Skip to main content

Rape Myths: History, Individual and Institutional-Level Presence, and Implications for Change

Abstract

Rape myths, which are present at both the individual and institutional/societal levels, are one way in which sexual violence has been sustained and justified throughout history. In light of an increasing accumulation of rape myth research across a variety of disciplines, this paper proposes to use a feminist lens to provide an overview of the historical origins of rape myths, to document the current manifestations of these myths in American society, and to summarize the current body of research literature. We focus on the history of several specific rape myths (i.e., “husbands cannot rape their wives,” “women enjoy rape,” “women ask to be raped,” and “women lie about being raped”) and how these particular myths permeate current legal, religious, and media institutions (despite their falsehood). The paper concludes with suggestions for further research and describes how existing evidence could be used to aid in eradicating rape myths at both the individual and institutional levels.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • All charges dropped in Duke case (2007, April 12). New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/12/us/12duke.html

  • Allen, M., D’Alessio, D., & Brezgel, K. (1995). A meta-analysis summarizing the effects of pornography II: Aggression after exposure. Human Communication Research, 22, 258–283. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1995.tb00368.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allison, J. A., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1993). Rape, the misunderstood crime. Thousand Oaks: Sage. doi:10.1111/1467-9450.00310.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aromaki, A. S., Haebich, K., & Lindman, R. E. (2002). Age as a modifier of sexually aggressive attitudes in men. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, 419–423.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ask, K. (2010). A survey of police officers’ and prosecutors’ beliefs about crime victim behaviors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25, 1132–1149. doi:10.1177/0886260509340535.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barshis, V. G. (1983). The question of marital rape. Women’s Studies International Forum, 6, 383–393. doi:10.1016/0277-5395(83)90031-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Basile, K. C. (2002). Attitudes toward wife rape: Effects of social background and victim status. Violence and Victims, 17, 341–354. doi:10.1891/vivi.17.3.341.33659.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bennice, J. A., & Resick, A. (2003). Marital rape: History, research, and practice. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 4, 228–246. doi:10.1177/1524838003004003003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blackstone, W. (1765). Commentaries on the law of England. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Block, S. (2002). Rape without women: Print culture and the politicization of rape, 1765–1815. The Journal of American History, 89, 849–868. doi:10.2307/3092343.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Block, S. (2006). Rape and sexual power in early America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blyth, C. (2009). Terrible silence, eternal silence: A feminist re-reading of Dinah’s voicelessness in Genesis 34. Biblical Interpretation: A Journal of Contemporary Approaches, 17, 483–506. doi:10.1163/156851508X401150.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bourke, J. (2007). Rape: A history from 1860 to present. London: Virago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brinson, S. L. (1992). The use and opposition of rape myths in prime-time television dramas. Sex Roles, 27, 359–375. doi:10.1007/BF00289945.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women, and rape. New York: Penguin Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryant, J., & Oliver, M. B. (2009). Media effects: Advances in theory and research. New York: Taylor & Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryden, D. P. (2000). Redefining rape. Buffalo Criminal Law Review, 3(2), 317–479. doi:10.1525/nclr.2000.3.2.317.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryden, D. P., & Lengnick, S. (1997). Rape in the criminal justice system. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87, 1194–1384. doi:10.2307/1144018.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buddie, A. M., & Miller, G. (2001). Beyond rape myths: A more complex view of perceptions of rape victims. Sex Roles, 45, 139–160. doi:10.1023/A:1013575209803.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burt, M. R. (1980). Cultural myths and supports for rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 217–230. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.38.2.217.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cahill, A. (2000). Foucault, rape, and the construction of the feminine body. Hypatia, 15, 43–63. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.2000.tb01079.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caringella-MacDonald, S. (1998). Parallels and pitfalls: The aftermath of legal reform for sexual assault, marital rape, and domestic violence victims. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 174–189. doi:10.1177/088626088003002004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carmody, D. C., & Washington, L. M. (2001). Rape myth acceptance among college women: The impact of race and prior victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 424–436. doi:10.1177/088626001016005003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Centers for Disease Control (2004). Sexual violence facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/svfacts.htm

