Say it with [A Smiling Face with Smiling Eyes]: Judicial Use and Legal Challenges with Emoji Interpretation in Canada

Abstract

Ah, emojis ☺. Some enthusiastically speak of them as a new universal language. In 2015, the Oxford English dictionary crowned one of them as its word of the year. Sixty million are exchanged daily on Facebook. Along with emoticons and various other smileys, emojis are now part of daily communications. Visual add-ons or superscript, they are meant to indicate intent or add emotions to written messages, which do not benefit from the tone or body language of the interlocutor. As such, they present themselves as tools for clarification, but one can wonder if they do not, too, introduce uncertainty in language. Aimed at barristers as well as jurilinguists, this paper seeks to underline some design and perception biases that can hinder communication, with a focus on rules of evidence and legal methodology. Empirically rooted in Canadian case law, the findings resonate in other jurisdictions, as emojis, indeed, are a global phenomenon.

Résumé

Les plus enthousiastes en parlent comme d’une nouvelle langue. Mot de l’année 2015 pour le dictionnaire Oxford, il s’en utilise environ soixante millions par jour seulement sur Facebook. Émojis, binettes, émoticônes: autant d’aides visuels à la communication devenus usuels. Alors qu’on les donne pour plus clairs que le texte seul, qui ne rend pas l’expressivité faciale ou la gestuelle du locuteur, on peut se demander s’ils ne contribuent pas, parfois, eux aussi à introduire une part d’incertitude dans le discours. Assurément, plaideurs autant que jurilinguistes doivent prendre conscience de certains biais de conception (notamment sur le plan des normes informatiques internationales) et de perception qui peuvent nuire à la communication, particulièrement en matière de preuve et de méthodologie de la recherche. Le caractère véritablement mondial des émojis permet de penser que les considérations théoriques soulevées par le présent article, trouvent appui au-delà de la jurisprudence canadienne qui l’illustre.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    For a concise explanation, see Hern [138].

  2. 2.

    Tresierra [67], defines emoticons in passing, at para. 36, as “symbols with faces displaying an emotion.” The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, online, defines them as “a group of keyboard characters (such as :-)) that typically represents a facial expression or suggests an attitude or emotion and that is used especially in computerized communications (such as email),” a definition quoted in a number of American cases: Cochran [78], at n.1; Jacques [82], at n. 2; Shinn [79], at n. 4; Ghanam [75], at n. 4 (also quoting UrbanDictionary.com).

  3. 3.

    See Fahlman [133] and Fahlman [134].

  4. 4.

    An addition to the June 2001 printed edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, the emoticon is therein defined as “A representation of a facial expression formed by a short sequence of keyboard characters (usually to be viewed sideways) and used in electronic mail, etc., to convey the sender’s feelings of intended tone” with a January 28, 1990 New York Times article credited as the first recorded use.

  5. 5.

    Arguably because anime/manga graphics focus on the eyes whereas classic bande dessinée and comics put more emotional emphasis on the mouth: Yuki [120]; Leber-Cook and Cook [101], at p. 31.

  6. 6.

    Though arguably some software converts emoticons to pictographs, for instance, Ms Word changes the combination of a semicolon and a closing parenthesis :) into a single circled smiling face ☺.

  7. 7.

    Interoperability Working Group [170]; see also Unicode Consortium, “History Corner” [173].

  8. 8.

    Unicode Consortium, “About” [174].

  9. 9.

    Nakano [154].

  10. 10.

    Unicode Consortium, “Basic Questions” [175].

  11. 11.

    Unicode Consortium, “Emoji and Pictographs” [176]; note also that a number of private parties also developed non-Unicode-backed sets of pictographs, all proprietary, brands (Star Wars, Ikea, the Major League Baseball, the National College Athletic Association), celebrities (Kim Kardashian, Lady Gaga, Ellen DeGeneres, Wiz Khalifa), institutions (The Washington Post, the New York Yankees), causes (Climoji for climate change): these are exchanged as images or are only available to recipients who have also downloaded the application. These are absent for Canadian case law and are excluded from our study. Relatedly, some Unicode-backed emojis are proprietary, such as Apple’s or Microsoft’s; others are open source, such as Twitter’s Twemojis or EmojiDex’s. On related intellectual property considerations, see: Bich-Carrière [86]; for an American perspective on the topic, see Goldman, 2018 [89] and Scall [94].

