Advertisement

Sex Roles

, Volume 54, Issue 9–10, pp 675–686 | Cite as

Selling Sex to Radio Program Directors: A Content Analysis of Radio & Records Magazine

  • Emily E. Tanner-Smith
  • Damian T. Williams
  • Denise Nichols
Original Article

Abstract

This study was designed to examine whether radio format and musical artists' gender predict sexual content in trade advertisements geared toward radio program directors. Advertisements were coded from one of the leading music trade magazines, Radio & Records magazine, between 2002 and 2003. Results indicated that overall women artists used sexual content in trade advertisements more often and to a greater degree than did men. In some cases, advertisements in radio formats with younger demographic markets, such as pop or hip-hop, also used higher levels of sexual content. It is concluded that the organizational context of the commercial music industry helps to perpetuate status differences between women and men artists, which may then bring about a cognitive bias in the field that promotes women artists' over reliance on using sexual content in trade advertisements.

Keywords

Advertising Commercial music industry Content analysis Gender stereotyping Gender structure 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Deanne Casanova for her administrative support and Laura Carpenter, Steve Lee, and Jennifer Lena for providing comments on an earlier draft.

References

  1. Ahlkvist, J. A. (2001). Programming philosophies and the rationalization of music radio. Media, Culture, & Society, 23, 339–358.Google Scholar
  2. Ahlkvist, J. A., & Faulkner, R. (2002). “Will this record work for us?”: Managing music formats in commercial radio. Qualitative Sociology, 25, 189–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison, P. D. (1999). Multiple regression: A primer. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge.Google Scholar
  4. Arima, A. N. (2003). Gender stereotypes in Japanese television advertisements. Sex Roles, 48, 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, C. N. (2005). Images of women's sexuality in advertisements: A content analysis of Black- and White-oriented women's and men's magazines. Sex Roles, 52, 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bayton, M. (1997). Women and the electric guitar. In S. Whitely (Ed.), Sexing the groove: Popular music and gender (pp. 37–49). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Bielby, W. T., & Bielby, D. D. (1994). “All hits are flukes”: Institutionalized decision making and the rhetoric of network prime-time program development. American Journal of Sociology, 99, 1287–1313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. J. D. (1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, J., & Campbell, K. (1986). Race and gender in music videos: The same beat, but a different drummer. Journal of Communication, 365, 94–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coates, N. (1997). (R)evolution now? Rock and the political potential of gender. In S. Whitely (Ed.), Sexing the groove: Popular music and gender (pp. 50–64). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, S. (1997). Men making a scene: Rock music and the production of gender. In S. Whitely (Ed.), Sexing the groove: Popular music and gender (pp. 17–36). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Collins, P. H. (2004). Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Connell, R. W. (2002). Gender: Short introductions. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Courtney, A., & Lockeretz, S. (1971). A woman's place: An analysis of the roles portrayed by women in magazine advertisements. Journal of Marketing Research, 8, 92–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Craig, R. S. (1992). The effect of television day part on gender portrayals in television commercials: A content analysis. Sex Roles, 26, 197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DiMaggio, P. (1997). Culture and cognition. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 263–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ganahl, D. J., Prinsen, T. J., & Netzley, S. B. (2003). A content analysis of prime time commercials: A contextual framework of gender representation. Sex Roles, 49, 545–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Goffman, E. (1979). Gender advertisements. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Goodwin, A. (1992). Dancing in the distraction factory: Music television and popular culture. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  22. Gott, M., & Hinchliff, S. (2003). How important is sex in later life? The views of older people. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 1617–1628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gottlieb, J., & Wald, G. (1994). Smells like teen spirit: Riot grrrls, revolution, and women in independent rock. In A. Ross, & T. Rose (Eds.), Microphone fiends: Youth music & youth culture (pp. 250–274). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks. London: Lawrence & Wiehart.Google Scholar
  25. Habermas, J. (1989). The structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry into the category of bourgeois society. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT.Google Scholar
  26. Hansen, C., & Hansen, R. (1990). The influence of sex and violence on the appeal of rock music videos. Communication Research, 17, 212–234.Google Scholar
  27. Hirsch, P. M. (1972). Processing fads and fashions: An organization set analysis of culture industry systems. American Journal of Sociology, 77, 639–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Holbrook, M. B. (1987). Mirror, mirror, on the wall, what's unfair in the reflections on advertising? Journal of Marketing, 51, 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jewell, K. (1993). From Mammy to Miss America and beyond. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Lazier-Smith, L. (1989). A new generation of images of women. In P. Creedon (Ed.), Women in mass communication (pp. 247–260). Beverly Hills, California: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Lewis, L. A. (1995). Form and female authorship in music video. In G. Dines, & J. M. Humez (Eds.), Gender, race, and class in media (pp. 499–507). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Lindner, K. (2004). Images of women in general interest and fashion magazine advertisements from 1955 to 2002. Sex Roles, 51, 409–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lorber, J. (1994). Paradoxes of gender. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Martin, P. Y. (2004). Gender as social institution. Social Forces, 82, 1249–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Masse, M., & Rosenblum, K. (1988). Male and female they created them: The depiction of gender in the advertising of traditional men's and women's magazines. Women's Studies International Forum, 11, 127–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McRobbie, A. (2000). Feminism and youth culture (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Melucci, A. (1989). Nomads of the present: Social movements and individual needs in contemporary society. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Peterson, R. (1994). Culture studies through the production perspective: Progress and prospects. In D. Crane (Ed.), The sociology of culture (pp. 163–189). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  39. Radio & Records. (2004). Ratings, industry directory, and program supplier guide. (Special Supplement Vol. 1). Santa Monica, California: Author.Google Scholar
  40. Reichert, T. (2001, May). Sexy ads target young adults. USA Today, pp. 50–52.Google Scholar
  41. Risman, B. J. (2004). Gender as a social structure: Theory wrestling with activism. Gender & Society, 18, 429–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saucier, K. (1986). Healers and heartbreakers: Images of women and men in country music. Journal of Popular Culture, 20, 147–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sherman, B., & Dominick, J. (1986). Violence and sex in music videos: TV and rock and roll. Journal of Communication, 36, 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stavitsky, A. G. (1995). Guys in suits with charts: Audience research in U.S. public radio. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 39, 177–189.Google Scholar
  45. Straw, W. (1993). Popular music and postmodernism in the 1980s. In S. Frith, A. Goodwin, & L. Grossberg (Eds.), Sound and vision: The music video reader (pp. 3–21). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Uray, N., & Burnaz, S. (2003). An analysis of the portrayal of gender roles in Turkish television advertisements. Sex Roles, 48, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vincent, R., Davis, D., & Boruszkowski, L. (1987). Sexism on MTV: The portrayal of women in rock videos. Journalism Quarterly, 64, 750–755.Google Scholar
  48. Walser, R. (1993). Forging masculinity: Heavy-metal sounds and images of gender. In S. Frith, A. Goodwin, & L. Grossberg (Eds.), Sound and vision: The music video reader (pp. 153–181). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily E. Tanner-Smith
    • 1
  • Damian T. Williams
    • 1
  • Denise Nichols
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SociologyVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Nashville School of LawNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations