Sex Roles

, Volume 54, Issue 7–8, pp 469–483 | Cite as

The Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties

  • Kenneth J. ZuckerEmail author
  • Janet N. Mitchell
  • Susan J. Bradley
  • Jan Tkachuk
  • James M. Cantor
  • Sara M. Allin
Original Paper


This article reports on the psychometric properties of The Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire, a 23-item questionnaire designed to measure recalled gender-typed behavior and relative closeness to mother and father during childhood. Five considerations guided its development: (1) scale items should show, on average, evidence for “normative” sex differences or be related to within-sex variation across target groups for which one might expect, on theoretical grounds, significant differences; (2) the items should be written in a manner such that they could be answered by both men and women; (3) the items should provide coverage of a range of gender-typed behaviors, including those that capture core aspects of the phenomenology of gender identity disorder in children; (4) the items should be abstract enough such that the description of the underlying construct would not be tied to a specific object or activity that might have been common during one period of time but not another, thus affording greater ecological validity across a large age range and birth cohorts; and (5) the questionnaire should be short enough that it would have practical utility in broader research projects and in clinical settings. A total of 1305 adolescents and adults (735 girls/women; 570 boys/men), with a mean age of 33.2 years (range=13–74), completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis identified a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of 18 items that pertain to childhood gender role and gender identity, which accounted for 37.4% of the variance, and Factor 2 consisted of three items that pertain to parent–child relations (closeness to mother and father), which accounted for 7.8% of the variance. Tests of discriminant validity were generally successful in identifying significant between-group variation.


Gender identity Gender role Sexual orientation Gender identity disorder Sex differences Assessment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth J. Zucker
    • 1
    Email author
  • Janet N. Mitchell
    • 1
    • 2
  • Susan J. Bradley
    • 1
  • Jan Tkachuk
    • 3
    • 6
  • James M. Cantor
    • 4
  • Sara M. Allin
    • 5
    • 7
  1. 1.Gender Identity Service, Child, Youth, and Family ProgramCentre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyYork UniversityDownsviewCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Law and Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  6. 6.Private PracticeTorontoCanada
  7. 7.The London School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUnited Kingdom

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