Advertisement

Sex Roles

, Volume 71, Issue 1–2, pp 7–20 | Cite as

The Experience of Former Women Officials and the Impact on the Sporting Community

  • Jacob K. TingleEmail author
  • Stacy Warner
  • Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin
Original Article

Abstract

In an effort to explore the shortage of female sport officials, the authors examined the experience of eight former female basketball officials from five geographically diverse states in the U.S. who voluntarily left the role. Specifically, the authors asked former female basketball officials to describe their workplace experiences. Utilizing a phenomenological approach and workplace incivility framework, the results indicated that the felt social inequity for female officials detracted from the participants experiencing a sense of community in the workplace, which ultimately led to their discontinuation in the role. Results indicate four key factors that created this uncivil work environment. An examination of the data revealed four major themes. Specifically the female basketball officials reported experiencing a Lack of Mutual Respect from male counterparts; Perceived Inequity of Policies; a Lack of Role Modeling and Mentoring for and from female officials; and experiencing more Gendered Abuse than did their male counterparts. The combination of these four factors exacerbated the female officials’ inability to connect to the officiating community and led to their withdrawal from the role. The results further indicate that women officials likely threatened the hegemonic characteristics of a sport setting. Although females have made great strides in terms of sport participation, the practical implications of this research suggest that understanding females in workplace roles, such as officiating, is vital if social equity is to be achieved in the sporting community.

Keywords

Sport officiating Workplace incivility Gender equity Retention Community Phenomenology 