  • Chapleau, K. M., & Oswald, D. L. (2010). Power, sex and rape myth acceptance: Testing two models of rape proclivity. The Journal of Sex Research, 47, 66–78. doi:10.1080/00224490902954323.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cuklanz, L. M. (2000). Rape on prime time: Television, masculinity, and sexual violence. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davies, M. (2002). Male sexual assault victims: A selective review of the literature and implications for support services. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7, 203–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davison, L. (2006). Preaching the women of the Bible. St. Louis: Chalice Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Desai, A. D., Edwards, K. M., & Gidycz, C. A. (2008, November). Testing an integrative model of sexual aggression in college men. In A. C. Aosved (Chair), Sexual violence perpetration: Individual and contextual factors. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Orlando, FL.

  • Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5–18. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.56.1.5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dworkin, A. (1981). Pornography: Men possessing women. New York: Penguin Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edward, K. E., & McLeod, M. D. (1999). The reality and myth of rape: Implications for the criminal justice system. Expert Evidence, 7, 37–58. doi:10.1023/A:1008917714094.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Edwards, R. W., Jumper-Thurman, P., Plested, B. A., Oetting, E. R., & Swanson, L. (2000). Community readiness: Research to practice. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 291–307. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(200005)28:3<291::AID-JCOP5>3.0.CO;2-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Edwards, K. M., Gidyz, C. A., & Desai, A. D. (2010). [Rape myths]. Unpublished raw data.

  • Emmers-Sommer, T. M., & Burns, R. J. (2005). The relationship between exposure to internet pornography and sexual attitudes toward women. Journal of Online Behavior, 1, Retrieved from: http://www.behavior.net/JOB/v1n4/emmers-sommer.html

  • Ewoldt, C. A., Monson, C. M., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2000). Attributions about rape in a continuum of dissolving marital relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 1175–1182. doi:10.1177/088626000015011004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson, F. (1987). Rape and the rise of the novel. Representations, 20, 88–112. doi:10.1525/rep.1987.20.1.99p0185u.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferro, C., Cermele, J., & Saltzman, A. (2008). Current perceptions of marital rape: Some good and not-so-good news. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23, 764–779. doi:10.1177/0886260507313947.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feild, H. S. (1978). Attitudes toward rape: A comparative analysis of police, rapists, crisis counselors, and citizens. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 156–179. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.36.2.156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feild, H. S., & Bienen, L. B. (1980). Jurors and rape. Lexington: D.C. Health.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finch, E., & Munro, V. E. (2005). Juror stereotypes and blame attribution in rape cases involving intoxicants. British Journal of Criminology, 45, 25–38. doi:10.1093/bjc/azh055.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, B. S., Cullen, F. T., & Turner M. G. (2000). The sexual victimization of college women. Retrieved from www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles1/nij/182369.txt

  • Forcible and statutory rape: An exploration of the operation and objectives of the consent standard. (1952). The Yale Law Journal, 62, 55–83.

  • Fortune, M. M. (2005). Sexual violence: The sin revised. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fountain, A. (2007). It’s all in the words: Determining the relationship between newspaper portrayal of rape victims and reader responses. Bridgewater State College Undergraduate Review, 4, 33–40. Retrieved from http://www.bridgew.edu/undergraduatereview/pdf/volume%20IV%20UR.pdf

  • Franiuk, R., Seefelt, J. L., Cepress, S. L., & Vandello, J. A. (2008a). Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: The Kobe Bryant case. Violence Against Women, 14, 287–309. doi:10.1177/1077801207313971.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Franiuk, R., Seefelt, J. L., & Vandello, J. A. (2008b). Prevalence of rape myths in headlines and their effects on attitudes toward rape. Sex Roles, 58, 790–801. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9372-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freymeyer, R. H. (1997). Rape myths and religiosity. Sociological Spectrum, 17, 473–489. doi:10.1080/02732173.1997.9982179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garcia, L. T. (1998). Perceptions of resistance to unwanted sexual advances. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 10, 43–52. doi:10.1300/J056v10n01_03.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gavey, N. (2005). Just sex? The cultural scaffolding of rape. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gavey, N., & Gow, V. (2001). ‘Cry wolf’, cried the wolf: Constructing the issue of false rape allegations in New Zealand media texts. Feminism & Psychology, 11, 341–360. doi:10.1177/0959353501011003006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gidycz, C. A., Orchowski, L. M., & Edwards, K. M. (2011). Sexual violence: Primary prevention. In J. White, M. Koss, & A. Kazdin (Eds.), Violence against women and children (Vol 2): Navigating solutions (pp. 159–179). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Gladwell, M. (2002). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gylys, J. A., & McNamara, R. (1996). Acceptance of rape myths among prosecuting attorneys. Psychological Reports, 79, 15–18.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hald, G. M., Malamuth, N. M., & Yuen, C. (2010). Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: Revisiting the relationship in nonexperimental studies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 14–20. doi:10.1002/ab.20328.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hale, M. (1736). Historia placitorum cornae: The history of the pleas of the crown. London: Gyles, Woodword, and Davis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hinck, S. S., & Thomas, R. W. (1999). Rape myth acceptance in college students: How far have we come? Sex Roles, 40, 815–832. doi:10.1023/A:1018816920168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horos, C. V. (1974). Rape. New Canaan: Tobey.

    Google Scholar 

  • Howitt, D. (1998). Crime, the media, and the law. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hyman, I., Guruge, S., Stewart, D. E., & Ahmad, F. (2000). Primary prevention of violence against women. Women’s Health Issues, 10, 288–293. doi:10.1016/S1049-3867(00)00066-9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, B. E., Kuck, D. L., & Schander, P. R. (1997). Rape myth acceptance and sociodemographic characteristics: A multidimensional analysis. Sex Roles, 36, 693–707. doi:10.1023/A:1025671021697.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kahlor, L., & Morrison, D. (2007). Television viewing and rape myth acceptance among college women. Sex Roles, 56, 729–739. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9232-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keener, C. (1996). Some biblical reflections on justice, rape and an insensitive society. In C. Kroeger & J. Beck (Eds.), Women, abuse, and the Bible: How scripture can be used to hurt or to heal (pp. 117–130). Grand Rapids: Baker Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkwood, M. K., & Cecil, D. K. (2001). Marital rape: A student assessment of rape laws and marital exemption. Violence Against Women, 7, 1234–1253. doi:10.1177/1077801201007011003.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koss, M. P., & Oros, C. J. (1982). Sexual Experiences Survey: A research instrument investigating sexual aggression and victimization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 455–457. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.50.3.455.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koss, M. P., Abbey, A., Campbell, R., Cook, S., Norris, J., Testa, M., et al. (2007). Revising the SES: A collaborative process to improve assessment of sexual aggression and victimization. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 3, 357–370. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00385.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kovera, M. B. (2002). The effects of general pretrial publicity on juror decisions: An examination of moderators and mediating mechanisms. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 43–72. doi:10.1023/A:1013829224920.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krahe, B., Temkin, J., Bieneck, S., & Berger, A. (2008). Prospective lawyers’ rape stereotypes and schematic decision making about rape cases. Psychology, Crime and Law, 14, 461–479. doi:10.1080/10683160801932380.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • LaFree, G. D., Reskin, B. F., & Visher, C. A. (1985). Juror’s responses to victims’ behavior and legal issues in sexual assault trials. Social Problems, 32, 389–407. doi:10.1525/sp.1985.32.4.03a00070.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lees, S. (1996). Carnal knowledge: Rape on trial. London: Women’s Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loh, C., Gidycz, C. A., Lobo, T. R., & Luthra, R. (2005). A prospective analysis of sexual assault perpetration: Risk factors related to perpetrator characteristics. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 1325–1348. doi:10.1177/0886260505278528.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lonsway, K. A., & Fitzgerald, L. R. (1994). Rape myths: In review. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 133–164. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1994.tb00448.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lonsway, K., Archambault, J., & Lisak, D. (2007). False reports: Moving beyond the issue to successfully investigate and prosecute non-stranger sexual assault. National Center for the Prosecution of Violence Against Women. Retrieved from http://www.ndaa.org/publications/newsletters/the_voice_vol_3_no_1_2009.pdf

