Skip to main content

Origin and Semantic Value of the Terms Equivalent to Justice in the Korean Language

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to study the origins and meanings of the Korean terms equivalent to justice, understood as a principle. It focuses chiefly on the term 정의 chŏng’ŭi 正義 and the historical context within which it emerged. It examines the fundamental meanings attached to this term through etymological analysis and ends with questions about its coloring in contemporary Korean society.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. Hahm Pyong-Choon (1932–1983) is the eminent figure of this school of thought. See: [1]. After Hahm, other distinguished scholars have endeavored to correct superficial perception, bias, and misunderstandings of Korea's legal system. For different views and contributions, see: [2,3,4,5].

  2. Current South Korean law is drafted under the influence of Chinese, Japanese, European and American law, while competing against Korean tradition. For example, current South Korean civil law finds its origins in German civil law as until the 1960s, Korea used Japanese civil law, which was itself adapted from German law. Also, the Japanese civil procedure code, influenced by the German civil procedure Act of 1877, is said to have left “indelible footprints” ([6], p. 3) on current Korean civil procedure law. For business law, Korea has long relied on a Business Code adapted from German law, also promulgated through the Japanese in 1899. Since the Korean War (1950–1953), the American Business Code of Illinois from 1953 has been a major influence.

  3. Officially, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

  4. Officially, the Republic of Korea.

  5. The first Constitution of the Republic of Korea promulgated on July 17, 1948 [7] has been amended nine times since 1948. The latest version was written in 1987 [8].

  6. For the Romanization of terms written in the Korean alphabet 한글 hangŭl, the McCune-Reischauer system is used. However, in order to avoid confusion, we have not applied this system to proper nouns, nor to names of authors whose romanization has been proven and follows another usage (This is the case, for example, with the South Korean capital Seoul). Where necessary, terms in Korean are accompanied by their Chinese character (Chinese characters are called 漢字 hànzì in Chinese, 한자 hanja in Korean, and かんじ kanji in Japanese). To do this, we have respected the following order: 1. Korean alphabet hangŭl, 2. McCune-Reischauer Romanization, 3. Chinese characters. A pinyin Romanization is also added for Chinese characters mentioned in a Chinese context. Then, for clarity, they are preceded by the abbreviation (chi.). The Hepburn Romanization method is used for Chinese characters mentioned in a Japanese context. They are preceded by the abbreviation (jap.). We reproduce the transcription of a term in hangŭl, accompanied by the Chinese characters only at its first occurrence. Afterwards, the romanized version alone is favored, unless it is necessitated for a better understanding of semantic and etymologic complexities. Finally, for ease of reading, longer citations originally written in classic Chinese 한문 hanmun 漢文 are given in modern hangŭl, along with only a selection, in parenthesis, of important Chinese characters.

  7. The text of the preamble of the first Constitution of 1948 forms the basis of the preamble of the constitution of 1987 which was, in substance, little amended. The passage which refers to justice is identical in both versions and has not been modified.

  8. Korean traditional legal thought has long drawn its particularities from both its own history and its close ties of influence with China. One of the greatest influences comes from Confucianism which penetrated the peninsula from the third century and whose adoption would profoundly change Korea from the Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1897). This school of thought, reinventing itself in the form of neo-Confucianism, would stand against Buddhism (the state religion of the time), producing a remarkably powerful political instrument, used by the elites to reinforce an authoritarian central power.

  9. While recognizing the western lineage of rights as a concept in modern Korea, it is also necessary to examine “the underlying logics of indigenous legal practices and institutions” ([11], p. 2).

  10. In line with the thought of Confucius, Koreans have long considered that the law was somehow too universal, and did not sufficiently take into account the particularities of each situation and the merits of every man. Failing to be self-sufficient, the law had to be administered by a leader developing a culture of "the rule of man" (normally virtuous) at the expense of "the rule of law". In this context, they relied on the force of sanctions, morals, ethics and the exemplarity of individuals to apply a concept of justice which was understood as a personal and public virtue, but which did not include the concepts of freedom, equality or sovereignty of law (cf. [12], p. 14).

  11. In the center of the arch-shaped porch of the main entrance of the main building are engraved the following words: 자유 평등 정의 Chayu P'yŏngdŭng Chŏng'ŭi ‘Liberty Equality Justice’, the three values that the highest court of the country promises to enforce.

