistent with dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47, 362–367. doi:10.1002/eat.22244.
  14. Botta, R. A. (1999). Television images and adolescent girls’ body image disturbance. Journal of Communication, 49(2), 22–41. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02791.x.Google Scholar
  15. Botta, R. A. (2000). The mirror of television: A comparison of Black and White adolescents’ body image. Journal of Communication, 50(3), 144–159. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02857.x.Google Scholar
  16. Cash, T. F. (2011). Cognitive-behavioral perspectives on body image. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 39–47). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cash, T. F., Cash, D. W., & Butters, J. W. (1983). “Mirror, mirror, on the wall…?”: Contrast effects and self-evaluations of physical attractiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 351–358. doi:10.1177/0146167283093004.Google Scholar
  18. Chrisler, J. C., Fung, K. T., Lopez, A. M., & Gorman, J. A. (2013). Suffering by comparison: Twitter users’ reactions to the Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show. Body Image, 10, 648–652. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.05.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Crocker, J., Luhtanen, R. K., Cooper, M. L., & Bouvrette, A. (2003). Contingencies of self-worth in college students: Theory and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 894–908. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.5.894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Crowther, J. H., & Williams, N. M. (2011). Body image and bulimia nervosa. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 288–295). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Delinsky, S. S. (2011). Body image and anorexia nervosa. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 279–287). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dion, K. L., Dion, K. K., & Keelan, P. (1990). Appearance anxiety as a dimension of social-evaluative anxiety: Exploring the ugly-duckling syndrome. Contemporary Social Psychology, 14, 220–224.Google Scholar
  23. Dittmar, H. (2009). How do “body perfect” ideals in the media have a negative impact on body image and behaviors? Factors and processes related to self and identity. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 1–8. doi:10.1521/jscp.2009.28.1.1.Google Scholar
  24. Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006). Does Barbie make girls want to be thin?: The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls. Developmental Psychology, 42, 283–292. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.2.283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dohnt, H. K., & Tiggemann, M. (2006). Body image concerns in young girls: The role of peers and media prior to adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 135–145. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-9020-7.Google Scholar
  26. Duggan, M., & Brenner, J. (2013). The demographics of social media users—2012. Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2013/Social-media-users.aspx.
  27. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Chaiken, S. (1978). Causal inferences about communicators and their effect on opinion change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 424–435. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.36.4.424.Google Scholar
  28. Erchull, M. J., Liss, M., & Lichiello, S. (2013). Extending the negative consequences of media internalization and self-objectification to dissociation and self-harm. Sex Roles, 69, 583–593. doi:10.1007/s11199-013-0326-8.Google Scholar
  29. Eveland, W. P., Jr. (2003). A “mix of attributes” approach to the study of media effects and new communication technologies. Journal of Communication, 53, 395–410. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2003.tb02598.x.Google Scholar
  30. Ferguson, C. J., Winegard, B., & Winegard, B. M. (2011). Who is the fairest one of all? How evolution guides peer and media influences on female body dissatisfaction. Review of General Psychology, 15, 11–28. doi:10.1037/a0022607.Google Scholar
  31. Fernandez, S., & Pritchard, M. (2012). Relationships between self-esteem, media influence and drive for thinness. Eating Behaviors, 13, 321–325. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2012.05.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140. doi:10.1177/001872675400700202.Google Scholar
  33. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  34. Fitzsimmons-Craft, E. E., & Bardone-Cone, A. M. (2012). Examining prospective mediation models of body surveillance, trait anxiety, and body dissatisfaction in African American and Caucasian college women. Sex Roles, 67, 187–200. doi:10.1007/s11199-012-0151-5.Google Scholar
  35. Forbes, G. B., Jung, J., Vaamonde, J. D., Omar, A., Paris, L., & Formiga, N. S. (2012). Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in three cultures: Argentina, Brazil, and the U.S. Sex Roles, 66, 677–694. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-0105-3.Google Scholar
  36. Franko, D. L., & Roehrig, J. P. (2011). African American body images. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 221–228). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Franko, D. L., Coen, E. J., Roehrig, J. P., Rodgers, R. F., Jenkins, A., Lovering, M. E., & Dela Cruz, S. (2012). Considering J.Lo and Ugly Betty: A qualitative examination of risk factors and prevention targets for body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, and obesity in young Latina women. Body Image, 9, 381–387. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.04.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.Google Scholar
