The Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) implemented an open access policy for its grant recipients in 2008. We used bibliographic data from the Web of Science to find out how CIHR-funded researchers in the physical sciences self-archived their publications. We also examined the self-archiving policies of the journals in which the researchers published, and compared the citation rates of two different self-archiving approaches: the green open access route (deposit in an institutional or subject repository) and the grey open access route (deposit in an academic social network or personal/departmental website). Only 14% of the articles were openly accessible through the green open access route, while 37% could be accessed through the grey open access route. We cannot ascribe the low uptake of green open access to publishers’ self-archiving policies, as almost all journals allowed self-archiving through the green open access route. Authors deposited 31% of their publications in ResearchGate, the most popular self-archiving option in our study, while they deposited only 2.1% of their publications in institutional repositories, the least popular option. The citation rates of the various self-archiving approaches did not differ significantly. Our results suggest that it may be time to rethink how to achieve open access.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
From April 2018, Web of Science changed its classification of open access status, which now includes the green open access category in addition to gold open access (http://images.webofknowledge.com//WOKRS529JR13/help/WOS/hp_results.html?hlsource=Refine_OA_learnmore).
Archambault, É., Amyot, D., Deschamps, P., Nicol, A., Provencher, F., Rebout, L., & Roberge, G. (2014). Proportion of open access papers published in peer-reviewed journals at the European and world levels—1996–2013 (Vol. RTD-B6-PP-). Retrieved from http://science-metrix.com/sites/default/files/science-metrix/publications/d_1.8_sm_ec_dg-rtd_proportion_oa_1996-2013_v11p.pdf. Accessed 9 June 2017.
Björk, B.-C. (2017). Gold, green, and black open access. Learned Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1002/leap.1096.
Björk, B., Laakso, M., Welling, P., & Paetau, P. (2014). Anatomy of green open access. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65(2), 237–250.
Björk, B. C., & Solomon, D. (2012). Open access versus subscription journals: A comparison of scientific impact. BMC Medicine, 10(73): doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-10-73. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-10-73.
Björk, B.-C., Welling, P., Laakso, M., Majlender, P., Hedlund, T., & Guðnason, G. (2010). Open access to the scientific journal literature: Situation 2009. PLoS ONE, 5(6), e11273.
Borrego, Á. (2016). Measuring compliance with a Spanish Government open access mandate. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67(4), 757–764. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23422.
Borrego, Á. (2017). Institutional repositories versus ResearchGate: The depositing habits of Spanish researchers. Learned Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1002/leap.1099.
CARL. (2018a). Adoptive repositories. Retrieved August 8, 2018, from http://www.carl-abrc.ca/advancing-research/institutional-repositories/adoptive-repositories.
CARL. (2018b). Repositories in Canada. Retrieved July 18, 2018, from http://www.carl-abrc.ca/advancing-research/institutional-repositories/repos-in-canada.
CIHR. (2013). CIHR open access policy. Retrieved August 8, 2018, from http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/46068.html.
Gargouri, Y., Hajjem, C., Lariviére, V., Gingras, Y., Carr, L., Brody, T., et al. (2010). Self-selected or mandated, open access increases citation impact for higher quality research. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013636.
Hua, F., Sun, H., Walsh, T., Worthington, H., & Glenny, A.-M. (2016). Open access to journal articles in dentistry: Prevalence and citation impact. Journal of Dentistry, 47, 41–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2016.02.005.
Jamali, H. R., & Nabavi, M. (2015). Open access and sources of full-text articles in Google Scholar in different subject fields. Scientometrics, 105(3), 1635–1651. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1642-2.
Kurtz, M. J., Eichhorn, G., Accomazzi, A., Grant, C., Demleitner, M., Henneken, E., et al. (2005). The effect of use and access on citations. Information Processing and Management, 41(6), 1395–1402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2005.03.010.
Laakso, M., Lindman, J., Shen, C., Nyman, L., & Björk, B.-C. (2017). Research output availability on academic social networks: Implications for stakeholders in academic publishing. Electronic Markets. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-016-0242-1.
Lovett, J. A., Lang, A. J., Lovett, J. A., Rathemacher, A. J., Boukari, D., & Lang, C. (2017). Institutional repositories and academic social networks: Competition or complement? A study of open access policy compliance vs. researchgate participation. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication. https://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.2183.
Martín-Martín, A., Orduña-Malea, E., Ayllón, J. M., & López-Cózar, E. D. (2014). Does Google Scholar contain all highly cited documents (1950–2013)? Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.8464.
Miguel, S., Chinchilla-Rodriguez, Z., & de Moya-Anegón, F. (2011). Open access and Scopus: A new approach to scientific visibility from the standpoint of access. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(6), 1130–1145.
Mueller-Langer, F., & Watt, R. (2014). The hybrid open access citation advantage: How many more cites is a $3,000 fee buying you? Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 14-02. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2391692.
Narayan, B., & Luca, E. (2016). Issues and challenges in researchers’ adoption of open access and institutional repositories: A contextual study of a university repository. In Proceedings of RAILS—research applications, information and library studies. School of Information Management, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.informationr.net/ir/22-4/rails/rails1608.html.
OpenDOAR. (2018). Open Access repository types—Worldwide. Retrieved February 7, 2018, from http://www.opendoar.org/onechart.php?cID=&ctID=&rtID=&clID=&lID=&potID=&rSoftWareName=&search=&groupby=rt.rtHeading&orderby=TallyDESC&charttype=pie&width=600&height=300&caption. Open Access Repository Types – Worldwide.
Pinfield, S. (2015). Making open access work: The “state-of-the-art” in providing open access to scholarly literature. Online Information Review, 39(5), 604–636. https://doi.org/10.1108/OIR-05-2015-0167.
Pitol, S. P., & De Groote, S. L. (2014). Google Scholar versions: Do more versions of an article mean greater impact? Library Hi Tech, 32(4), 594–611. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHT-05-2014-0039.
ROARMAP: Registry of Open Access Mandates and Policies, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018, from http://roarmap.eprints.org/.
Sababi, M., Marashi, S. A., Pourmajidian, M., Pourtabatabaei, S. S., Darki, F., Sadrzadeh, M. R., et al. (2017). How accessibility influences citation counts: The case of citations to the full text articles available from ResearchGate. RT. A Journal on Research Policy and Evaluation. https://doi.org/10.13130/2282-5398/7997.
Salisbury, L., Omolewu, A. O., & Smith, J. J. (2017). Identifying “Free” full-text resources in agriculture, food and life sciences: A research study. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 18(2), 136–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/10496505.2017.1300537.
SPARC. (2016). The open access citation advantage service. Retrieved February 6, 2018, from https://sparceurope.org/what-we-do/open-access/sparc-europe-open-access-resources/open-access-citation-advantage-service-oaca/.
STM. (2015). STM consultation on article sharing. Retrieved May 11, 2018, from https://www.stm-assoc.org/stm-consultations/scn-consultation-2015/.
Swan, A. (2010). Modelling scholarly communication options: Costs and benefits for universities report to the JISC February 2010, (February), 64 S. Retrieved from http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/268584. Accessed 9 June 2017.
Tay, A. (2017). Rethinking institutional Repositories. Online Searcher, 41(2), 10–15. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=iih&AN=122041467&site=eds-live.
Thelwall, M., & Kousha, K. (2017). ResearchGate articles: Age, discipline, audience size, and impact. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68(2), 468–479. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23675.
U15. (2018). Group of Canadian Research Universities. Retrieved August 8, 2018, from http://u15.ca/about-us.
Universities Canada.(2018). 2017 full-time and part-time fall enrolment at Canadian universities. Retrieved July 18, 2018, from https://www.univcan.ca/universities/facts-and-stats/enrolment-by-university.
Van Noorden, R. (2017). Publishers threaten to remove millions of papers from ResearchGate. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2017.22793.
Zhang, L., & Watson, E. M. (2017). Measuring the impact of gold and green open access. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 43(4), 337–345.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, L., Watson, E. The prevalence of green and grey open access: Where do physical science researchers archive their publications?. Scientometrics 117, 2021–2035 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2924-2
- Green open access
- Journal archiving policy
- Institutional repository
- Subject repository
Mathematics Subject Classification