Constructivism has long been touted as the end-all solution for having K-12 students learn science. At the core of this didactic method is the assumption that given the chance, children will naturally be able to act and think like scientists. In this paper, I review the recent evidence from the cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging communities that suggests that this core assumption is more than likely incorrect. I also review the recent literature on the philosophies of learning and cognition, which suggests that learning can be made more meaningful through emphasizing the human interrelationships that are central to our thinking processes. I propose an intersubjective approach to science education — an approach in which learning is underpinned with rich intersubjective interactions between the teacher and the students, and the emphasis of what is to be learned is not a factual content, but rather a human activity that undergirds the process of science. By teaching our students about the human interactions that comprise the scientific endeavor, the larger societal community may come to have a better understanding of science. Further, I argue that narratives, which can provide a context for students to understand what scientists do and why they do it, may even serve to motivate more of our students to become scientists. Perhaps by using these more intersubjective approaches to science education, we can begin to improve public understanding of science.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Arya, D. J., & Maul, A. (2012). The role of the scientific discovery narrative in middle school science education: An experimental study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028108.
Ballew, M. T., Leiserowitz, A., Roser-Renouf, C., Rosenthal, S. A., Kotcher, J. E., Marlon, J. R., ... & Maibach, E. W. (2019). Climate change in the American mind: Data, tools, and trends. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 61, 4–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/00139157.2019.1589300.
Baraban, M., Mensch, S., & Lyons, D. A. (2016). Adaptive myelination from fish to man. Brain Research, 1641, 149–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2015.10.026.
Baram-Tsabari, A., & Yarden, A. (2005). Text genre as a factor in the formation of scientific literacy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42, 403–428. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20063.
Barron, H. C., Dolan, R. J., & Behrens, T. E. J. (2013). Online evaluation of novel choices by simultaneous representation of multiple memories. Nature Neuroscience, 16, 1492–1498. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3515.
Bartra, O., McGuire, J. T., & Kable, J. W. (2013). The valuation system: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of BOLD fMRI experiments examining neural correlates of subjective value. NeuroImage, 76, 412–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.02.063.
Berland, L. K., Russ, R. S., & West, C. P. (2020). Supporting the scientific practices through epistemologically responsive science teaching. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 31, 264–290. https://doi.org/10.1080/1046560X.2019.1692507.
Biesta, G. (2014). Cultivating humanity or educating the human? Two options for education in the knowledge age. Asia Pacific Education Review, 15, 13–19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-013-9292-7.
Biesta, G. (2016). The rediscovery of teaching: On robot vacuum cleaners, non-egological education and the limits of the hermeneutical world view. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 48, 374–392. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2015.1041442.
Biesta, G. J. J. (2006). Beyond Learning: Democratic Education for a Human Future. Paradigm Publishers.
Biesta, G. J. J. (2012). Giving teaching back to education: Responding to the disappearance of the teacher. Phenomenology & Practice, 6, 35–49.
Bowman, C. R., & Zeithamova, D. (2018). Abstract memory representations in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus support concept generalization. J Neurosci, 38, 2605–2614. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2811-17.2018.
Braaten, M., & Windschitl, M. (2011). Working toward a stronger conceptualization of scientific explanation for science education. Sci Educ, 95, 639–669. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20449.
Bressler, S. L., & Menon, V. (2010). Large-scale brain networks in cognition: Emerging methods and principles. Trends Cogn Sci, 14, 277–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2010.04.004.
Brod, G., Lindenberger, U., & Shing, Y. L. (2017). Neural activation patterns during retrieval of schema-related memories: Differences and commonalities between children and adults. Dev Sci, 20, e12475. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12475.
Buckner, R. L., & Carroll, D. C. (2007). Self-projection and the brain. Trends Cogn Sci, 11, 49–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.11.004.
Buckner, R. L., Sepulcre, J., Talukdar, T., Krienen, F. M., Liu, H., Hedden, T., ... & Johnson, K. A. (2009). Cortical hubs revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity: Mapping, assessment of stability, and relation to Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosc, 29, 1860–1873. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5062-08.2009.
Burgin, S. R. (2020). A three-dimensional conceptualization of authentic inquiry-based practices: A reflective tool for science educators. Int J Sci Educ 42, 1465–1484. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2020.1766152.
Calabro, F. J., Murty, V. P., Jalbrzikowski, M., Tervo-Clemmens, B., & Luna, B. (2020). Development of hippocampal–prefrontal cortex interactions through adolescence. Cerebral Cortex, 30, 1548–1558. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz186.
Chiari, G., & Nuzzo, M. L. (1996). Psychological constructivisms: A metatheoretical differentiation. J Constr Psychol, 9, 163–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720539608404663.
Chorghay, Z., Káradóttir, R. T., & Ruthazer, E. S. (2018). White matter plasticity keeps the brain in tune: Axons conduct while glia wrap. Front Cell Neurosci, 12, 428. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2018.00428.
Clithero, J. A., & Rangel, A. (2014). Informatic parcellation of the network involved in the computation of subjective value. SCAN, 9, 1289–1302. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nst106.
Cowen, N. (2019). For whom does ‘what works’ work? The political economy of evidence-based education. Educ Res Eval, 25, 81–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2019.1617991.
Craig, A. D. (2009). How do you feel — now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nat Rev Neurosci, 10, 59–70. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2555.
d’Argembeau, A. (2013). On the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in self-processing: The valuation hypothesis. Front Hum Neurosci, 7, 372. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00372.
de Faria Jr, O., Pama, E. A. C., Evans, K., Luzhynskaya, A., & Káradóttir, R. T. (2018). Neuroglial interactions underpinning myelin plasticity. Dev Neurobiol, 78, 93–107. https://doi.org/10.1002/dneu.22539.
de Jaegher, H., & di Paolo, E. (2007). Participatory sense-making: An enactive approach to social cognition. Phenomenol Cogn Sci, 6, 485–507. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11097-007-9076-9.
de Pasquale, F., della Penna, S., Snyder, A. Z., Marzetti, L., Pizzella, V., Romani, G. L., & Corbetta, M. (2012). A cortical core for dynamic integration of functional networks in the resting human brain. Neuron, 74, 753–764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.03.031.
Delgado, M. R., Beer, J. S., Fellows, L. K., Huettel, S. A., Platt, M. L., Quirk, G. J., & Schiller, D. (2016). Viewpoints: Dialogues on the functional role of the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Nat Neurosci, 19, 1545–1552. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4438.
Dixon, M. L., Thiruchselvam, R., Todd, R., & Christoff, K. (2017). Emotion and the prefrontal cortex: An integrative review. Psychol Bull, 143, 1033–1081. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000096.
Driver, R., & Oldham, V. (1986). A constructivist approach to curriculum development in science. Stud Sci Educ, 13, 105–122. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305726808559933.
Duranti, A. (2010). Husserl, intersubjectivity and anthropology. Anthropological Theory, 10, 16–35. https://doi.org/10.1177/1463499610370517.
Eger, M. (1992). Hermeneutics and science education: An introduction. Science & Education, 1, 337–348. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00430961.
Eichenbaum, H. (2017). Memory: Organization and control. Annu Rev Psychol, 68, 19–45. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044131.
Elbaz, B., & Popko, B. (2019). Molecular control of oligodendrocyte development. Trends Neurosci, 42, 263–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2019.01.002.
Eluvathingal, T. J., Chugani, H. T., Behen, M. E., Juhász, C., Muzik, O., Maqbool, M., ... & Makki, M. (2006). Abnormal brain connectivity in children after early severe socioemotional deprivation: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Pediatrics, 117, 2093–2100. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-1727.
Fair, D. A., Cohen, A. L., Dosenbach, N. U. F., Church, J. A., Miezin, F. M., Barch, D. M., ... & Schlaggar, B. L. (2008). The maturing architecture of the brain’s default network. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 105, 4028–4032. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0800376105.
Faucher, L., Mallon, R., Nazer, D., Nichols, S., Ruby, A., Stich, S., & Weinberg, J. (2002). The baby in the lab-coat: Why child development is not an adequate model for understanding the development of science. In P. Carruthers, S. Stich, & M. Siegal (Eds.), The Cognitive Basis of Science (pp. 335–362). Cambridge University Press.
Feldman, A., Divoll, K., & Rogan-Klyve, A. (2009). Research education of new scientists: Implications for science teacher education. J Res Sci Educ, 46, 442–459. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20285.
Fellows, L. K. (2018). The neuroscience of human decision-making through the lens of learning and memory. In R. E. Clark, & S. Martin (Eds.) Behavioral Neuroscience of Learning and Memory. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 37, 231–251. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2016_468.
Fields, R. D. (2008). White matter in learning, cognition and psychiatric disorders. Trends Neurosci, 31, 361–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2008.04.001.
Fields, R. D. (2014). Myelin—more than insulation. Sci, 344, 264–266. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1253851.
Fields, R. D. (2015). A new mechanism of nervous system plasticity: Activity-dependent myelination. Nat Rev Neurosci, 16, 756–767. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn4023.
Fivush, R. (2018). The sociocultural functions of episodic memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 41. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X17000012.
Ford, M. J., & Forman, E. A. (2006). Redefining disciplinary learning in classroom contexts. Rev Res Educ, 30, 1–32. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X030001001.
Furtak, E. M., & Penuel, W. R. (2019). Coming to terms: Addressing the persistence of “hands-on” and other reform terminology in the era of science as practice. Sci Educ, 103, 167–186. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21488.
Gallagher, S. (2001). The practice of mind: Theory, simulation or primary interaction? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8,83–108.
Gallagher, S. (2006). The narrative alternative to theory of mind. In R. Menary (Ed.), Radical Inactivism: Intentionality, Phenomenology, and narrative (pp. 223–229). John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Gallagher, S. (2009). Two problems of intersubjectivity. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 16, 289–308.
Gallagher, S. (2017). The narrative sense of others. Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 7, 467–473. https://doi.org/10.14318/hau7.2.039.
Ghosh, V. E., & Gilboa, A. (2014). What is a memory schema? A historical perspective on current neuroscience literature. Neuropsychologia, 53, 104–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.11.010.
Ghosh, V. E., Moscovitch, M., Colello, B. M., & Gilboa, A. (2014). Schema representation in patients with ventromedial PFC lesions. J Neurosci, 34, 12057–12070. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0740-14.2014.
Gilboa, A., & Marlatte, H. (2017). Neurobiology of schemas and schema-mediated memory. Trends Cogn Sci, 21, 618–631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2017.04.013.
Gopnik, A. (1996). The scientist as child. Philos Sci, 63, 485–514. https://doi.org/10.1086/289970.
Grayson, D. S., & Fair, D. A. (2017). Development of large-scale functional networks from birth to adulthood: a guide to neuroimaging literature. NeuroImage, 160, 15–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.01.079.
Haber, S. N., & Behrens, T. E. J. (2014). The neural network underlying incentive-based learning: Implications for interpreting circuit disruptions in psychiatric disorders. Neuron, 83, 1019–1039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.031.
Hadzigeorgiou, Y., Klassen, S., & Klassen, C. F. (2012). Encouraging a “romantic understanding” of science: The effect of the Nikola Tesla story. Science & Education, 21, 1111–1138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-011-9417-5.
Helgevold, N. (2016). Teaching as creating space for participation – establishing a learning community in diverse classrooms. Teach Teach: Theory Pract, 22, 315–328. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2015.1058590.
Hill, R. A., Wu, Y. W. C., Kwek, P., & van den Buuse, M. (2014). Modulatory effects of sex steroid hormones on brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tyrosine kinase B expression during adolescent development in C57Bl/6 mice. J Neuroendocrinol, 24, 774–788. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2826.2012.02277.x.
Hong, H.-Y., & Lin-Siegler, X. (2012). How learning about scientists’ struggles influences students’ interest and learning in physics. J Educ Psychol, 104, 469–484. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026224.
Huijbers, W., Pennartz, C. M. A., Cabeza, R., & Daselaar, S. M. (2011). The hippocampus is coupled with the default network during memory retrieval but not during memory encoding. PLoS ONE, 6, e17463. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017463.
Hutto, D. D. (2008). Folk Psychological Narratives: The Sociocultural Basis of Understanding Reasons. MIT press.
Hwang, K., Hallquist, M. N., & Luna, B. (2013). The development of hub architecture in the human functional brain network. Cereb Cortex, 23, 2380–2393. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhs227.
Immordino-Yang, M. H., Christodoulou, J. A., & Singh, V. (2012). Rest is not idleness: Implications of the brain’s default mode for human development and education. Perspect on Psycholog Sci, 7, 352–364. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691612447308.
Ingold, T. (2018). Anthropology and/as education. Routledge.
Keven, N. (2016). Events, narratives and memory. Synthese, 193, 2497–2517. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11229-015-0862-6.
Kilford, E. J., Garrett, E., & Blakemore, S.-J. (2016). The development of social cognition in adolescence: An integrated perspective. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 70, 106–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08.016.
Kim, H. (2020). Stability or plasticity? — A hierarchical allostatic regulation model of medial prefrontal cortex function for social valuation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00281.
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educ Psychol, 41, 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1.
Kumaran, D., Summerfield, J. J., Hassabis, D., & Maguire, E. A. (2009). Tracking the emergence of conceptual knowledge during human decision making. Neuron, 63, 889–901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2009.07.030.
