Sex Roles

, Volume 69, Issue 5–6, pp 289–296 | Cite as

Perceptions of Gender Discrimination across Six Decades: The Moderating Roles of Gender and Age

  • Andre KehnEmail author
  • Joelle C. Ruthig
Original Article


In the current paper we examined whether women and men view gender discrimination as having changed over time, and if so: 1) how it has changed and 2) whether changes in anti-women bias are viewed as directly associated with changes in anti-men bias. Based on prior research (Norton and Sommers, 2011; Sidanius and Pratto, 1999), it was hypothesized that older men (35 years and older) compared to younger men (18–34 years of age) would hold a zero-sum view of gender discrimination trends in that older men would perceive increases in anti-men bias to accompany decreases in anti-women bias. Conversely, women, regardless of age, were expected to perceive changes in anti-women bias as unrelated to changes in anti-men bias. Results based on data from an online U.S. national sample (n = 499) supported the hypotheses for older men (n = 58), younger men (n = 160), older women (n = 96) and younger women (n = 185) and corroborated parallel past findings that the historically dominant social group (older men in this case) perceive any status gained by a socially subordinate group (women) as coming at the dominant group’s expense.


Gender discrimination Zero-sum view Gender differences Age differences 



Thanks are extended to Björn A. Kahrs and Lisa A. Paul for comments on an earlier version of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North DakotaGrand ForksUSA

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