  12. See infra.

  13. This text transposes the Japanese Imperial Order issued on October 16, 1909 [16]. Courts and prisons are formally transferred to the Japanese and the Ministry of Justice is dissolved. The judicial system becomes Japanese on November 1st, 1909. Japanese Law is applied in the country and in court cases until after liberation.

  14. The substantive rights contained in the charter, do not refer to justice, although article 3 establishes the principle of equality between Koreans regardless of their sex, wealth or social origin: “The people of the Republic of Korea do not recognize the distinctions between men and women, the hierarchical links between the rich and the poor, and all are equal” “대한민국의 인민은 남녀 귀천 급 빈부의 계급이 무하고 일체 평등임” “Taehanmingugŭi inminŭn namnyŏ kwich'ŏn kŭp pinbuŭi kyegŭbi muhago ilch'e p'yŏngdŭng'im” [17].

  15. Around that time, a Chosun Ilbo article on the dissolution of the parliament talks about the great confusion that followed the First World War, and argues for the “urgent demand for the improvement of justice and human duties” “정의인도(正義人道)와무차별향상(無差別向上)이,최급(最急)외요구(要求)” “chŏng'ŭi indowa much'abyŏl hyangsang'i, ch'oegŭboe yogu” ([18], p. 3). Likewise, in the front-page editorial of the first edition of The Dong-a Ilbo, the writer advocates, in the fight against imperialism, “to return to humanitarianism based on pacifism and justice” “평화주의(平和主義)와정의(正義)를바탕한인도주의(人道主義)로돌아서려한다” “p'yŏnghwajuŭiwa chŏng'ŭirŭl pat'anghan indojuŭiro torasŏryŏ handa” ([19], p. 1). Another reference to the term chŏng'ŭi goes back to 1924. It appears in the denomination ‘government of justice’ 정의부 chŏng'ŭibu 正義府 used to call the authority responsible for the Korean population of South Manchuria, in Jilin and Fengtian provinces [20].

  16. Neither the new judicial organization law from September 26, 1949 [21], the new criminal Act promulgated in South Korea on September 18, 1953 [22], nor the first Korean Civil Act of 1958 [23] contain mention of the word justice. Moreover, in North Korea, neither the 1948 Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea [24], nor the 1972 current Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea [25] amended and supplemented in 1992, 1998, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2016 and twice in 2019, contain mention of the word justice.

  17. For information, the first references to the principle of justice are found in the 6th Constitution of the French Republic (1804) [26], in what is seen as the first Spanish Constitution, the Statute of Bayonne (1808) [27], in the fundamental statute of the Savoy Monarchy (1848) [28] which later became the first Constitution of the unified Kingdom of Italy (1861), and in what is considered to be the third Constitution of the unified nation-state Germany, the Constitution of the German Reich (1919) [29].

  18. The hypernym freedom has long remained foreign to the Chinese language and a fortiori to the Korean language (cf. [30], p. 147).

  19. The transplantation of Western concepts is not unique to Korea and also happened in other countries, such as China. See e.g. [31,32,33,34]. The newly created words, described by Lee and Ramsey as “neo-Sinitic words” ([35], p. 301), usually consisted of two, or, occasionally, three, Chinese characters.

  20. For the traditional meaning of this cardinal Confucian ethical concept, see e.g. [36]. On the meanings of the term ŭi in classical Chinese language, see: [37].

  21. Historians use the term Yi Dynasty, Chosŏn Dynasty, or Kingdom of Chosŏn interchangeably to name this period of history. Its founder and first king (under the name of King T'aejo), Yi Sŏnggye (1335–1408), chose to call his kingdom Chosŏn in reference to the period of the founding of Korean civilization. To distinguish it from the ancient kingdom of Korea of the same name, historians use the term 고조선 Kojosŏn which means ‘ancient Chosŏn’ (2333–108 BCE).

  22. In his introduction to the Book of Rites, translator and former missionary Joseph-Marie Callery emphasizes the difficulties faced by anyone who undertakes the translation of complex terms found in works of Chinese philosophy. He insists on a number of characters which are difficult to reproduce “either because there is a lack of certain data on their original meaning, or because they have been used on purpose in a very broad way subject to many interpretations” ([39], p. XV). Callery adds that Chinese commentators themselves argue that some leeway should be given in interpreting such characters which should not be taken in their “absolute meaning” ([39], ibid.).

