Social roles create conflicting behavioral expectations for female negotiators; however, virtual negotiations reduce social pressures. This paper reviews theoretical explanations on why men and women might differ in negotiations that occur through email, telephone, or video. Forty-three negotiation studies comparing face-to-face and virtual negotiations were examined for gender differences. All studies were reported in English but not limited to US participants. While many reports omitted gender information, meta-analytic findings supported the prediction that women would be more hostile in virtual compared to face-to-face negotiations, as well as finding no hostility difference for men between virtual and face-to-face negotiations. While negotiators overall were more successful face-to-face than virtually, results separated by gender did not find this effect.
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Asterisk (*) indicates studies used in the meta-analysis.
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Stuhlmacher, A.F., Citera, M. & Willis, T. Gender Differences in Virtual Negotiation: Theory and Research. Sex Roles 57, 329–339 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9252-y
- Social Roles
- Virtual Negotiation