This study involved a sample of 81 European American women viewing either appearance-related or non-appearance-related magazine advertisements. Participants completed measures of demographics and objectified body consciousness prior to viewing these images and a measure of body dissatisfaction prior to and after viewing the images. Body dissatisfaction scores worsened after viewing images of women who exemplified cultural standards of the thin beauty ideal. Neither objectified body consciousness nor body mass index predicted degree of change in body dissatisfaction after viewing the images. In other words, the impact of viewing the images was the same for all women, despite varying body mass index levels and varied degrees of objectified body consciousness. Implications are discussed.
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The same analysis was also conducted as an ANOVA, without the covariates. The results of the ANOVA (including post-hoc tests) were very similar to those of the ANCOVA.
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Hamilton, E.A., Mintz, L. & Kashubeck-West, S. Predictors of Media Effects on Body Dissatisfaction in European American Women. Sex Roles 56, 397–402 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9178-9