  23. For example: “[About Sinsang,] …even friends and colleagues reprimand him based on justice…” “…친구나 동료 사이에도 의(義)에 입각하여 책하고…” “…ch'inguna tongnyo saiedo ŭie ipkakhayŏ ch'aekhago…” (Hyojong Sillok, the 3rd day of the 1st month of the 4th year (Jan 3, 1653) [38]). Sillok citations follow academic usage. They indicate first the name of the king, then the date of the archive as it is originally recorded, and finally, in parentheses, its equivalent according to the modern dating system.

  24. For example: “[The King said,]… The opinion of my dear sirs does accord with the principle because officials should maintain the way for upholding justice,…” “경들의 말이 이치에 합당하다는 것은 신하에게는 의(義)를 지키는 방도가 있기 때문이요,…” “Kyŏngdŭrŭi mari ich'ie haptanghadanŭn kŏsŭn sinhaegenŭn ŭirŭl chik'inŭn pangdoga itki ttaemuniyo,…” (Sejong Sillok, the 15th day of the 2nd month of the 6th year (Feb 15, 1424) [38]).

  25. A study of claims made by Koreans seeking legal justice by means of the petition system during the Chosŏn shows the importance of the term 원 wŏn (translated in English as ‘grievance,’ ‘injustice’ or ‘the sense of being wronged’) in the Korean language employed in legal narratives. That term appears to have been better suited than the too abstract term ŭi to express, or to refer to, the personal dimension contained in their demand for justice. Although ŭi is found in legal and official documents for discussing political and legal affairs, “reliving wŏn is the [preferred] language in petition sources to express justice” ([41], p. 8) in the everyday legal problems of the Chosŏn.

  26. The analysis of a term of Chinese origin through the study of the “origin” of its characters proposed here is not etymological in the conventional modern sense of the term. It consists in identifying and graphically analyzing their components, (or constituents) as well as providing brief glosses on their basic or fundamental meanings. To that extent, it seeks to identify and explain grapho-semantic/phonetic constituents in characters (cf. [48], vol. IV, p. 46). Such etymological research presents a challenge for a researcher utilizing Chinese and Korean dictionaries. Expecting precise content, he will be disconcerted by the lack of preciseness and surprised by lexicographers’ seeming satisfaction with the vague, the general and the porosity of semantic boundaries that definitions attempt to delimit. The terms used for justice are no exception to such difficulties.

  27. The introduction of Chinese and its logographic writing in Korea in the second century CE is due to the influence of China and then of Buddhism on the peninsula and to the absence, at the time, of an efficient writing system for the Korean language. The Chinese character script, hanja, was used long before the introduction of the Korean alphabet, hangŭl, which was created only in the fifteenth century under the leadership of King Sejong the Great. Many words of Chinese-Korean origin have since coexisted with other words originating from the “pure” Korean language. For a better understanding of the importance of Chinese language and writing in the development of the Korean language, see e.g. ([49], pp. 659–661).

  28. Chinese characters can be broadly differentiated into two categories: simple and complex. Complex (or compound) characters constitute about 95% of all Chinese characters. Most of them (over 80%) are generally made of two or more functional components (or constituents) commonly called radicals (cf. [50]). About 13% of complex characters are ideogrammic compounds, which symbolically combine two or more radicals to create a third character. These radicals are not related to the host character in pronunciation (cf. [51], vol. II, p. 568). The choice in Standard English of the term radical although widely spread in the academic literature, is debated, see e.g. [52], vol. II, p. 481, [48], vol. IV, p. 47.

  29. chŏng was also spelled 졍 chyŏng in the nineteenth century ([59], p. 548).

  30. The exposition on the character a 我 is based on the postulate of invalidity (see e.g. [63]) of the hypothesis defended by Baxter and Sagart ([64], p. 65) who claim that a 我 was used as a phonetic component in ŭi 義.

  31. Characters are traditionally differentiated into six etymological categories (pictographic, indicative, associative, picto-phonetic, notative, and borrowed) as in the character dictionary Shuōwén jiězì (121 CE), which is still referred to today.

  32. The same reservation as that indicated above should be applied here. Olhŭm and olparŭm can mean ‘justice’ in Korean, but also ‘rectitude’, ‘correctness’, ‘righteousness’, ‘uprightness’, ‘virtue’, etc.