  12. 12.

    On culture: Kavanagh [112]; Kralj Novak et al. [114], at p. 10/22; on gender: Chen et al. [108]; Wolf [116]; on platforms: Miller et al. [115]; Schneebeli [117].

  13. 13.

    OLED, “Word of the Year 2015” [158]; the word “emoji” had entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 2013: Connor Martin [128].

  14. 14.

    Most of these expressions are inaccurate in that they suggest that emojis and emoticons are limited to faces, and positive ones too. While it is true that three quarters of emojis used on mainstream social media in fact represent faces and that most are smiling (infra n. 46), emojis cover a much wider range, and include an array of animals, food, places, symbols, flags, etc. Even emoticons present non-facial combinations, such as the rose, @} ->, the heart<3 (which became litigious in the DVF Studio, LLC and Gap Inc. v. VeryMeri Creative Media NYSDC 1:13-cv-08943 file) or the penis, 8=D (the emoticon was featured in a 2017 short film 8=D by Philippe Morel et al., crowned with an award for best scenario at Spasm Festival in Montreal).

  15. 15.

    OQLF [171], s.v. “smiley/binette” (1995), “émoticône” (2016) and “emoticon/émoticône” (2018); Commission générale de terminologie et de néologie [168], at p. 3907; see also: Druide Informatique [169].

  16. 16.

    CanLII was used as primary database, with searches conducted in both English and French. Quicklaw and Westlaw were used to crosscheck results. The latter also yielded one older board decision, not reported on CanLII.

  17. 17.

    The breakdown of the main keywords is as follows: 20 “emoji” (including one misspelled “imoji”); 52 “emoticon” (or “émoticône”): 43 “smiley face”; 21 others. The total is greater than 115 as some decisions include more than one keyword or a combination thereof (e.g. Big Bag of Cash Contest [13], and Grant [52], referring to both emojis and emoticons but meaning only, respectively, emoji and emoticon; ME [32]), at para. 61 [“happy face symbol/emoticon”], Hamdan [53], at para. 81 [“a smiley face emoticon”] or M.B. [56], at para. 91 [[“a smiley face emoticon”]; B.F. [43], at para. 5 [“a smiley face emoji”]; Grant [52], at para. 194 [[“a smiley face emoji”]; McCall [58], at para. 9 [“smiley face emoticon symbol”]. Two decisions in the same file were counted as one if the relevant text was identical (e.g., McCall [58] on verdict and McCall [57] on sentencing), as two if the reasons were different (e.g., Hamilton v Crêpe it Up! [24] and Crêpe It Up! v Hamilton [17]).

  18. 18.

    Where one discovers that “les frimousses” is a very common kindergarten denomination in Quebec (e.g., Garderie Les Frimousses du Fort inc. [22] or 9053-3704 Québec inc. (Garderie Frimousse) [30]), and that ecstasy pills often display a “smiley face”: e.g., Khan [55]; Bishop [44].

  19. 19.

    We note that earlier decisions were indexed on some of the consulted databases after this paper was submitted. These were not included.

  20. 20.

    Bédirian [5] [smiley face] (31 August 2002); Authorization (s. 43) 02-02 [2] [emoticon] (November 8, 2002).

  21. 21.

    Papadopoulos [63] [smiley face] (24 April 2006); Winnicki [10], at para. 46 [emoticon] (12 July 2006).

  22. 22.

    Amalgamated Transit [1]; C.C. [47].

  23. 23.

    EmojiTracker.com [189]; see also Brandwatch, 2018 [182]. It is also the most popular emoji on Facebook (WorldEmojiDay [191]) and on Apple, “Animoji,”[180].

  24. 24.

    Brandwatch, 2018 [182]; (WorldEmojiDay [188]); Instagram Engineering [141].

  25. 25.

    E.g., “WhatsApp” 85 yields decisions since Group of Employees [23], published on 18 November 2013; “Skype,” 2,824 decisions since Ben-Tzvi [7] published on 21 July 2006 and “Facebook,” 7,473 decisions since W.R.V. [75] published on 28 August 2007. We take some comfort in professor Eric Goldman [89]’s work sheets: working on American case law –a much bigger case pool due to the respective populations of Canada and the United States–but similarly aiming to conduct an exhaustive survey, his inventory yields 87 cases from 6 August, 2004 to 13 February, 2017. For the same period, our survey gives 79 results.

  26. 26.

    See e.g., Wilson [96], at pp. 79–80.

  27. 27.

    Though an increasing trend was documented by Porter [92], at p. 1718.

  28. 28.

    Picard [39], at para. 29, translation is ours.

  29. 29.

    C.V. II [9], translation is ours.

  30. 30.

    Hungry? Why don’t you type in a ticket or a pizza emoji and let Yelp! or Google give you directions to the nearest joint or movie theatre? Certain domain name providers also allow one to add an emoji to a URL address: see Johnson [142].

  31. 31.

    For instance, in Maughan (Sup. Ct) [34], the impugned emoticon is both reproduced and described as a “smiley face icon,” whereas the confirmatory judgment, Maughan (App. Ct.) [35], only reproduces the impugned emoticon, without any descriptive expression being used, and was thus not included in the count. Other examples of decisions featuring emoticons without mention of the keyword include a “: p” in Ngai [61], at para. 146 and a “=)” in K.C. [27], at para. 18. These were excluded from the results.

  32. 32.

    Sremack [161]; Boxer Analytics [181]; Lamonth [145]; Dipshan [132]; Cole [126].

  33. 33.

    See e.g., Sherbrooke [29], and Therrien [14], discussed below.

  34. 34.

    The reasons in Dhandhukia [48], expressly state, at para. 4, that “a copy of the transcript [is attached] as Appendix A to these reasons. It contains several symbols that were described as various types of ‘smiley faces.’”; however, no such transcript is provided with either electronic version consulted.

  35. 35.

    D.C.R. [40], at para. 18.

  36. 36.

    At least on CanLII (where they are featured in colour) and Westlaw (where they appear to have been scanned in black and white); on Quicklaw, the entirepage on which they appear was ostensibly scanned for display.

  37. 37.

    While the sample is too small to draw any meaningful inference, we note these were all judgments written by male judges. Female judges are more descriptive than their male colleagues, and penned 75% of all “mentions of omission” decisions.

  38. 38.

    Elliott [49], at p. 34/88.

  39. 39.

    Grant [52], at para. 56.

  40. 40.

    Dhandhukia [48], at para. 4.

  41. 41.

    Kemp [38], at paras. 26, 31.

  42. 42.

    TST-85522-17 [72], at para. 5; see also Slogoski [70], at para. 84.

  43. 43.

    Swiftey [186], reports that Canadians are the biggest users of this evenly twisted turd emoji, now displayed with smiling eyes on most platforms. Stories differ as to the origin of the smiling poo meme: some trace it to a phonetic resemblance with the Japanese expression for “good luck,” (Healy [137]), others to Akira Toriyama’s Dr Slump manga: Schwartzberglong [160].

  44. 44.

    For instance, “ U+1F624 Face With Look of Triumph” is “spoken” by Apple iOs 11.3’s accessibility features as “Huffing With Anger Face” (this is further explained infra at §3.2in fine, Fig. 14).

  45. 45.

    Twenty including cats and the sun: Smiling Face With Smiling Eyes; Slightly Smiling Face; Smiling Face With Halo; Grinning Face With Smiling Eyes; Beaming Face With Smiling Eyes; Smiling Face With Sunglasses; Smiling Face; Grinning Face With Big Eyes; Kissing Face With Smiling Eyes; Smiling Face With Horns; Grinning Squinting Face; Face With Hand Over Mouth; Smiling Face With Heart-Eyes; Grinning Face With Sweat; Smiling Face With 3 Hearts; Cat Face With Wry Smile; Grinning Cat Face With Smiling Eyes; Grinning Cat Face; Smiling Cat Face With Heart Eyes; Sun With Face.