  39. Galioto, R., & Crowther, J. H. (2013). The effects of exposure to slender and muscular images on male body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 10, 566–573. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.07.009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gillen, M. M., & Lefkowitz, E. S. (2012). Gender and racial/ethnic differences in body image development among college students. Body Image, 9, 126–130. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.09.004.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Godbold, L. C., & Pfau, M. (2000). Conferring resistance to peer pressure among adolescents: Using inoculation theory to discourage alcohol use. Communication Research, 27, 411–437. doi:10.1177/009365000027004001.Google Scholar
  42. Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 460–476. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.134.3.460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Green, M. C., & Dill, K. E. (2013). Engaging with stories and characters: Learning, persuasion, and transportation into narrative worlds. In K. E. Dill (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of media psychology (pp. 449–461). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Green, M. C., Brock, T. C., & Kaufman, G. F. (2004). Understanding media enjoyment: The role of transportation into narrative worlds. Communication Theory, 14, 311–327. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00317.x.Google Scholar
  45. Groesz, L. M., Levine, M. P., & Murnen, S. K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: A meta-analytic review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31, 1–16. doi:10.1002/eat.10005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Grogan, S. (2011). Body image development in adulthood. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 93–100). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Gunther, A. C., & Storey, J. D. (2003). The influence of presumed influence. Journal of Communication, 53, 199–215. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2003.tb02586.x.Google Scholar
  48. Halliwell, E. (2013). The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: Does body appreciation protect women from negative effects? Body Image, 10, 509–514. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.07.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Harper, K., Sperry, S., & Thompson, J. K. (2008). Viewership of pro-eating disorder websites: Association with body image and eating disturbances. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41, 92–95. doi:10.1002/eat.20408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Harriger, J. A., Calogero, R. M., Witherington, D. C., & Smith, J. E. (2010). Body size stereotyping and internalization of the thin ideal in preschool girls. Sex Roles, 63, 609–620. doi:10.1007/s11199-010-9868-1.Google Scholar
  51. Harrison, K., & Hefner, V. (2006). Media exposure, current and future body ideals, and disordered eating among preadolescent girls: A longitudinal panel study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 146–156. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-9008-3.Google Scholar
  52. Hartocollis, A. (2013, October 1). City unveils a campaign to improve girls’ self-esteem. The New York Times, A17.Google Scholar
  53. Heimpel, S. A., Wood, J. V., Marshall, M. A., & Brown, J. D. (2002). Do people with low self-esteem really want to feel better?: Self-esteem differences in motivation to repair negative moods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 128–147. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.82.1.128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Helgeson, V. S. (2009). The psychology of gender (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  55. Holmstrom, A. J. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48, 196–217. doi:10.1207/s15506878jobem4802_3.Google Scholar
  56. Homan, K., McHugh, E., Wells, D., Watson, C., & King, C. (2012). The effect of viewing ultra-fit images on college women’s body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 9, 50–56. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.07.006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Joinson, A. N., & Paine, C. B. (2007). Self-disclosure, privacy and the Internet. In A. N. Joinson, K. Y. A. McKenna, T. Postmes, & U.-D. Reips (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology (pp. 237–252). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Crane, J. (2012). A losing battle: Effects of prolonged exposure to thin-ideal images on dieting and body satisfaction. Communication Research, 39, 79–102. doi:10.1177/0093650211400596.Google Scholar
  59. Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Romero, J. P. (2011). Body ideals in the media: Perceived attainability and social comparison choices. Media Psychology, 14, 27–48. doi:10.1080/15213269.2010.547833.Google Scholar
  60. Knobloch-Westerwick, S., Johnson, B. K., & Westerwick, A. (2013). To your health: Self-regulation of health behavior through selective exposure to online health messages. Journal of Communication, 63, 807–829. doi:10.1111/jcom.12055.Google Scholar
  61. Lapinski, M. K., Maloney, E. K., Braz, M., & Shulman, H. C. (2013). Testing the effects of social norms and behavioral privacy on hand washing: A field experiment. Human Communication Research, 39, 21–46. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2012.01441.x.Google Scholar
  62. Lenhart, A., Purcell, K., Smith, A., & Zickuhr, K. (2010). Social media and young adults -- Pew Internet and Life Project. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Social-media-and-young-adults.