  33. Throughout the history of Korean, Sinitic vocabulary has tended to displace native words (cf. [71], pp. 35–43) although, in several instances, Sino-Korean synonyms continue to exist alongside native words (cf. [35], p. 302).

  34. It is spelled as 올타 olt'a, in the Korean-French dictionary written in 1880 by the missionaries of the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris. However, it is given an equivalent definition: ‘to be true’ or ‘fair’ ([59], p. 57).

  35. 올바르다 olparŭda was originally written 옳바르다 olhparŭda, but this spelling being based on the Pyongang standard North Korean language, its use violated the rules of standardization of the South Korean language which is built on the modern language in use in Seoul ([74], Art.1). A revision by the National Korean Language Institute officially banned its use in favor of the modified spelling for standard use in South Korea (cf. [75]).

  36. A 1946 Korean dictionary defines justice as the ‘sense of what is right’ and as a ‘moral obligation of righteousness’ ([79], p. 961). The current definition is based on the idea of ‘righteous attitude’ 바른 도리 parŭn tori, an expression that can also, depending on the context, be translated as ‘correct reason’, ‘upright ethics’, ‘right way’, or ‘right obligation’, and appears in dictionaries in the 1970s. See: [80], p. 1207.

  37. Given the secretive and authoritarian nature of the North Korean regime, the absence of reliable data analyzing the views of its citizenry, and the characteristics of its revolutionary ideology, the “Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism” “김일성-김정일주의” “Kimilsŏng-Kimjŏng'ilchuŭi “ ([25], Art. 3), it is difficult to discuss the current relationship of North Koreans vis-à-vis the concept of justice. However, it should be noted that, although people have few possessions, and the existence of a true civil trial is not established, the Civil Law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (cf. [83]) adopted as Decision No. 4 of the Permanent Meeting of the Supreme People's Assembly on September 5, 1990, contains a small section on the ownership system. This reflects the existence of as well as the limitations of private autonomy and business life in North Korean society. Still it is a significant and symbolic change in the socialist state (cf. [84], p. 399).

  38. The modernization process of the legal system starts during colonial era (cf. [85]) from the beginning of the twentieth century.

  39. “Transitional justice” can be defined as the “conception of justice associated with periods of political change, characterized by legal responses to confront the wrongdoings of repressive predecessor regimes” ([87], p.69).

  40. These differences relating to legal technique may have seemed to be minor at first, but the orientations which resulted from them were, in reality rich in consequences. The debate mainly revolved around the question of whether fully extending retroactive justice in criminal cases, despite statutes of limitation was a good idea or not. This would consist in weakening procedural legality (and therefore the democratic regime) to serve substantive justice, with the result of satisfying the popular demand for justice, but undermining the regime’s commitment to the rule of law. This question about the content and the means to achieve justice has been described as a dilemma between “normative reality and a normative ideal” ([90], p. 1010).

  41. This ideology founded, among other things, on knowledge, respect for virtues and proprieties, continues to shape a theory and practice of justice whose influence continues to this day, contemporary South Korea being often qualified by Koreanists as the most Confucian country in the world (cf. [92], p. 191, and [93], p. 2).

References

  1. Hahm, Pyong-Choon. 1967. The Korean Political Tradition and Law. Seoul: Seoul Computer Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Shaw, William. 1981. Legal Norms in a Confucian state. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Center for Korean Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Yang, Kun. 1989. Law and Society Studies in Korea Beyond the Hahm Theses. Law & Society Review 23(5): 891–902.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Choi, Chongko. 2005. Law and Justice in Korea: South and North. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Kim, Marie Seong-Hak. 2016. The Spirit of Korean Law: Korean Legal History in Context. Leiden, Boston: Brill.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  6. Kwon, Youngjoon. 2010. Litigating in Korea: A General Overview of Korean Civil Procedure. In Litigation in Korea, ed. Kuk Cho, 1–30. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Constitution of the Republic of Korea no. 1 대한민국 헌법 제1호 Taehanminguk hŏnbŏp che 1 ho, Jul. 17, 1948, https://www.law.go.kr/LSW/lsInfoP.do?efYd=19480717&lsiSeq=53081&ancYd=19480717&nwJoYnInfo=N&ancNo=00001&chrClsCd=010202&efGubun=Y#0000. Accessed 30 Oct 2021.

  8. Constitution of the Republic of Korea no. 10 대한민국 헌법 제10호 Taehanminguk hŏnbŏp che 10 ho, Oct. 29, 1987, https://www.law.go.kr/lsEfInfoP.do?lsiSeq=61603#. Accessed 30 Oct 2021.

  9. Roux, Pierre-Emmanuel. 2012. La Croix, la Baleine et le Canon, La France face à la Corée au milieu du XIXe siècle [The Cross, the Whale and the Cannon, France Facing Korea in the Mid-19th Century]. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Kim, Chan Jin. 2000. Korean Attitudes Towards Law. Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal 10(1): 1–46.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Arrington, Celeste L., and Patricia Goedde. 2021. Introduction. In Rights Claiming in South Korea, ed. Celeste L. Arrington and Patricia Goedde, 1–18. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  12. Duvert, Christophe. 2021. Les Voies de la justice en Corée du Sud [The Ways of Justice in South Korea]. Paris: Atelier des Cahiers.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Fourteen articles of Hongbŏm 홍범14조 Hongbŏm 14 cho 洪範十四條, Dec. 12, 1894.

  14. Act on court structure 재판소구성법 Chaep'anso kusŏngbŏp 裁判所構成法, Mar. 25, 1895.

  15. Ordinance of the of the General Residence no. 28 통감부령 제28호 T'onggam puryŏng che 28 ho, Oct. 21, 1909.

  16. Japanese Imperial Order no. 236 일본 칙령 제236호 Ilpon ch'ingnyŏng che 236 ho, Oct. 16, 1909.

  17. Provisional charter of the Republic of Korea 대한민국임시헌장 Taehanminguk imsi hŏnjang 大韓民國臨時憲章, Apr. 11, 1919, https://www.law.go.kr/%EB%B2%95%EB%A0%B9/%EB%8C%80%ED%95%9C%EB%AF%BC%EA%B5%AD%EC%9E%84%EC%8B%9C%ED%97%8C%EC%9E%A5/(00001,19190411). Accessed 30 Oct 2021.

  18. Il, Chŏng 일정. 1920, March 05. 議會解散에 對하야 [About the Parliament dissolution]. 朝鮮日報 [The Chosun Ilbo]. https://newslibrary.chosun.com/view/article_view.html?id=119200305e1039&set_date=19200305&page_no=3. Accessed 28 Oct 2021.

  19. Chang, Tŏk-Su 장덕수. 1920, April 01. 主旨를宣明하노라 [Clarifying the main purpose [of The Dong-a Ilbo]]. 東亞日報 [The Dong-a Ilbo]. 동아디지털아카이브 (donga.com). Accessed 28 Oct 2021.

  20. Glossary with Citation and English Translation of Korean Studies Vocabulary 한국학 영문 용어·용례 사전. http://digerati.aks.ac.kr:94/. Accessed 9 Oct 2021.

  21. Court organization Act 법원조직법 Pŏbwŏn chojikpŏp 法院組織法, Sept. 26, 1949.

  22. Criminal Act 형법 Hyŏngbŏp 刑法, Sept. 18, 1953. https://www.law.go.kr/%EB%B2%95%EB%A0%B9/%ED%98%95%EB%B2%95/(00293,19530918). Accessed 30 Oct 2021.

  23. Applicable Civil law in accordance with Article 1 of the Korean Civil Code 조선민사령 제1조의 규정에 의하여 의용된 민법 Chosŏnminsaryŏng che 1 choŭi kyujŏng'e ŭihayŏ ŭiyongdoen minbŏp, Feb. 22, 1958, https://www.law.go.kr/%EB%B2%95%EB%A0%B9/%EC%A1%B0%EC%84%A0%EB%AF%BC%EC%82%AC%EB%A0%B9%EC%A0%9C1%EC%A1%B0%EC%9D%98%EA%B7%9C%EC%A0%95%EC%97%90%EC%9D%98%ED%95%98%EC%97%AC%EC%9D%98%EC%9A%A9%EB%90%9C%EB%AF%BC%EB%B2%95/(00471,19580222). Accessed 30 Oct. 2021.

  24. Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국헌법 Chosŏn minjujuŭi inmin konghwaguk hŏnpŏp, Sept. 8, 1948, 우리역사넷 (history.go.kr). Accessed Oct. 27, 2021.

  25. Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국사회주의헌법 Chosŏn minjujuŭi inmin konghwaguk sahoejuŭi hŏnbŏp, Dec. 27, 1972, 법령정보- 북한법령- 헌법- 글조회 (unilaw.go.kr). Accessed Oct. 27, 2021.

  26. Constitution of Year XII - Empire - 28 Floréal Year XII Constitution de l'An XII - Empire - 28 floréal An XII, May 18, 1804.

  27. Bayonne Constitution Constitución de Bayona, July 6, 1808.

  28. Fundamental statute of the Savoy Monarchy Statuto Fondamentale della Monarchia di Savoia, March 4, 1848.

  29. Constitution of the German Reich Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs, Aug. 11, 1919.

  30. Weber, Max. 1951. The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism. New York: The Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Chen, Albert H. Y. 2010. Pathways of Western liberal constitutional development in Asia: A comparative study of five major nations. International Journal of Constitutional Law 8(4): 849–884.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Chen, Jianfu. 2009. Modernisation, Westernisation, and Globalisation: Legal Transplant in China. In One Country, Two Systems, Three Legal Orders—Perspectives of Evolution, ed. Jorge Costa Oliveira and Paulo Cardinal, 91–114. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  33. Tsu, Jing, and Benjamin A. Elman. 2014. Science and Technology in Modern China, 1880s–1940s. Leiden, Boston: Brill.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  34. Sanada, Haruko 真田 治子. 2017. The transplantation and adaptation of terms from Japan to China at the beginning of the 20th century. Wakumon 或問 31: 31–46.

  35. Lee, Ki-Moon., and S. Robert Ramsey. 2011. A History of the Korean Language. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  36. Duvert, Christophe. 2018. How is Justice Understood in Classic Confucianism? Asian Philosophy, An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East 28(4): 295–315.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Cao, Deborah. 2019. Desperately Seeking ‘Justice’ in Classical Chinese: On the Meanings of Yi. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law 32: 13–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. The Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty 조선왕조실록 朝鮮王朝實錄. 조선왕조실록 (history.go.kr). Accessed 9 Oct 2021.

  39. Callery, Joseph-Marie. 1853. Li-Ki, ou Mémorial des rites, traduit pour la première fois du chinois et accompagné de notes, de commentaires et du texte original [Li-Ki, or Memorial of Rites, Translated for the First Time from Chinese and Accompanied by Notes, Comments and the Original Text]. Turin: Imprimerie royale.

  40. Kim, Marie Seong-Hak. 2012. Law and Custom in Korea. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  41. Kim, Jisoo M. 2015. The Emotions of Justice: Gender, Status, and Legal Performance in Chosŏn Korea. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Yulkok 율곡. 율곡선생전서 권 20 [Complete Works of Yulgok vol. 20], 성학집요 〈2〉 제2, 제4 [The Essentials of the Studies of the Sages <2> Chapter 2 and 4 ] https://db.itkc.or.kr/dir/item?itemId=BT#/dir/node?dataId=ITKC_BT_0201B_0160_010_0010. Accessed 2 Sept 2021.

  43. Kato, Shuichi 가토 슈이치, Maruyama, Masao 마루야마 마사오. 2000. 번역과 일본의 근대 [Japanese modernity and translation]. 서울 Seoul: 이산 Yeesan.

  44. Kim, T'ae-Hun 김태훈. 2011. 초중학생들의 '정의' 개념 발달을 위한 도덕교육 접근 방안 [Approach method of moral education for the development of elementary and middle school students' concept of 'justice']. 도덕윤리과교육연구 [Journal of Moral and Ethics Education] 34: 51–80.

  45. Tetsuo, Morimoto 森本哲郞. 1957. あひまいな言葉 [Ambiguous words]. 東京 Tokyo: 有紀書房 Yuki Bookstore.

  46. Tsunetō, Kyō 恒藤恭. 1969. 「正義の本質について」, 哲學と法學 [「About the essence of justice」, Philosophy and Law]. 東京 Tokyo: 岩波書店 Iwanami Bookstore.

  47. Uno, Tetsuto 宇野哲人. 1924. 支邦哲學の硏究 [Study of Chinese Philosophy]. 東京 Tokyo: 大同舘書店 Daido-Kan Bookstore.

  48. Boltz, William G. 2017. Shuōwén jiězì 說文解字 [Explaining the Unit Characters and Analyzing the Compound Characters]. In Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics, ed. Rint Sybesma, 46–55. Leiden: Brill.

