• Special-Session Papers Presented at the 9th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators
  • Published:

Which h-index? — A comparison of WoS, Scopus and Google Scholar

Abstract

This paper compares the h-indices of a list of highly-cited Israeli researchers based on citations counts retrieved from the Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar respectively. In several case the results obtained through Google Scholar are considerably different from the results based on the Web of Science and Scopus. Data cleansing is discussed extensively.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bakkalbasi, N., Bauer, K., Glover, J., Wang, L. (2006), Three options for citation tracking: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Biomedical Digital Libraries, 3: 7. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://www.bio-diglib.com/content/3/1/7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Banks, M. G. (2006), An extension of the Hirsch index: Indexing scientific topics and compounds. Scientometrics, 69(1): 161–168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bar-Ilan, J. (2005), Expectations versus reality — Search engine features needed for Web research at mid 2005. Cybermetrics, 9, paper 2. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://www.cindoc.csic.es/cybermetrics/articles/v9i1p2.html

  4. Bar-Ilan, J. (2006), An ego-centric citation analysis of the works of Michael O. Rabin based on multiple citation indexes. Information Processing and Management, 42(6): 1553–1566.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bar-Ilan, J. (2006b), H-index for Price medalists revisited. ISSI Newsletter, 2(1): 3–5.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bar-Ilan, J., Levene, M., Lin, A. (2007), Some measures for comparing citation databases. Journal of Informetrics, 1(1): 26–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Batista, P. D., Campiteli, M. G., Kinouchi, O., Martinez, A. S. (2006), Is it possible to compare researchers with different scientific interests? Scientometrics, 68(1): 179–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bauer, K., Bakkalbasi, N. (2005), An examination of citation counts in a new scholarly communication environment. D-Lib Magazine, 11(9). Retrieved February 23, 2006, from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/september05/bauer/09bauer.html

  9. Belew, R. K. (2005), Scientific impact quality and quantity: Analysis of two sources of bibliographic data. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://arxiv.org/abs/cs.IR/0504036

  10. Bornmann, L., Daniel, H. (2005), Does the h-index for ranking of scientists really work? Scientometrics, 65: 391–392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Braun, T., Glanzel, W., Schubert, A. (2005), A Hirsch-type index for journals. The Scientist, 19(22): 8.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Braun, T., Glanzel, W., Schubert, A. (2006), A Hirsch-type index for journals. Scientometrics, 69(1): 169–173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Burrell, Q. L. (2006), Hirsch’s h-index: a preliminary stochastic model. In: Book of Abstracts, 9th International Science & Technology Indicators Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 26–28.

  14. Burnham J. F. (2006), Scopus database: A review. Biomedical Digital Libraries, 3(1). Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://www.bio-diglib.com/content/3/1/1

  15. Butler, L., McAllister, I. (2006), The Hirsch index: Is it applicable to the Social Sciences? In: Book of Abstracts, 9th International Science & Technology Indicators Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 31–32.

  16. Costas, R., Bordons, M. (2006), H-index: Advantages, limitations and its relation with other bibliometric indicators at the micro level. In: Book of Abstracts, 9th International Science & Technology Indicators Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 189–191.

  17. Cronin, B., Meho, L. (2006), Using the h-index to rank influential information scientists. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(9): 1275–1278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Deis, L. F., Goodman, D. (2005), Web of Science (2004 Version) and Scopus. The Charleston Advisor 6(3). Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://www.charlestonco.com/comp.cfm?id=43

  19. Egghe, L. (2006a), Dynamic h-index: The Hirsch Index in Function of Time. Preprint. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://doclib.luc.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/1942/980/1/dynamic+h.pdf

  20. Egghe, L. (2006b), Theory and practise of the g-index. Scientometrics, 69(1): 131–152.

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  21. Egghe, L., Rousseau, R. (2006), An informetric model for the Hirsch-index. Scientometrics, 69(1): 1221–1129.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Gardner, S., Eng, S. (2005), Gaga over Google? Scholar in the Social Sciences. Library Hi-Tech News, 22(8): 42–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Garfield, E. (1963), Science Citation Index. Science Citation Index 1961, volume 1, v–xvi. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/80.pdf

    Google Scholar 

  24. Giles, J. (2005), Start your engines. Nature News, 554–555.

  25. Glänzel, W. (2006), On the h-index — A mathematical approach to a new measure of publication activity and citation impact. Scientometrics, 67(2): 315–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Glänzel W., Persson, O. (2005), H-index for Price medialists. ISSI Newsletter, 1(4): 15–18.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Google Scholar (2005), Support for Scholarly Publishers. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from http://scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/publishers.html

  28. Hirsch, J. E. (2005a), An index to quantify an individual’s scientific research output. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0508025

  29. Hirsch, J. E. (2005b), An index to quantify an individual’s scientific research output. PNAS, 102(46): 16569–16572.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Iglesias, J. E., Pecharroman, C. (2006), Scaling the h-index for Different Scientific ISI Fields. Preprint. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0607/0607224.pdf

  31. ISI HighlyCited.com (no date_a), About HighlyCited.com. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://hcr3.isiknowledge.com/popup.cgi?name=hccom

  32. ISI HighlyCited.com (no date_b), How Do We Identify Highly Cited Researchers? Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://hcr3.isiknowledge.com/isi_copy/howweidentify.htm

