Tracing the knowledge-building dynamics in new stem cell technologies through techno-scientific networks
This study assesses the knowledge-building dynamics of emerging technologies, their participating country-level actors, and their interrelations. We examine research on induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, a recently discovered stem cell species. Compared to other studies, our approach conflates the totality of publications and patents of a field, and their references, into single “techno-scientific networks” across intellectual bases (IB) and research fronts (RF). Diverse mapping approaches—co-citation, direct citation, and bibliographic coupling networks—are used, driven by the problems tackled by iPS cell researchers. Besides the study of the field of iPS cells as a whole, we assessed the roles of relevant countries in terms of “knowledge exploration,” “knowledge nurturing,” “knowledge exploitation,” and cognitive content. The results show that a fifth of nodes in IB and edges in RF interconnect science (S) and technology (T). S and T domains tell different, yet complementing stories: S overstresses upstream activities, and T captures the increasing influential role of application domains and general technologies. Both S and T reflect the path-dependent nature of iPS cells in embryonic stem cell technologies. Building on the feedback between IB and RF, we examine the dominating role of the United States. Japan, the pioneer, falls behind in quantity, yet its global influence remains intact. New entrants, such as China, are advancing rapidly, yet, cognitively, the bulk of efforts are still upstream. Our study demonstrates the need for bibliometric assessment studies to account for S&T co-evolution. The multiple data source-based, integrated bibliometric approaches of this study are initial efforts toward this direction.
KeywordsTechno-scientific networks Knowledge-building Dynamics Emerging technologies Stem cells
We thank the Editor and anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. This work was financially supported by MEXT/JSPS World Premier International Research Center (WPI) Initiative [AAR] and by MEXT/JSPS Kakenhi Grant No. 26301022 [AAR, SS] (Project leader Prof. Shintaro Sengoku). Initial stages of this study were supported by Cabinet Office of Japan/JSPS Funding Program for World-Leading Next-Generation Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (NEXT Program, Grant Number LZ009) [AAR, SS]. An earlier version of this manuscript was presented at the Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET) 2014 conference (Portland, US). All remaining errors are our own.
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