, Volume 109, Issue 3, pp 1435–1454 | Cite as

Researchers’ career transitions over the life cycle

  • Daiji Kawaguchi
  • Ayako Kondo
  • Keiji Saito


Based on a unique time-use survey of academic researchers in Japan, this study finds that research time decreases over the life cycle. The decrease in total hours worked and the increase in time spent on administrative tasks explain the decrease in research time. We also show that the decrease of research time partly explains why the research output of older researchers’ decreases. The results suggest that proper incentives and job designs for senior researchers may increase their research output.


Researchers’ time use Research output Academic researchers Academic administration Education Multi-tasking 



This research was initially conducted as a part of a project by the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP). Akiko Togawa provided excellent research assistance, and Kensuke Kobayashi offered helpful comments. Financial support from the JSPS KAKENHI Grants (15K17072 and 16H03630) is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.IZABonnGermany
  3. 3.Change Co., LtdTokyoJapan

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