  • Luddy, J. G., & Thompson, E. H. (1997). Masculinities and violence: A father-son comparison of gender traditionality and perceptions of heterosexual rape. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 462–477. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.11.4.462.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacKinnon, C. (1982). Feminism, Marxism, method, and the state: An agenda for theory. Signs, 7, 515–544. doi:10.1086/493898.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacKinnon, C. (1987). Feminism unmodified: Discourses on life and law. Boston: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Malamuth, N. M., & Check, J. V. P. (1985). The effects of aggressive pornography on beliefs in rape myths: Individual differences. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 299–320. doi:10.1016/0092-6566(85)90021-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malamuth, N. A., Addison, T., & Koss, M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: Are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual review of sex research, 11, 26–91. Retrieved from http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/comm/malamuth/pdf/00arsr11.pdf

  • Marshall, B. C., & Alison, L. J. (2006). Structural behavioural analysis as a basis for discriminating between genuine and simulated rape allegations. Journal of Investigating Psychology and Offender Profiling, 3, 21–34. doi:10.1002/jip.42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martin, E. K., Taft, C. T., & Resick, P. A. (2007). A review of marital rape. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12, 329–347. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2006.10.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Masser, B., Viki, G. T., & Power, C. (2006). Hostile sexism and rape proclivity amongst men. Sex Roles, 54, 565–574. doi:10.1007/s11199-006-9022-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matosian, G. M. (1993). Reproducing rape: Domination through talk in the courtroom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayerson, S. E., & Taylor, D. A. (1987). The effects of rape myth pornography on women’s attitudes and the mediating roles of sex role stereotyping. Sex Roles, 17, 321–338. doi:10.1007/BF00288456.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McMahon, S. (2010). Rape myth beliefs and bystander attitudes among incoming college students. Journal of American College Health, 59, 3–11. doi:10.1080/07448481.2010.483715.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McMahon, S., & Farmer, G. (2011). An updated measure for assessing subtle rape myths. Journal of Social Work Research. (in press).

  • Milburn, M. A., Mather, R., & Conrad, S. D. (2000). The effects of viewing R-rated movie scenes that objectify women on perceptions of date rape. Sex Roles, 43, 645–664. doi:10.1023/A:1007152507914.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muehlenhard, C. L., & Hollabaugh, C. (1988). Do women sometimes say no when they mean yes? The prevalence and correlates of women’s token resistance to sex. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 872–879. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.872.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mullin, C., Imrich, D. J., & Linz, D. (1996). The impact of acquaintance rape stories and case-specific pretrial publicity on juror decision making. Communication Research, 23, 100–135. doi:10.1177/009365096023001004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • National Center for the Prosecution of Violence Against Women. (2009). Summary of Spousal Rape Laws. Retrieved from http://www.wcsap.org/pdf/Spousal%20Rape%20Statutes%202009.pdf

  • Norton, R., & Grant, T. (2008). Rape myth in true and false rape allegations. Psychology, Crime & Law, 14, 275–285. doi:10.1080/10683160701770286.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Page, A. D. (2008). Judging women and defining crime: Police officers’ attitudes toward women and rape. Sociological Spectrum, 28, 389–411. doi:10.1080/02732170802053621.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parry, R. (2002). Feminist hermeneutics and evangelical concerns: The rape of Dinah as a case study. Tyndale Bulletin, 53, 1–28. Retrieved from http://98.131.162.170/tynbul/library/TynBull_2002_53_1_01_PerryFeministHermeneutics.pdf

  • Patton, T. O., & Snyder-Yuly, J. (2007). Any four Black men will do: Rape, race, and the ultimate scapegoat. Journal of Black Studies, 37, 859–895. doi:10.1177/0021934706296025.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Payne, D., Lonsway, K., & Fitzgerald, F. (1994). Rape myth acceptance: Exploration of its structure and its measurement using the Illinois Rape Myth Awareness Scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 27–68. doi:10.1006/jrpe.1998.2238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Russell, D. (1990). Rape in marriage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salmon, C., & Symons, D. (2003). Warrior lovers: Erotic fiction, evolution and female sexuality. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schulhofer, S. J. (1998). Unwanted sex: The culture of intimidation and the failure of law. Harvard University Press.

  • Schwendinger, J. R., & Schwendinger, H. (1974). Rape myths: In legal, theoretical, and everyday practice. Crime and Social Justice, 1, 18–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Senate Judiciary Committee (1993). The response to rape: Detours on the road to equal justice. Paper prepared by the majority staff of the Senate Judiciary Committee.

  • Sheldon, J. P., & Parent, S. L. (2002). Clergy’s attitudes and attributions of blame toward female rape victims. Violence Against Women, 8, 233–256. doi:10.1177/10778010222183026.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson, K. (2000). Unequivocal victims: The historical roots of the mystification of the female complainant in rape cases. Feminist Legal Studies, 8, 343–366. doi:10.1023/A:1009270302602.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Suarez, E. B., & Gadalla, T. (2010, January). Stop blaming the victim: A meta-analysis on rape myths. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Social Work and Research, Tampa, FL.

  • Thurston, C. (1987). The romance revolution: Erotic novels for women and the quest for a new sexual identity. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Prevalence and consequences of male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence as measured by the National Violence Against Women Survey. Violence Against Women, 6, 142–161. doi:10.1177/10778010022181769.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Turell, S. C., & Thomas, C. (2001). Where was God? Utilizing spirituality with Christian survivors of sexual abuse. Women and Therapy, 24, 133–147.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 207–232. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(73)90033-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walklate, S. (2008). What is to be done about violence against women? Gender, violence, cosmopolitanism and the law. The British Journal of Criminology, 48, 39–54. doi:10.1093/bjc/azm050.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ward, C. (1988). The attitudes toward rape victims scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 12, 127–146. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1988.tb00932.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Workman, J. E., & Orr, R. L. (1996). Clothing, sex of subject, and rape myth acceptance as factors affecting attributions about an incident of acquaintance rape. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 14, 276–284. doi:10.1177/0887302X9601400407.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wyer, R. S., & Hartwick, J. (1980). The role of information retrieval and conditional inference processes in belief formation and change. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 241–283). New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zurbriggen, E. L. (2000). Social motives and cognitive power-sex associations: Predictors of aggressive sexual behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 559–581. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.78.3.559.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Joanne Archambault, Alan Berkowitz, Sharon Block, Renae Franiuk, Estelle Freedman, Katherine Jellison, Jessica Mindlin, Sarah Projanksy, Diane Sommerville, Kim Stevenson, and Tracy West for their expert consultation and editorial assistance. The authors would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their invaluable suggestions.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Katie M. Edwards.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Edwards, K.M., Turchik, J.A., Dardis, C.M. et al. Rape Myths: History, Individual and Institutional-Level Presence, and Implications for Change. Sex Roles 65, 761–773 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-9943-2

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-9943-2

Keywords

  • Rape myths
  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Review
  • History