  33. Jacso, P. (2004), Scopus. Peter’s Digital Reference Shelf, September 2004. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://www.galegroup.com/servlet/HTMLFileServlet?imprint=9999&region=7&fileName=reference/archive/200409/scopus.html

  34. Jacso, P. (2005a), As we may search — Comparison of major features of Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar citation-based and citation-enhanced databases. Current Science, 89(9): 1537–1547.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Jacso, P. (2005b), Visualizing overlap and rank differences among web-wide search engines. Online Information Review, 29(5): 554–560.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Jacso, P. (2006), Deflated, inflated and phantom citation counts. Online Information Review, 30(3): 297–309.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Kelly, C. D., Jennions, M. D. (2006), The h-index and career assessment by numbers. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 21(4): 167–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Kousha, K., Thelwall, M. (2006a), Google Scholar Citations and Google Web/URL citations: A multidiscipline exploratory analysis. In: Proceedings International Workshop on Webometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics & Seventh COLLNET Meeting, Nancy (France). Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00006416

  39. Kousha, K., Thelwall, M. (2006b), Sources of Google Scholar citations outside the Science Citation Index: A comparison between four science disciplines. In: Book of Abstracts, 9th International Science & Technology Indicators Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 72–73.

  40. LaGuardia, C. (2005), E-Views and Reviews: Scopus vs. Web of Science, Library Journal, January 15, 2005.

  41. Liang, L. (2006), H-index sequence and h-index matrix: Constructions and applications. Scientometrics, 69(1): 163–169.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Miller, C. W. (2006), Superiority of the h-index over the Impact Factor for Physics. Preprint. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/physics/pdf/0608/0608183.pdf

  43. Moed, H. F. (2005), Hirsch Index is a Creative and Appealing Construct but Be Cautious when Using It to Evaluate Individual Scholars. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://www.cwts.nl/hm/Comments_on_Hirsch_Index_2005_12_16.pdf

  44. Mullen, L. B., Hartman, K. A. (2006), Google Scholar and the Library Web Site: The early response by ARL Libraries. College & Research Libraries, 67(2): 106–122.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Neuhaus, C., Neuhaus, E., Asher, A., Wrede, C. (2006), The depth and breadth of Google Scholar: An empirical study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 6(2): 127–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Noruzi, A. (2005), Google Scholar: The new generation of citation indexes. LIBRI, 55(4): 170–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Pauly, D., Stergiou, K. I. (2005), Equivalence of results from two citation analyses: Thomson’s ISI Citation Index and Google’s Scholar service. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, 2005, 33–35.

  48. Payne, D. (2004), Google Scholar welcomed. News from The Scientist, 5(1):20041123-01. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from http://www.the-scientist.com/news/20041123/01

  49. Purvis, A. (2006), The h-index: Playing the numbers game. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 21(8): 422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Rahm, E., Thor, A. (2005), Citation analysis of database publications. SIGMOD Record, 34(4): 48–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Reed Elsevier (2004), Scopus Comes of Age. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from http://www.reedelsevier.com/index.cfm?Articleid=1075

  52. Rousseau, R. (2006a), A Case Study: Evolution of JASIS’ Hirsch Index. Preprint, Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00005430/01/Evolution_of_h_JASIS_rev.pdf

  53. Rousseau, R. (2006b), Simple Models and the Corresponding h-and g-index. Preprint. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00006153/01/Rousseau_Dalian.pdf

  54. Saad, G. (2006), Exploring the h-index at the author and journal levels using bibliometric data of productive consumer scholars and business-related journals respectively. Scientometrics, 69(1): 117–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Schubert, A., Glänzel, W. (2006), A systematic analysis of Hirsch-type indices for journals, preliminary results. In: Book of Abstracts, 9th International Science & Technology Indicators Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 251–253.

  56. Scopus (no date), About Scopus. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from http://www.info.scopus.com/about

  57. Sidiropoulos, A., Katsaros, D., Manolopoulos, Y. (2006), Generalized h-index for Disclosing Latent Facts in Citation Networks. In Proceedings of LinkKDD06. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/cs/pdf/0607/0607066.pdf

  58. Smith, A. (2006), Google Scholar as a cybermetric tool: A comparison with the New Zealand PRBF research assessment. In: Book of Abstracts, 9th International Science & Technology Indicators Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 139–141.

  59. Thomson Scientific (no date), Web of Science. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from http://scientific.thomson.com/products/wos

  60. van Raan, A. F. J. (2005), Comparison of the Hirsch-index with standard bibliometric indicators and with peer judgment for 147 chemistry research groups. Scientometrics, 69(1): 117–120.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Vaughan, L., Shaw, D. (2006), Comparison of citations from ISI, Google and Google Scholar: Seeking Web indicators of input. In: Book of Abstracts, 9th International Science & Technology Indicators Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 155–156.

  62. Visser, M. S., Moed, H. F. (2005), Developing bibliometric indicators of research performance in computer science. In: Proceedings of ISSI 2005, vol. 1, 275–279.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Visser, M. S., Moed, H. F. (2006), How important are conference papers for measuring research performance in Computer Science? In: Book of Abstracts, 9th International Science & Technology Indicators Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 161–162.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Judit Bar-Ilan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bar-Ilan, J. Which h-index? — A comparison of WoS, Scopus and Google Scholar. Scientometrics 74, 257–271 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-008-0216-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Citation Index
  • Citation Count
  • Citation Database
  • Technology Indicator
  • Hirsch Index