References

  1. Acosta, V., & Carpenter, L. (2012). Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal, national study, thirty-five year update (1977–2012). Retrieved from http://www.acostacarpenter.org.
  2. Allen‐Collinson, J. (2009). Sporting embodiment: Sports studies and the (continuing) promise of phenomenology. Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise, 1, 279–296. doi: 10.1080/19398440903192340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Sport Education Program. (2011). Successful sports officiating (2nd ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  4. Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 24, 452–472. doi: 10.2307/259136.Google Scholar
  5. Anshel, M. H., & Weinberg, R. S. (1995). Sources of acute stress in American and Australian basketball referees. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 7, 11–22. doi: 10.1080/10413209508406297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashworth, P. (1996). Presuppose nothing! The suspension of assumptions in phenomenological psychological methodology. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 27, 1–25. doi: 10.1163/156916296X00014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Avery, D. R., Tonidandel, S., & Phillips, M. G. (2008). Similarity on sports sidelines: How mentor-protégé sex similarity affects mentoring. Sex Roles, 58, 72–80. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9321-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balch, M. J., & Scott, D. (2007). Contrary to popular belief, refs are people too! Personality and perceptions of officials. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30, 3–20.Google Scholar
  9. Burton, L. J., Barr, C. A., Fink, J. S., & Bruening, J. E. (2009). Think athletic director, think masculine? Examination of the gender typing of managerial subroles within athletic administration positions. Sex Roles, 61, 416–426. doi: 10.1007/s1119-009-9632-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burton, L. J., Grappendorf, H., & Henderson, A. (2011). Perceptions of gender in athletic administration: Utilizing role congruity to examine (potential) prejudice against women. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 36–45.Google Scholar
  11. Cavallero, G. (1988). Psychological characteristics of the ideal baseball umpire: Study of a sample of Italian umpires. Movimento, 4, 121–125.Google Scholar
  12. Chiafullo, C. M. (1998). From personal foul to personal attack: How sports officials are the target of physical abuse from players, coaches and fans alike. Seton Hall Journal of Sport Law, 8, 201–204.Google Scholar
  13. Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender & Society, 19, 829–859. doi: 10.1177/0891243205278639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cortina, L. M. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33, 55–75. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2008.27745097.
  15. Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2009). Patterns and profiles of response to incivility in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Heath Psychology, 14, 272–288. doi: 10.1037/a0014934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cortina, L. M., Kabat-Farr, D., Leskinen, E. A., Huerta, M., & Magley, V. J. (2011). Selective incivility as modern discrimination in organizations: Evidence and impact. Journal of Management, 39, 1579–1605. doi: 10.1177/0149206311418835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coulomb-Cabahno, G., Rascle, O., & Souchon, N. (2005). Players’ gender and male referees’ decisions about aggression in French soccer: A preliminary study. Sex Roles, 52, 547–553. doi: 10.1007/s11199-005-3720-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Cunningham, G. B. (2008). Creating and sustaining gender diversity in sport organizations. Sex Roles, 58, 1–2. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9312-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cunningham, G. B. (2009). The moderating effect of diversity strategy on the relationship between racial diversity and organizational performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 1445–1460. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.200900490.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cunningham, G. B. (2011). The LGBT advantage: Examining the relationship among sexual orientation diversity, diversity strategy, and performance. Sport Management Review, 14, 453–461. doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2010.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cunningham, G. B. (2012). Diversity training in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Management, 26, 391–403.Google Scholar
  23. Cunningham, G. B., & Fink, J. S. (2006). Diversity issues in sport and leisure: Introduction to a special issue. Journal of Sport Management, 20, 455–465.Google Scholar
  24. Cunningham, G. B., & Sagas, M. (2008). Gender and sex diversity in sport organizations: Introduction to a special issue. Sex Roles, 58, 3–9. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9360-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cunningham, G. B., Miner, K., & McDonald, J. (2013). Being different and suffering consequences: The influence of head coach-player racial dissimilarity on experienced incivility. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48, 689–705. doi: 10.1177/1012690212446382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dixon, M. A. (2009). From their perspective: A qualitative examination of physical activity and sport programming for working mothers. Sport Management Review, 12, 34–48. doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2008.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dixon, M. A., & Warner, S. (2010). The dynamics of worker satisfaction: The role of work and non-work factors. Journal of Sport Management, 24, 139–168.Google Scholar
  28. Dixon, M. A., Warner, S. M., & Bruening, J. E. (2008). More than just letting them play: Parental influence on women’s lifetime. Sociology of Sport Journal, 25, 538–559.Google Scholar
  29. Edwards, A., & Skinner, J. (2009). Qualitative research in sport management. Burlington: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  30. Fink, J. S. (2008). Gender and sex diversity in sport organizations: Concluding remarks. Sex Roles, 58, 146–147. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9364-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fink, J. S., Pastore, D. L., & Riemer, H. A. (2001). Do differences make a difference? Managing diversity in division IA intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Management, 15, 10–50.Google Scholar
  32. Folkesson, P., Nyberg, C., Archer, T., & Norlander, T. (2002). Soccer referees’ experience of threat and aggression: Effects of age, experience, and life orientation on outcome of coping strategy. Aggressive Behavior, 28, 317–327. doi: 10.1002/ab.90028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Giorgi, A. (Ed.). (1985). Phenomenology and psychological research. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hockey, J., & Allen-Collinson, J. (2009). The sensorium at work: The sensory phenomenology of the working body. The Sociological Review, 57, 217–239. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-954X.2009.01827.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kabat-Farr, D., & Cortina, L. M. (2012). Selective incivility: Gender, race, and the discriminatory workplace. In S. Fox & T. R. Lituchy (Eds.), Gender and the dysfunctional workplace (pp. 107–119). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Kellett, P., & Shilbury, D. (2007). Umpire participation: Is abuse really the issue? Sport Management Review, 10, 209–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kellett, P., & Warner, S. (2011). Creating communities that lead to retention: The social worlds and communities of umpires. European Sport Management Quarterly, 11, 475–498. doi: 10.1080/16184742.2011.624109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kendall, G., Knust, S., Riveiro, C. C., & Urrutia, S. (2009). Scheduling in sports: An annotated bibliography. Computers and Operations Research, 37, 1–19. doi: 10.1016/j.cor.2009.05.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Krane, V. (2001). We can be athletic and feminine, but do we want to? Challenging hegemonic femininity in women’s sport. Quest, 53, 115–133. doi: 10.1080/00336297.2001.10491733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kunkel, K., & Godino, V. J. (1995). A critique of legislated gender equality: The ideological failure of assimilation in college intramural sport. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 23, 43–51.Google Scholar
