One of the main indicators of scientific development of a given country is the number of papers published in high impact scholarly journals. Many countries introduced performance-based research funding systems to create a more competitive environment where prolific researchers get rewarded with subsidies to increase both the quantity and quality of papers. Yet, subsidies do not always function as a leverage to improve the citation impact of scholarly papers. This paper investigates the effect of the publication support system of Turkey (TR) on the citation impact of papers authored by Turkish researchers. Based on a stratified probabilistic sample of 4521 TR-addressed papers, it compares the number of citations to determine whether supported papers were cited more often than those of not supported ones and published in journals with relatively higher citation impact in terms of journal impact factors (JIF), article influence scores (AIS) and quartiles. Both supported and not supported papers received comparable number of citations per paper and were published in journals with similar citation impact values. The results of the hurdle model test showed that monetary support is related with reducing the number of uncited papers, and with slightly increasing the citation impact of papers with positive (i.e., non-zero) citations. Journal-level metrics of JIF, AIS and quartiles are not associated with papers’ getting their first citations nor with receiving higher citation counts. Findings suggest that subsidies do not seem to be an effective incentive to improve the citation impact of scholarly TR-addressed papers. Such support programs should therefore be reconsidered.
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A professor may earn the equivalent of 20 years’ salary for a Nature or Science paper, and the maximum amount can be as high as 165,000 USD for a single paper (Quan et al. 2017: 491, 494). However, it is worth noting that China has apparently experienced the dire consequences of this policy and recently decided to ban cash rewards for publishing papers in journals listed in citation indexes (Mallapaty 2020). With the new policy, China plans to say farewell to WoS-based indicators (so called “SCI worship”) by moving to “a balanced combination of qualitative and quantitative research evaluation” with stronger local relevance (Zhang and Sivertsen 2020a: 7, 2020b).
In this study, we use “papers” or “TR-addressed papers” in general instead of “articles” or “TR-addressed articles”, unless otherwise indicated.
We actually selected three different samples (every 50th and 99th record; every 12th and 77th record; and every 12th and 75th record) with the same sample size and compared the descriptive statistics such as means and medians to make sure the stratified probabilistic sampling technique worked properly. As sample statistics were quite similar in all three cases, we report here the findings based on the last one.
Note that 49 Arts and Humanities papers that received a total of 289 citations were excluded from further analysis as bibliometric characteristics of Arts and Humanities journals are not listed in JCR.
Not all journals in which TR-addressed papers were published had both JIF and/or AIS values listed in JCR. The correlation coefficient is based on 3961 papers with both values. Papers that were published in journals with no JIS and/or AIS were also excluded.
Note that 4% of all TR-addressed papers were published in journals with no assigned JCR quartiles in 2015 (i.e., journals with no JIFs).
Note that 3% of all TR-addressed Science papers indexed in SCI were published in journals with no assigned JCR quartiles in 2015 (i.e., Science journals with no JIFs).
In fact, the mean JIF and AIS values of not supported papers with zero citations were even slightly higher than those of supported ones with zero citations.
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We thank Mr. Mirat Satoğlu of TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM for providing data for supported papers, and Dr. Umut Al of Hacettepe University for reviewing an earlier version of this paper. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions.
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Tonta, Y., Akbulut, M. Does monetary support increase citation impact of scholarly papers?. Scientometrics (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03688-y
- Impact factor
- Article influence score
- Journal quartiles
- Hurdle model