  46. 46.

    Swiftkey [186]. This is in line with Facebook [191], Twitter (Emojitracker [189]) and Instagram: Goodman [136].

  47. 47.

    Parsons [64], at para. 21.

  48. 48.

    Baker [4], at para. 11.

  49. 49.

    G.L. [51], at para. 60.

  50. 50.

    Navarro [37], at para. 11.

  51. 51.

    Otokiti [62], at para. 10.

  52. 52.

    Pelletier [18], at para. 49, translation is ours. There original reads: “Ici, l’ensemble du clavardage permet d’inférer que l’accusé recherchait visiblement l’excitation d’une nouvelle rencontre. Sa façon d’interpréter chaque détail anodin que X écrit comme une allusion à connotation sexuelle est éloquente. Ne serait-ce que cette demande de photo faite par l’adolescent, accompagnée d’émoticônes desquels l’accusé infère qu’il parle d’une photo coquine.”

  53. 53.

    A prior question from a procedural point of view (evidence is admitted in the file first, then, maybe, quoted into the judgment), but an ulterior question, from the perspective of a researcher (who must first find emoji or emoticon quoting cases, then deduct how and why they were included).

  54. 54.

    Papadopoulos [63] [message partly edited out]; Butler [45] [messages of deceased third party]; D.D. [47] [doubts as to message authorship]; Hatcher [25] [doubts as to whether smileys sent by child or “directed” by one parent]; N.W. [60], at para. 52 [on text messages generally]; see also, in Queensland (Australia), Re Nichol [76] where the issue was whether an unsent SMS (containing an emoji) was the deceased last will.

  55. 55.

    Hamdan [53], at para. 97. The opposite result was reached in Spain regarding Twitter utterances associated with ETA movement, see Franquet [87].

  56. 56.

    Sherbrooke (Ville) [29], at para. 158; see also Papadopoulos [63], at paras. 40, 43, where the court orders emoticons to be removed from a message because they created confusion between two simultaneous conversations, one pertaining to homicide, another to a videogame.

  57. 57.

    Therrien [14], at paras. 154–155.

  58. 58.

    An Act to establish the new Code of Civil Procedure [83], explanatory notes, at p. 3; Quebec, Ministry of Justice [93], at pp. 46–49; see also: Jutras, [90].

  59. 59.

    Ulbricht [80], transcript of hearing, at pp. 286–287.

  60. 60.

    Tresierra [67], at para. 36: “Chat logs were also retrieved from Mr. Tresierra’s hard drive through the use of Encase keyword searches and the specialized software Yahoo Messenger Archive Decoder. Chat logs are abbreviated text messages between screen users. Emoticons (symbols with faces displaying an emotion) may be attached to the text. Chat logs are conducted in real time and are sometimes described as instant messaging.”

  61. 61.

    England [21], at p. 3/7: “Like verbal conversation, text messages are often replete with informalities, texting abbreviations (e.g. “LOL”) or emoticons and other similar social conventions.”

  62. 62.

    Couillard (Re) [16], at para. 17 stating that hearts and smiley faces (“bon[s]hommes sourire”) are so common especially among the youth (“très usitées de nos jours, particulièrement chez les jeunes”) that they do not amount to marks that can identify a voter on a ballot.

  63. 63.

    N.W. [60], at para. 52; See also Baglow [3], at paras. 100–101, where the court summarized an expert’s testimony to that effect: “Further computer mediated communication is also characterized by its lack of punctuation and use of “emoticons” to denote feelings and moods. Many linguistic conventions and styles on BBSs, chat rooms, et cetera, are derivative of early computer hacker language. They are common expressions, phrases and styles used specifically on Internet-based sites and platforms, including those frequented by online political actors. […] the lack of non-verbal cues (for example facial expressions that might indicate sarcasm or joking) tend to exacerbate debates over the meaning and intent of specific phrases and words. Misinterpretations are frequent.”

  64. 64.

    Marselje [33], at paras. 14–15.

  65. 65.

    Saussure [103], at p. 100.

  66. 66.

    Categories differ between: Danesi [97]; Evans [98]; Kirley and McMahon [91]; Schneebeli [117].

  67. 67.

    Jakobson [100], at p. 115.

  68. 68.

    Danesi [97], at p. 18; see also Collister [127]; Lam [144].

  69. 69.

    Century 21 [12], at para. 44–47 [emojis in a real-estate agent’s messages “belies [a] generally positive working relationship”]: Kinark [28], at p. 20/22 [“the objective evidence [including smiley faces] informing his relationship with Mr. Sutch militates against his view that their relationship, from the beginning of their working together, was one of animosity”].

  70. 70.

    Supra n. 46.

  71. 71.

    C.V. I [8], at para. 4; Abitbol [15], at para. 37; Forget, [31], at para. 7.

  72. 72.

    See Bedzow-Weisleder [6], at para. 14.

  73. 73.

    On intensity markers generally, see Romero [116].

  74. 74.

    The “A-Ok” gesture is culturally hazardous, as it may also be used for “zero” or a vulgar insult: Gesteland [99], at p. 88.

  75. 75.

    Danesi [97], at p. 87.

  76. 76.

    Danesi [97], at pp. 21, 59.

  77. 77.

    See, Grant [52], at para. 159: “The “happy face” emoji on the complainant’s text ought not to be viewed as inconsistent with her evidence that she did not consent.”; see also JR [41], at paras. 11 ff.

  78. 78.

    See M.B. [56], at para. 6.

  79. 79.

    For a quick cross-jurisdiction survey, one may compare with a few Spanish and American cases mentioned respectively by Franquet [87] and Goldman, 2018 [89] or Kirley-McMahon [91].

  80. 80.

    Maughan (Sup. Ct) [34], at para. 32.

  81. 81.

    Maughan (Sup. Ct) [35], at para. 405.

  82. 82.

    TET-73196-16 [73].

  83. 83.

    See M.B. [56], at para. 6.

  84. 84.

    Dix [19], at para. 50.

  85. 85.

    See e.g., Wilson [96].

  86. 86.

    Danesi [97], at p. 39.

  87. 87.

    And perhaps on the adage that a picture is worth a thousand words: see Benenson (dir.), EmojiDick or,[the Whale], by Herman Melville [192]; Hale, ‘Wonderland Emoji Poster [194]; Bing, “Book from the Ground” [193]; see generally: “Narratives In Emoji” [187]; see also “Tweeting case law as emoji (badly),” [188].

  88. 88.

    The Ouch Team [166].

  89. 89.

    Godlewski [135].

  90. 90.

    DeFabio [131]; Hess, “Hands Off,” [139].

  91. 91.

    Moore [153].

  92. 92.

    Unicode Consortium, “Emoji and Pictographs” [176], itself notes, somewhat lackadaisically that “any pictorial representation of a [given code point], whether a line drawing, gray scale, or colored image (possibly animated) is considered an acceptable rendition for the given emoji. However, a design that is too different from other vendors’ representations may cause interoperability problems,” referring to its more detailed technical guidelines, Unicode Consortium, “UTS #51” [177].

  93. 93.

    Burge, “Burger” [123].

  94. 94.

    For speculations on why drawings were different at the outset, see: Goldman, 2018 [89], at p. 51; for spectacular divergences circa 2014, see: Bosker [122].

  95. 95.

    Burge, “Convergence?” [124].

  96. 96.

    Burge, “Convergence?” [124]. In this case, the convergence is voluntary rather than coincidental, see e.g., Rhodes [159]; Apple, “Diversity,” [178], or Microsoft, “Evolving” [184].

  97. 97.

    At least one Spanish tribunal [77], has specifically cautioned attorneys on this topic: “la prueba de una comunicación bidireccional mediante cualquiera de los múltiples sistemas de mensajería instantánea debe ser abordada con todas las cautelas.”

  98. 98.

    Kirley and McMahon [91], at p. 24.

  99. 99.

    Both flags feature a white cross on a blue shield, with four identical ornaments, Martinican pit viper in one case, fleur-de-lys in the other. See online petition to add a Quebec flag to the Unicode’s next emoji release.

  100. 100.

    See supra n. 45.

  101. 101.

    Apple, “Animoji,” [180]; Samsung, “AR Moji,” [185]; Burge, “Memoji” [125].

  102. 102.

    Alshenqeeti [104], at p. 60; see also Azuma [105]; see also Goldman, 2017 [88], at pp. 23–25; Kirley and McMahon [91], at pp. 28–29.

  103. 103.

    On how new emojis contribute to “normalization” as an instrument of power, see Béjot [107], at pp. 53 ff.

  104. 104.

    For a related issue, see: Goldman, 2017 [88], at p. 15.

  105. 105.

    On emoji dictionaries, see Goldman, 2017 [88], at p. 18, noting that, despite their authors’ efforts or enthusiasm, Emojipedia; or The Emoji Dictionary entries are variable in quality. On text-to-speech, see supra, n. 86. On how this may contradict the inherent speed of e-communications, see: N.W. [60], at para. 52. On whether names are “conventional” or “natural,” see Plato’s Cratylus.

  106. 106.

    Oaks [155].

  107. 107.

    Moore [153].

  108. 108.

    Logan [146].

  109. 109.

    Corbett [130].

  110. 110.

    Merriam-Webster Blog [150]; McPherson [149].

  111. 111.

    For examples of potential lawsuits, see: Tschanz [95]. For powerful rhetoric on this emoji, see: Abad-Santos and Jones [121].

  112. 112.

    Wiseman and Gould [118]; see also Sternberg [163], explaining that a friend of his systematically used the tempura shrimp when in a cocooning mood or Goldman, 2017 [88], at pp. 19–20 explaining how a surveyed couple had come to use the Easter Island statues to connote absurdity.

  113. 113.

    Danesi [97].

  114. 114.

    Barbieri et al. [106], p. 532.

  115. 115.

    Japanese post offices are rather marked “〒,” and the Unicode provides for a Japan-specific emoji: U+1F3E3.

  116. 116.

    See Oliver [156].

  117. 117.

    Logan [146]; FakeUnicode [190].

  118. 118.

    Leber-Cook and Cook [101], at p. 31; see also Unicode Consortium, “Background,” [172].

  119. 119.

    Barnett Lidsky and Riedemann Norbut [85], at p. 148; see also Papadopoulos [63], Baglow [3], N.W. [60].

  120. 120.

    Hess, “Move Over” [140]; see also the anonymous survey DrEd.com [183].

  121. 121.

    New York Public Hospitals, advertising campaign (April 2017), online.

  122. 122.

    For a summary, see: Miller [151].

  123. 123.

    Which is almost surprising considering their prevalence in the cases examined (see supra §1.2).

  124. 124.

    Yanke [70]; Parsons [64]; also with Australian case law: see Warren [81], at para. 23.

  125. 125.

    Varley [167].

  126. 126.

    Masemann [148]; see also the r/trees reddit thread.

  127. 127.

    Titchener [66], at para. 7; Isaac [54], at para. 15.

  128. 128.

    Frisbee [50], at paras. 108–114.

  129. 129.

    Yeo [68], at para. 16.

  130. 130.

    Strickland [65], at para. 4; Meyers [36], at para. 75; Casimir [11], at para. 31.

  131. 131.

    Ambrose [42], at paras. 61–72.

  132. 132.

    On emojis as complement to language: Alshenqeeti [104], at p. 61 and Kavanagh [112]. On emojis as language lato sensu see: OLED, “Is Emoji a Type of Language?” [157]. On emojis are lacking grammar see: Unicode Consortium, “Emoji and Pictographs” [176] and Manilève [147].

  133. 133.

    Steinmetz [162]. On Twitter, also, emojis will appear about 2/3 through the post: Kralj Novak et al. [114], at p. 10/22.

  134. 134.

    Tatman [165].

  135. 135.

    Steinmetz [162], reporting unpublished research by Tyler Schnoebelen.

  136. 136.

    Steinmetz [162].

  137. 137.

    See, amongst others, McLuhan [102] at pp. 21 ff; Derks et al. [110], at pp. 11–12 or Kingsbury [113].

  138. 138.

    Mir [59], at para. 98.

  139. 139.

    Dresner and Herring [111].

  140. 140.

    Copeland [129].

  141. 141.

    Daft and Lengel [109].

  142. 142.

    Even in Israeli case Dahan [74], largely reported as turning on the meaning of a series of emojis (see e.g., Kaser [143] or Mlot [152]), emojis were only one of the elements considered.

  143. 143.

    An Act to establish the new Code of Civil Procedure [83], explanatory notes, at p. 3; see also Bailey et al. [84].

  144. 144.

    Re Nichol [76].

  145. 145.

    Dahan [74].

  146. 146.

    E.g., DN Developments [20]; England [21].

  147. 147.

    Stockton [164]; British Columbia benchers ruled in a disciplinary hearing that the word “fuck” was “emotional punctuation”: Johnson [26], at para. 56.

Case Law

Canadian Cases

  1. 1.

    Amalgamated Transit Union, Local 113 v Toronto Transit Commission (Use of Social Media Grievance), [2016] O.L.A.A. No. 267.

  2. 2.

    Authorization (s. 43) 02-02; Insurance Corp. of British Columbia, [2002] B.C.I.P.C.D. No. 57.

  3. 3.

    Baglow v Smith, 2015 ONSC 1175.

  4. 4.

    Baker v Twiggs Coffee Roasters, 2014 HRTO 460.

  5. 5.

    Bédirian v Canada (Justice), 2002 PSSRB 89 .

  6. 6.

    Bedzow-Weisleder v Weisleder, 2018 ONSC 1969.

  7. 7.

    Ben-Tzvi v Ben-Tzvi, 2006 CanLII 25256 (ON SC).

  8. 8.

    C.V. et Responsable du CIUSSS A, 2015 CanLII 48507 (TAQ).

  9. 9.

    C.V. et Responsable du CSSS A, 2016 CanLII 33821 (TAQ).

  10. 10.

    Canada (Canadian Human Rights Commission) v Winnicki, 2006 FC 873.

  11. 11.

    Casimir c R., 2009 QCCA 1720.

  12. 12.

    Century 21 Dome Realty Inc. v Brittner, 2018 SKPC 24.

  13. 13.

    CISS-FM re Big Bag of Cash Contest, 2016 CBSC 9 .

  14. 14.

    Commissaire à la déontologie policière c Therrien, 2018 QCCDP 6.

  15. 15.

    Couche-Tard inc. c Abitbol, 2012 QCCS 4194.

  16. 16.

    Couillard (Re), 2011 QCCS 2618.

  17. 17.

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Acknowledgements

© 2018 Laurence Bich-Carrière; BCL, LLB McGill (2008); LLM Cantab (2009), member of the Quebec (2009) and Ontario (2011) Bars. The author is currently a lawyer at Lavery, de Billy llp and a research scholar at the Paul-A. Crépeau Centre for Private and Comparative Law. This paper was presented as a workshop at the 12th Summer Institute of Jurilinguistics (Montreal, 15 June 2018), organized by the Crépeau Centre at the Faculty of Law of McGill University, and is part of wider research she conducts on emojis and the law. Unless otherwise indicated, the search is up-to-date and hyperlinks are functional as at 1 June 2018, and all underlining is the author’s, who wishes to thank all those who patiently bore with her emoji-testing texting as well as Mr. François Beaudry and Ms. Victoria Cohene for his dynamic and her patient comments on an earlier version of this conference paper.

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Bich-Carrière, L. Say it with [A Smiling Face with Smiling Eyes]: Judicial Use and Legal Challenges with Emoji Interpretation in Canada. Int J Semiot Law 32, 283–319 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11196-018-9594-5

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Keywords

  • Emoji
  • Emoticon
  • Semiotics
  • Linguistics
  • Evidence
  • Case law
  • Canada

Mots-clés

  • emoji
  • émoticône
  • sémiotique
  • linguistiques
  • preuve
  • jurisprudence
  • Canada