  41. Lambert, S. J., & Hopkins, K. (1995). Occupational conditions and workers’ sense of community: Variation by gender and race. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 151–179. doi: 10.1007/BF02506934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lim, S., & Cortina, L. M. (2005). Interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace: The interface and impact of general incivility and sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 483–496. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lim, S., Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2008). Personal and workgroup incivility: Impact on work and health outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 95–107. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mean, L. (2001). Identity and discursive practice: Doing gender on the football pitch. Discourse & Society, 12, 789–815. doi: 10.1177/0957926501012006004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Meisenbach, R. J. (2010). The female breadwinner: Phenomenological experience and gendered identity in work/family spaces. Sex Roles, 62, 2–19. doi: 10.10007/s11199-009-9714-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Messner, M. A. (1988). Sports and male domination: The female athlete as contested ideological terrain. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 197–211.Google Scholar
  47. Miloch, K., Pederson, P., Smucker, M., & Whisenant, W. (2005). The current state of women print journalists: An analysis of the status and careers of females in newspapers sports departments. Public Organization Review, 5, 219–232. doi: 10.1007/s11115-005-3499-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miner-Rubio, K., & Cortina, L. M. (2004). Working in a context of hostility toward women: Implications for employees’ well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9, 107–122. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.9.2.107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Munhall, P. L. (2007). Nursing research: A qualitative perspective (4th ed.). Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.Google Scholar
  50. Pearson, C. M., Andersson, L. M., & Wegner, J. W. (2001). When workers flout convention: A study of workplace incivility. Human Relations, 54, 1387–1419. doi: 10.1177/00187267015411001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Philippe, F. L., Vallerand, R. J., Andrianarisoa, J., & Brunel, P. (2009). Passion in referees: Examining their affective and cognitive experiences in sport situations. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 77–96.Google Scholar
  52. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12, 531–544. doi: 10.1177/014920638601200408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pollio, H. R., Henley, T. B., & Thompson, C. J. (Eds.). (1997). The phenomenology of everyday life. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Pretty, G., & McCarthy, M. (1991). Exploring psychological sense of community among women and men of the corporation. Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 351–361. doi: 10.1002/1520-6629(199110)19:4<351::AID-JCOP2290190407>3.0.CP;2-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rainey, D. W. (1994). Assaults on umpires: A statewide survey. Journal of Sport Behavior, 17, 148–155.Google Scholar
  56. Rainey, D. W. (1995). Stress, burnout, and intention to terminate among umpires. Journal of Sport Behavior, 18, 312–323.Google Scholar
  57. Rainey, D. W. (1999). Sources of stress, burnout, and intention to terminate among basketball referees. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22, 579–591.Google Scholar
  58. Rainey, D. W., & Hardy, L. (1997). Ratings of stress by rugby referees. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 728–730. doi: 10.2466/pms.1997.84.3.728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Reio, T. G., & Ghosh, R. (2009). Antecedents and outcomes of workplace incivility: Implications for human resource development research and practice. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 20, 237–264. doi: 10.1002/hrdq.20020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sartore, M. L. (2006). Categorization, performance appraisals, and self-limiting behavior: The impact on current and future performance. Journal of Sport Management, 20, 535–553.Google Scholar
  61. Sartore, M. L., & Cunningham, G. B. (2007). Explaining the under-representation of women in leadership positions of sport organizations: A symbolic interactionist perspective. Quest, 59, 244–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sartore, M. L., & Sagas, M. (2006). A trend analysis of the proportion of women in college coaching. International Journal of Sport Management, 8, 226–244.Google Scholar
  63. Sartore-Baldwin, M. L. (2013). The professional experiences and work-related outcomes of male and female division I strength and conditioning coaches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27, 831–838. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825c2fd3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Souchon, N., Coulomb-Cabahno, G., Traclet, A., & Rascle, O. (2004). Referees’ decision making in handball and transgressive behaviors: Influence of stereotypes about gender of players? Sex Roles, 51, 445–453. doi: 10.1023/B:SERS.0000049233.28353.f0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Spink, K. S. (1995). Cohesion and intention to participate of female sport team athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17, 416–427.Google Scholar
  66. Titlebaum, P. J., Haberlin, N., & Titlebaum, G. (2009). Recruitment and retention of sports officials. Recreational Sports Journal, 33, 102–108.Google Scholar
  67. Todey, A. (2011). Experiences of stereotype threat of female sports officials. Poster presented at Division 17 of the American Psychological Association Convention, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  68. Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  69. Walker, N. A., & Bopp, T. (2010). The underrepresentation of women in the male-dominated sport workplace: Perspectives of female coaches. Journal of Workplace Rights, 15, 47–64. doi: 10.2190/WR.15.1.d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Warner, S., & Dixon, M. A. (2011). Understanding sense of community from the athlete’s perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 257–271.Google Scholar
  71. Warner, S., & Dixon, M. A. (2013a). Competition, gender and the sport experience: An exploration among college athletes. Sport, education and society. Advance Online Publication. doi: 10.1080/13573322.2013.774273.
  72. Warner, S., & Dixon, M. A. (2013b). Sports and community on campus: Constructing a sports experience that matters. Journal of College Student Development, 54, 283–298. doi: 10.1353/csd.2013.0044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Warner, S., Bowers, M. T., & Dixon, M. A. (2012a). Team dynamics: A social network perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 26, 53–66.Google Scholar
  74. Warner, S., Dixon, M. A., & Chalip, L. C. (2012b). The impact of formal versus informal sport: Mapping the differences in sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 983–1003. doi: 10.1002/jcop.21506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Warner, S., Tingle, J. K., & Kellett, P. (2012c). An administrative mess: A case study from the officiating community. Sport Management Review, 15, 368–380. doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2011.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Warner, S., Tingle, J. K., & Kellett, P. (2013). Officiating attrition: The experiences of former referees. Journal of Sport Management, 27, 316–328.Google Scholar
  77. Weaver, M. A., & Chelladurai, P. (1999). A mentoring model for management in sport and physical education. Quest, 51, 24–38. doi: 10.1080/00336297.1999.10491666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Willig, C. (2007). Reflections on the use of a phenomenological method. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 4, 209–225. doi: 10.1080/14780880701473425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacob K. Tingle
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stacy Warner
    • 2
  • Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin
    • 2
  1. 1.One Trinity Place, William H. Bell CenterTrinity UniversitySan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Department of Kinesiology, Minges ColiseumEast Carolina UniversityGreenvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations