Scientific production has been evaluated from very different perspectives, the best known of which are essentially based on the impact factors of the journals included in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). This has been no impediment to the simultaneous issuing of warnings regarding the dangers of their indiscriminate use when making comparisons. This is because the biases incorporated in the elaboration of these impact factors produce significant distortions, which may invalidate the results obtained. Notable among such biases are those generated by the differences in the propensity to cite of the different areas, journals and/or authors, by variations in the period of materialisation of the impact and by the varying presence of knowledge areas in the sample of reviews contained in the JCR. While the traditional evaluation method consists of standardisation by subject categories, recent studies have criticised this approach and offered new possibilities for making inter-area comparisons. In view of such developments, the present study proposes a novel approach to the measurement of scientific activity, in an attempt to lessen the aforementioned biases. This approach consists of combining the employment of a new impact factor, calculated for each journal, with the grouping of the institutions under evaluation into homogeneous groups. An empirical application is undertaken to evaluate the scientific production of Spanish public universities in the year 2000. This application considers both the articles published in the multidisciplinary databases of the Web of Science (WoS) and the data concerning the journals contained in the Sciences and Social Sciences Editions of the Journal Citation Report (JCR). All this information is provided by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), via its Web of Knowledge (WoK).
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In theory, the normalisation required to homogenise field representativity in the sample should be performed by weighting the millions of citations handled every year by the following factor: 1/total citations of articles published in JCR journals.
Carnegie Foundation’s classification distinguishes between universities which offer the complete range of higher education, including doctoral degrees (Doctorate-granting Institutions or Doctoral/Research Universities) and those which teach up to the Master’s level (Master’s Colleges and Universities) or those which focus principally on Bachelor’s degrees (Baccalaureate Colleges). Maclean’s University Rankings distinguishes between Primarily Undergraduate Universities (i.e. those which are largely dedicated to undergraduates), Comprehensive Universities (which offer an extensive range of qualifications for undergraduates and graduates and receive significant revenue from their research activity) and, lastly, Medical-Doctoral Universities (which offer a wide range of doctoral and research programmes and include medical faculties).
Scientific reviews are the chosen medium for 85% of all works published in the Scientific-Technical areas. In Humanistic and Social Sciences they only represent 40% (books are the chosen medium for 48% of publications in Humanities). Moreover, national reviews are the natural vehicle for contributions to Social Sciences in Spain (Gobierno de Aragón 2004).
These areas are: Mathematics and Physics; Chemistry; Cellular and Molecular Biology; Biomedical Sciences; Natural Sciences; Engineering and Architecture; Social, Political and Behavioural Sciences; Economic and Business Sciences; Law, History and Art; Philosophy, Philology and Linguistics.
The intention here is to relativise universities’ production with regard to their size. Although the disadvantage of this relativisation may reside in how widely teaching/research loads vary among universities, we believe that in the case of the SPUs it is plausible to assume that they all have a similar distribution of teaching and research, since this is established by the relevant legislation.
For the elaboration of these two blocks it was necessary to establish a criterion which permitted the determination of which area an article belonged to. A decision was taken to follow the classification of the JCR and not the Citation Index (SCI and SSCI). The fact that some reviews are included in both subsets was also taken into account. To overcome this difficulty, it was decided to divide the impacts proportionally between two macro-areas.
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The authors would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their useful and constructive comments. Any errors in the article are responsibility of its authors.
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Gómez-Sancho, J.M., Mancebón-Torrubia, M.J. A new approach to measuring scientific production in JCR journals and its application to Spanish public universities. Scientometrics 85, 271–293 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-010-0217-5
- Research evaluation
- Journal impact factor