, Volume 98, Issue 2, pp 1173–1202 | Cite as

Collaboration in pharmaceutical research: exploration of country-level determinants

  • Tatiana Plotnikova
  • Bastian Rake


In this paper we focus on proximity as one of the main determinants of international collaboration in pharmaceutical research. We use various count data specifications of the gravity model to estimate the intensity of collaboration between pairs of countries as explained by the geographical, cognitive, institutional, social, and cultural dimensions of proximity. Our results suggest that geographical distance has a significant negative relation to the collaboration intensity between countries. The amount of previous collaborations, as a proxy for social proximity, is positively related to the number of cross-country collaborations. We do not find robust significant associations between cognitive proximity or institutional proximity with the intensity of international research collaboration. Our findings for cultural proximity do not allow of unambiguous conclusions concerning their influence on the collaboration intensity between countries.


International cooperation Pharmaceuticals Proximity 



This research was partly done while the authors were members of the Graduate College “The Economics of Innovative Change” at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena. We thank the German Science Foundation (DFG) and the DIME network for financial support. We are grateful to Uwe Cantner, the participants of the Jena Economic Research Workshop in February 2011, especially to Ljubica Nedelkoska, Fang Wang and Sebastian Wilfling, the participants of the DRUID-DIME Academy Winter Conference 2011, particularly Lars Alkærsing and Tim Pohlmann, and the participants of the DIME Final Conference 2011 and to an anonymous referee for useful comments, expressed interest, and concerns. We thank Bart Leten for helping with the CHI classification. The usual caveats apply.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1. National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (STATEC)LuxembourgLuxembourg
  2. 2.University of PassauPassauGermany

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