  63. Levine, M. P., & Chapman, K. (2011). Media influences on body image. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 101–109). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  64. Levine, M. P., & Harrison, K. (2004). Media’s role in the perpetuation and prevention of negative body image and disordered eating. In J. K. Thompson (Ed.), Handbook of eating disorders and obesity (pp. 695–717). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  65. Levine, M. P., & Harrison, K. (2009). Effects of media on eating disorders and body image. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 490–516). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Maccoby, E. E. (Ed.). (1966). The development of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Major, B., Testa, M., & Bylsma, W. H. (1991). Responses to upward and downward social comparisons: The impact of esteem-relevance and perceived control. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 237–260). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  68. McCreary, D. R. (2011). Body image and muscularity. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 198–205). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  69. Mellor, D., Waterhouse, M., Mamat, N. H., Xu, X., Cochrane, J., McCabe, M., & Ricciardelli, L. (2013). Which body features are associated with female adolescents’ body dissatisfaction? A cross-cultural study in Australia, China and Malaysia. Body Image, 10, 54–61. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.10.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mischner, I. H. S., van Schie, H. T., Wigboldus, D. H. J., van Baaren, R. B., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2013). Thinking big: The effect of sexually objectifying music videos on bodily self-perception in young women. Body Image, 10, 26–34. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.08.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mitchell, S. H., Petrie, T. A., Greenleaf, C. A., & Martin, S. B. (2012). Moderators of the internalization-body dissatisfaction relationship in middle school girls. Body Image, 9, 431–440. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.07.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Morgan, M., Shanahan, J., & Signorielli, N. (2009). Growing up with television: Cultivation processes. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 34–49). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Moyer-Gusé, E. (2008). Toward a theory of entertainment persuasion: Explaining the persuasive effects of entertainment-education messages. Communication Theory, 18, 407–425. doi:10.1111/comt.2008.18.issue-3.Google Scholar
  74. Murray, K., Rieger, E., & Byrne, D. (2013). A longitudinal investigation of the mediating role of self-esteem and body importance in the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction in adolescent females and males. Body Image, 10, 544–551. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.07.011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Myers, T. A., & Crowther, J. H. (2009). Social comparison as a predictor of body dissatisfaction: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 683–698. doi:10.1037/a0016763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Myers, T. A., Ridolfi, D. R., Crowther, J. H., & Ciesla, J. A. (2012). The impact of appearance-focused social comparisons on body image disturbance in the naturalistic environment: The roles of thin-ideal internalization and feminist beliefs. Body Image, 9, 342–351. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.03.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Nabi, R. L., & Keblusek, L. (2014). Inspired by hope, motivated by envy: Comparing the effects of discrete emotions in the process of social comparison to media figures. Media Psychology, 17, 208–234. doi:10.1080/15213269.2013.878663.Google Scholar
  78. Norris, M. L., Boydell, K. M., Pinhas, L., & Katzman, D. K. (2006). Ana and the Internet: A review of pro-anorexia websites. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 443–447. doi:10.1002/eat.20305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Noser, A., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2014). Investing in the ideal: Does objectified body consciousness mediate the association between appearance contingent self-self-worth and appearance self-esteem in women? Body Image, 11, 119–125. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.11.006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Park, S.-Y. (2005). The influence of presumed media influence on women’s desire to be thin. Communication Research, 32, 594–614. doi:10.1177/0093650205279350.Google Scholar
  81. Paxton, S. J., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Hannan, P. J., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2006). Body dissatisfaction prospectively predicts depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 539–549. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3504_5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Perloff, R. M. (2009). Mass media, social perception, and the third-person effect. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 252–268). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  83. Ricciardelli, L. A., McCabe, M. P., Mussap, A. J., & Holt, K. E. (2009). Body image in preadolescent boys. In L. Smolak & J. K. Thompson (Eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth: Assessment, prevention, and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 77–96). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  84. Rice, R. E., & Atkin, C. K. (2009). Public communication campaigns: Theoretical principles and practical evaluations. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 436–468). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. Rodgers, R. F., Ganchou, C., Franko, D. L., & Chabrol, H. (2012). Drive for muscularity and disordered eating among French adolescent boys: A sociocultural model. Body Image, 9, 318–323. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.03.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rodin, J., Silberstein, L., & Streigel-Moore, R. (1985). Women and weight: A normative discontent. In T. B. Sonderegger (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Psychology and gender (pp. 267–307). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  87. Rubin, A. M. (2009). Uses-and-gratifications perspective on media effects. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 165–184). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  88. Scharrer, E. L. (2013). Representations of gender in the media. In K. E. Dill (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of media psychology (pp. 267–284). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Schooler, D., & Daniels, E. A. (2014). “I am not a skinny toothpick and proud of it”: Latina adolescents’ ethnic identity and responses to mainstream media images. Body Image, 11, 11–18. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.09.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Schooler, D., & Lowry, L. S. (2011). Hispanic/Latino body images. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 237–243). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  91. Schroeder, C. M., & Prentice, D. A. (1998). Exposing pluralistic ignorance to reduce alcohol use among college students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 2150–2180. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01365.x.Google Scholar
  92. Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 3–12). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Sinton, M. M., & Birch, L. L. (2006). Individual and sociocultural influences on pre-adolescent girls’ appearance schemas and body dissatisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 157–167. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-9007-4.Google Scholar
  94. Slater, M. D. (2007). Reinforcing spirals: The mutual influence of media selectivity and media effects and their impact on individual behavior and social identity. Communication Theory, 17, 281–303. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2007.00296.x.Google Scholar
  95. Slater, A., Tiggemann, M., Hawkins, K., & Werchon, D. (2012). Just one click: A content analysis of advertisements on teen web sites. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 339–345. doi:10.1016/j.adohealth.2011.08.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Smolak, L., & Thompson, J. K. (2009). Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in children and adolescents: Introduction to the second edition. In L. Smolak & J. K. Thompson (Eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth: Assessment, prevention, and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 3–14). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  97. Steinberg, L. (2008). Adolescence (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  98. Stelter, B. (2012, February 8). Youth are watching, but less often on TV. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com.
  99. Stewart, T. M., & Williamson, D. A. (2004). Assessment of body image disturbances. In J. K. Thompson (Ed.), Handbook of eating disorders and obesity (pp. 495–514). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  100. Stice, E., Schupak-Neuberg, E., Shaw, H. E., & Stein, R. I. (1994). Relation of media exposure to eating disorder symptomatology: An examination of mediating mechanisms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 836–840. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.103.4.836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Stice, E., Shaw, H., Burton, E., & Wade, E. (2006). Dissonance and healthy weight eating disorder prevention programs: A randomized efficacy trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 263–275. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.2.263.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Suls, J., & Wheeler, L. (2000). A selective history of classic and neo-social comparison theories. In J. Suls & L. Wheeler (Eds.), Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research (pp. 3–19). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  103. Sundar, S. S. (2008). The MAIN model: A heuristic approach to understanding technology effects on credibility. In M. J. Metzger & A. J. Flanagin (Eds.), Digital media, youth, and credibility (pp. 73–100). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  104. Sundar, S. S., & Limperos, A. M. (2013). Uses and grats 2.0: New gratifications for new media. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 57, 504–525. doi:10.1080/08838151.2013.845827.Google Scholar
  105. Sundar, S. S., Oh, J., Kang, H., & Sreenivasan, A. (2013). How does technology persuade? Theoretical mechanisms for persuasive technologies. In J. P. Dillard & L. Shen (Eds.), The Sage handbook of persuasion: Developments in theory and practice (2nd ed., pp. 388–404). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  106. Swallow, S. R., & Kuiper, N. A. (1988). Social comparison and negative self-evaluations: An application to depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 55–76. doi:10.1016/0272-7358(88)90049-9.Google Scholar
  107. Swallow, S. R., & Kuiper, N. A. (1993). Social comparison in dysphoria and nondysphoria: Differences in target similarity and specificity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17, 103–122. doi:10.1007/BF01172960.Google Scholar
  108. Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  109. Thomsen, S. R., McCoy, J. K., Gustafson, R. L., & Williams, M. (2002). Motivations for reading beauty and fashion magazines and anorexic risk in college-age women. Media Psychology, 4, 113–135. doi:10.1207/S1532785XMEP0402_01.Google Scholar
  110. Tiggemann, M. (2011). Sociocultural perspectives on human appearance and body image. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 12–19). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  111. Tiggemann, M. (2014). The status of media effects on body image research: Commentary on articles in the themed issue on body image and media. Media Psychology, 17, 127–133. doi:10.1080/15213269.2014.891822.Google Scholar
  112. Tiggemann, M., & Slater, A. (2013). NetGirls: The Internet, Facebook, and body image concern in adolescent girls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 46, 630–633. doi:10.1002/eat.22141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Tiggemann, M., Polivy, J., & Hargreaves, D. (2009). The processing of thin ideals in fashion magazines: A source of social comparison or fantasy? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 73–93. doi:10.1521/jscp.2009.28.1.73.Google Scholar
  114. Tiggemann, M., Slater, A., & Smyth, V. (2014). “Retouch free”: The effect of labelling media images as not digitally altered on women’s body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 11, 85–88. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.08.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Tylka, T. L., & Calogero, R. M. (2011). Fiction, fashion, and function finale: An introduction and conclusion to the special issue on gendered body image, Part III. Sex Roles, 65, 447–460. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-0042-1.Google Scholar
  116. Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2013a). The differential susceptibility to media effects model. Journal of Communication, 63, 221–243. doi:10.1111/jcom.12024.Google Scholar
  117. Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2013b). Five challenges for the future of media-effects research. International Journal of Communication, 7, 197–215.Google Scholar
  118. Van Laer, T., de Ruyter, K., Visconti, L. M., & Wetzels, M. (2014). The extended transportation-imagery model: A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of consumers’ narrative transportation. Journal of Consumer Research, 40, 797–817. doi:10.1086/673383.Google Scholar
  119. Wertheim, E. H., Paxton, S. J., & Blaney, S. (2004). Risk factors for the development of body image disturbances. In J. K. Thompson (Ed.), Handbook of eating disorders and obesity (pp. 463–494). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  120. Wertheim, E. H., Paxton, S. J., & Blaney, S. (2009). Body image in girls. In L. Smolak & J. K. Thompson (Eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth: Assessment, prevention, and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 47–76). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  121. Wood, J. V., & Taylor, K. L. (1991). Serving self-relevant goals through social comparison. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 23–49). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  122. Wortham, J., & Goel, V. (2013, October 7). Nipping at Twitter’s heels. The New York Times, B1, B4.Google Scholar
  123. Yanover, T., & Thompson, J. K. (2009). Assessment of body image in children and adolescents. In L. Smolak & J. K. Thompson (Eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth: Assessment, prevention, and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 177–192). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  124. Yom-Tov, E., & Boyd, D. M. (2014). On the link between media coverage of anorexia and pro-anorexic practices on the Web. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47, 196–202. doi:10.1002/eat.22195.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of CommunicationCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations