Patent activity in China for vibration-reduction control technology in high-speed railway vehicle systems was analyzed based on a portfolio of 193 patents or applications from the State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China official Web-based database and a search of the World Intellectual Property Organization PCT database. Patent activity features such as timing, applicant, technology classification, technical themes, and patents in force were obtained and analyzed. As a further stage of research, patent data on locomotive wheel sets were analyzed by means of a matrix analysis of problems and technologies. The main statistical information and conclusions include estimating the development stage, discovering the distributions of applications and applicants, weighing the roles played by major applications, determining R&D hotspots, and providing a better understanding of domestic patent activities in this field. Policy implications for innovation-related domestic R&D institutions in the technologies under study were proposed based on the analytical results.