Sex Roles

, Volume 53, Issue 5–6, pp 401–411 | Cite as

Gender Differences in Self-Reports of Depression: The Response Bias Hypothesis Revisited

  • Sandra T. SigmonEmail author
  • Jennifer J. Pells
  • Nina E. Boulard
  • Stacy Whitcomb-Smith
  • Teresa M. Edenfield
  • Barbara A. Hermann
  • Stephanie M. LaMattina
  • Janell G. Schartel
  • Elizabeth Kubik


This study was designed to revisit the response bias hypothesis, which posits that gender differences in depression prevalence rates may reflect a tendency for men to underreport depressive symptoms. In this study, we examined aspects of gender role socialization (gender-related traits, socially desirable responding, beliefs about mental health and depression) that may contribute to a response bias in self-reports of depression. In addition, we investigated the impact of two contextual variables (i.e., cause of depression and level of intrusiveness of experimental follow-up) on self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results indicated that men, but not women, reported fewer depressive symptoms when consent forms indicated that a more involved follow-up might occur. Further, results indicated differential responding by men and women on measures of gender-related traits, mental health beliefs, and beliefs about depression and predictors of depressed mood. Together, our results support the assertion that, in specific contexts, a response bias explanation warrants further consideration in investigations of gender differences in rates of self-reported depression.


response bias depression self-report gender differences in depression artifact hypothesis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra T. Sigmon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jennifer J. Pells
    • 1
  • Nina E. Boulard
    • 1
  • Stacy Whitcomb-Smith
    • 1
  • Teresa M. Edenfield
    • 1
  • Barbara A. Hermann
    • 1
  • Stephanie M. LaMattina
    • 1
  • Janell G. Schartel
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Kubik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MaineOrono

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