  49. Wojtasik-Dziekan, Emilia. 2020. Analysis of the Semantic Scope of Two Korean Terms Equivalent to English Court. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law 33: 657–671.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Yin, Binyong, and John S. Rohnsenow. 1994. Modern Chinese Characters. Beijing: Sinolingua.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Luo, Chunming, Xiaolin Zhou, and Xingshan Li. 2017. Lexical and Sublexical Access. In Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics, ed. Rint Sybesma, 568–574. Brill: Leiden.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Winter, Marc. 2017. Kāngxī zìdiǎn 康熙字典 [Compendium of the Standard Characters from the Kāngxī Period]. In Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics, ed. Rint Sybesma, 481–485. Leiden: Brill.

  53. Zhou, Xiaolin, and Marslen-Wilson. William. 1999. The nature of sublexical processing in reading Chinese characters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 25(4): 819–837.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Chinese Text Project Dictionary database https://ctext.org/dictionary.pl?if=en&char=%E6%AD%A3. Accessed 12 June 2022.

  55. Shuōwén jiězì online http://www.shuowenjiezi.com/result4.php?id=1086. Accessed 17 May 2022.

  56. Kāngxī zìdiǎn online https://www.kangxizidian.com/kxhans/%E6%AD%A3. Accessed 17 May 2022.

  57. Institut Ricci de Paris. 2001. Grand dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise [Great Ricci Dictionary of Chinese Language]. Paris: Instituts Ricci Paris-Taipei, Desclée de Brouwer.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Cheng, Anne. 1997. Histoire de la pensée chinoise [History of Chinese Thought]. Paris: Seuil.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Les missionnaires de Corée de la société des missions étrangères de Paris. 1880. Dictionnaire coréen-français [Korean-French Dictionary]. Yokohama: C. Levy, imprimeur-libraire.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Chinese Text Project Dictionary database https://ctext.org/dictionary.pl?if=en&char=%E7%BE%A9. Accessed 12 June 2022.

  61. Shuōwén jiězì online http://www.shuowenjiezi.com/result4.php?id=8361. Accessed 17 May 2022.

  62. Kāngxī zìdiǎn online https://www.kangxizidian.com/search/index.php?stype=Word&sword=%E7%BE%A9&detail=y. Accessed 17 May 2022.

  63. Harbsmeier, Christoph. 2016. Irrefutable Conjectures. A Review of William H. Baxter and Laurent Sagart, Old Chinese. A New Reconstruction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014). Monumenta Serica: Journal of Oriental Studies 64 (2): 445–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Baxter, William H., and Laurent Sagart. 2014. Old Chinese: A New Reconstruction. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  65. Chinese Text Project Dictionary database Chinese Text Project (ctext.org). Accessed 17 June 2022.

  66. Shuōwén jiězì online shuowenjiezi.com. Accessed 17 June 2022.

  67. Kāngxī zìdiǎn online 我的解释|我的意思|康熙字典“我”的释义 (kangxizidian.com). Accessed 17 June 2022.

  68. Wiktionary wiktionary.org. Accessed 17 June 2022.

  69. Cheng, Anne. 1981. Entretiens de Confucius [Confucius Talks]. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Yŏm, Chŏng-Sam 염정삼. 2010. 《설문해자주》 부수자 역해 [An Annotated translation of radicals in commentary on Shuowen Jiezi]. 서울 Seoul: 서울대학교출판문화원 Sŏul taehakkyo ch'ulp'an munhwawŏn.

  71. Lee, Ki-Moon 李基文 이기문. 1961. 國語史槪說 국어사개설 Kugŏ-sa kaesŏl [Outline of the History of Korean Language]. 서울 Seoul: 민중서관 Minjung sŏgwan.

  72. Sim, Chae-Ki 심재기, Cho, Hang-Pŏm 조항범, Mun, Kŭm-Hyŏn 문금현, Cho, Nam-Ho, 조남호, No, Myŏng-Hŭi, 노명희, and Yi, Sŏn-Yŏng 이선영. 2016. 국어 어휘론 개설 [Studies on Korean Lexicography]. 서울 Seoul: 박이정 Pagijong.

  73. Société coréenne de langue et littérature françaises. 2007. Nouveau dictionnaire coréen-français [New Korean-English dictionary]. Seoul: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Press.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Standard language rules 표준어 규정 P'yojunŏ kyujŏng, Mar. 28, 2017, 국가법령정보센터 | 행정규칙 > 본문 (law.go.kr). Accessed 9 Nov 2021.

  75. https://www.korean.go.kr/front/onlineQna/onlineQnaView.do?mn_id=&qna_seq=19341&pageIndex=12520. Accessed 9 Nov 2021.

  76. Larousse, Collectif. 2011. Le Petit Larousse illustré 2012 [The Small illustrated Larousse 2012]. Paris: Larousse.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Merriam-Webster dictionary. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/justice. Accessed 11 Oct 2021.

  78. Tusandong'a sasŏp'yŏnjipkuk 두산동아 사서편집국. 1997. 동아 새국어사전 [New Korean Dictionary Tong’a]. 서울 Seoul: 동아출판 Tong’a ch’ulp’an.

  79. Chosŏn tosŏ kanhaenghoe 조선도서간행회. 1946. 국어사전 [Korean Dictionary]. 서울 Seoul: 正文館, Chŏngmungwan.

  80. Tong’a ch’ulp’ansa p’yŏnjippu 동아출판사 편집부. 1973. 신 콘사이스 국어사전 [New Pocket Korean Dictionary]. 서울 Seoul: 학습연구사 Haksŭp yŏngusa.

  81. Korean Language Dictionary Naver 네이버 국어사전. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?range=all&query=%EC%A0%95%EC%9D%98. Accessed 18 Aug 2021.

  82. Sahoe kwahak ch'ulp'ansa 사회과학출판사. 2017. 조선말대사전.1–4 [Korean Dictionary. 4 vol.]. 평양 Pyongyang: 사회과학출판사 Sahoe kwahak ch'ulp'ansa.

  83. Pŏpryul ch'ulp'ansa [p'yŏn] 법률출판사 [편]. 2018. 조선민주주의인민공화국 민법 [Civil law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea]. 평양 Pyongyang: 법률출판사 Pŏpryul ch'ulp'ansa.

  84. Ch'oe, Chong-Ko 최종고. 2005. 北韓法의 歷史的 形成과 變化 [Historical Development and Recent Changes of North Korean law]. 서울대학교 법학, 제 46 권 제1호 [Seoul National University Law Studies] 46(1): 371–412.

  85. Kim, Marie Seong-Hak. 2016. Can There Be Good Colonial Law? Korean Law and Jurisprudence Under Japanese Rule Revisited. In The Spirit of Korean Law: Korean Legal History in Context, ed. Marie Seong-Hak. Kim, 129–154. Leiden, Boston: Brill.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  86. Haley, John Owen. 1994. Authority Without Power: Law and the Japanese Paradox. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Teitel, Ruti G. 2003. Transtional Justice Genealogy. Harvard Human Rights Journal 16: 69–94.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Cho, Kuk. 2007. Transitional Justice in Korea: Legally Coping with Past Wrongs after Democratization. Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal 16(3): 579–611.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Hanley, Paul. 2014. Transitional Justice in South Korea: One Country’s Restless Search for Truth and Reconciliation. University of Pennsylvania East Asia Law Review 9(2): 139–166.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Han, In Sup. 2005. Kwangju and Beyond: Coping with Past State Atrocities in South Korea. Human Rights Quarterly 27(3): 998–1045.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Arrington, Celeste L. 2021. Rights Claiming Through the Courts: Changing Legal Opportunity Structures in South Korea. In Rights Claiming in South Korea, ed. Celeste L. Arrington and Patricia Goedde, 151–171. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  92. Koh, Byong-Ik. 1996. Confucianism in Contemporary Korea. In Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity: Moral Education and Economic Culture in Japan and the Four Mini-Dragons, ed. Tu. Weiming, 191–201. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Sancho, Isabelle. 2015. Le confucianisme dans la Corée contemporaine [Confucianism in contemporary Korea]. In Une matinée en Corée, 1–5. Paris: Comité Colbert.

  94. Delissen, Alain. 2018. Busan-Séoul et retours: Le train emballé de la longue modernité [Busan-Seoul and Back: The Bolting Train of the Long Modernity]. Critique 848–849: 51–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christophe Duvert.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Duvert, C. Origin and Semantic Value of the Terms Equivalent to Justice in the Korean Language. Int J Semiot Law (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11196-022-09924-3

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11196-022-09924-3

Keywords

  • Semantics
  • Etymology
  • Korean language
  • Korean legal philosophy
  • Korean law
  • Justice