Larison, K. D. (2018). Taking the scientist’s perspective: The nonfiction narrative engages episodic memory to enhance students’ understanding of scientists and their practices. Science & Education, 27, 133–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-018-9957-z.
Larsen, B., & Luna, B. (2018). Adolescence as a neurobiological critical period for the development of higher-order cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 94, 179–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.09.005.
Latour, B. (2004). Why has critique run out of steam? From matters of fact to matters of concern. Critical Inquiry, 30, 225–248.
Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press.
Levinas, E. (1996). Emmanuel Levinas: Basic philosophical writings. Indiana University Press.
Liu, J., Dietz, K., DeLoyht, J. M., Pedre, X., Kelkar, D., Kaur, J., ... & Casaccia, P. (2012). Impaired adult myelination in the prefrontal cortex of socially isolated mice. Nat Neurosci, 15, 1621–1623. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3263.
Liu, J., Moyon, S., Hernandez, M., & Casaccia, P. (2016). Epigentic control of oligodendrocyte development: Adding new players to old keepers. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 39, 133–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2016.06.002.
Lundgaard, I., Luzhynskaya, A., Stockley, J.H., Wang, Z., Evans, K.A. Swire, M., ... & Káradóttir, R.T. (2013). Neuregulin and BDNF induce a switch to NMDA receptor-dependent myelination by oligodendrocytes. PLoS Biology, 11, e1001743. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001743.
Macrae, C. N., Moran, J. M., Heatherton, T. F., Banfield, J. F., & Kelley, W. M. (2004). Medial prefrontal activity predicts memory for self. Cereb Cortex, 14, 647–654. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhh025.
Mahr, J.B., Csibra, G. (2018). Why do we remember? The communicative function of episodic memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 41, e1. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X17000012.
Makinodan, M., Rosen, K. M., Ito, S., & Corfas, G. (2012). A critical period for social experience–dependent oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination. Sci, 337, 1357–1360. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1220845.
Manz, E., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2020). Rethinking the classroom science investigation. Journal Res Science Teach, 57, 1148–1174. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21625.
Marek, S., Hwang, K., Foran, W., Hallquist, M. N., & Luna, B. (2015). The contribution of network organization and integration to the development of cognitive control. PLoS Biology, 13, e1002328. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002328.
Margonis, F. (1998). The demise of authenticity. Philosophy of Education Archive, 248–257.
Marisca, R., Hoche, T., Agirre, E., Hoodless, L. J., Barkey, W., Auer, F., ... & Czopka, T. (2020). Functionally distinct subgroups of oligodendrocyte precursor cells integrate neural activity and execute myelin formation. Nat Neurosci, 23, 363–374. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0581-2.
Markowitsch, H. J., & Stanilou, A. (2011). Memory, autonoetic consciousness, and the self. Conscious Cognit, 20, 16–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2010.09.005.
McKenzie, I. A., Ohayon, D., Li, H., de Faria, J. P., Emery, B., Tohyama, K., & Richardson, W. D. (2014). Motor skill learning requires active central myelination. Sci, 346, 318–322. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1254960.
Menon, V. (2013). Developmental pathways to functional brain networks: Emerging principles. Trends Cognit Sci, 17, 627–640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.09.015.
Miller, E., Manz, E., Russ, R., Stroupe, D., & Berland, L. (2018). Addressing the epistemic elephant in the room: Epistemic agency and the next generation science standards. J Res Sci Teach, 55, 1053–1075. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21459.
Mortimer, E. F., & Wertsch, J. V. (2003). The architecture and dynamics of intersubjectivity in science classrooms. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 10, 230–244. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327884mca1003_5.
Mount, C. W., & Monje, M. (2017). Wrapped to adapt: Experience-dependent myelination. Neuron, 95, 743–756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2017.07.009.
Murphy, K., Birn, R. M., Handwerker, D. A., Jones, T. B., & Bandettini, P. A. (2009). The impact of global signal regression on resting state correlations: Are anti-correlational networks introduced? NeuroImage, 44, 893–905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.09.036.
Murty, V., Calabro, F., & Luna, B. (2016). The role of experience in adolescent cognitive development: Integration of executive, memory, and mesolimbic systems. Neurosci Behav Rev, 70, 46–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.07.034.
National Research Council. (2012). A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Natl Acad Press.
Nave, K.-A., & Werner, H. B. (2014). Myelination of the nervous system: Mechanisms and functions. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 30, 503–533. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100913-013101.
NGSS Lead States. (2013). Next generation science standards: For states, by states. National Academies Press.
Northoff, G. (2016). Is the self a higher-order or fundamental function of the brain? The “basis model of self-specificity” and its encoding by the brain’s spontaneous activity. Cogn Neurosci, 7, 203–222. https://doi.org/10.1080/17588928.2015.1111868.
Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., & Panksepp, J. (2006). Self-referential processing in our brain—a meta-analysis of imaging studies of the self. NeuroImage, 31, 440–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.002.
Northoff, G., Qin, P., & Feinberg, T. E. (2011). Brain imaging of the self — conceptual, anatomical and methodological issues. Conscious Cogn, 20, 52–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2010.09.011.
Oancea, A., & Pring, R. (2008). The importance of being thorough: On systematic accumulations of ‘what works’ in education research. J Philos Educ, 42(S1), 15–39. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.2008.00633.x.
O’Loughlin, M. (1992). Rethinking science education: Beyond Piagetian constructivism toward a sociocultural model of teaching and learning. J Res Sci Teach, 29, 791–820. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660290805.
Oldham, S., & Fornito, A. (2019). The development of brain network hubs. Dev Cogn Neurosci, 36, 100607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.12.005.
Olson, I. R., von der Heide, R. J., Alm, K. H., & Vyas, G. (2015). Development of the uncinate fasciculus: Implications for theory and developmental disorders. Dev Cogn Neurosci, 14, 50–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2015.06.003.
Paavola, S., & Hakkarainen, K. (2005). The knowledge creation metaphor – an emergent epistemological approach to learning. Science & Education, 14, 535–557. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-004-5157-0.
Pearl, J., & Mackenzie, D. (2018). The Book of Why: The New Science of Cause and Effect. Basic Books.
Pessoa, L. (2008). On the relationship between emotion and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 148–158. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2317.
Phillips, D. C. (2019). Evidence of confusion about evidence of causes: Comments on the debate about EBP in education. Educational Research and Evaluation, 25, 7–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2019.1617980.
Piolino, P., Hisland, M., Ruffeveille, I., Matuszewski, V., Jambaqué, I., & Eustache, F. (2007). Do school-age children remember or know the personal past? Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 84–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2005.09.010.
Popova, Y. B. (2019). Participatory sense-making in narrative experience. In R. Beach & D. Bloome (Eds.) Languaging relations for transforming the literacy and language arts classroom. New York, NY: Routledge.
Preston, A.R., Eichenbaum, H. (2013). Interplay of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in memory. Current Biology, 23, R764 R773. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.05.041..
Raichle, M. E. (2010). Two views of brain function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 180–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tic.2010.01.008.
Raichle, M. E. (2015). The brain’s default mode network. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 38, 433–447. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-071013-014030.
Raichle, M. E., MacLeod, A. M., Snyder, A. Z., Powers, W. J., Gusnard, D. A., & Shulman, G. L. (2001). A default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 676–682. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.98.2.676.
Richardson, V. (2003). Constructivist pedagogy. Teachers College Record, 105, 1623–1640.
Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. Cambridge University Press.
Roy, M., Shohamy, D., & Wager, T. D. (2012). Ventromedial prefrontal–subcortical systems and the generation of affective meaning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 147–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.01.005.
Russ, R. S., & Berland, L. K. (2019). Invented science: A framework for discussing a persistent problem of practice. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 28, 279–301. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2018.1517354.
Schlichting, M. L., & Frankland, P. W. (2017). Memory allocation and integration in rodents and humans. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 17, 90–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.013.
Schlichting, M. L., & Preston, A. R. (2015). Memory integration: Neural mechanisms and implications for behavior. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 1, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2014.07.005.
Schlichting, M. L., & Preston, A. R. (2016). Hippocampal-medial prefrontal circuit supports memory updating during learning and post-encoding rest. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 134, 91–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2015.11.005.
Schmitz, T. W., & Johnson, S. C. (2007). Relevance to self: A brief review and framework of neural systems underlying appraisal. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 31, 585–596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.12.003.
Scriven, M. (2008). A summative evaluation of RCT methodology: & An alternative approach to causal research. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 5(11), 24.
Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27, 4–13. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X027002004.
Simmonds, D., Hallquist, M. N., Asato, M., & Luna, B. (2014). Developmental stages and sex differences of white matter and behavioral development through adolescence: A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study. NeuroImage, 92, 356–368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.12.044.
Simpson, D. (2017). Pedagogy and the second person. In M. A. Peters & J. Stickney (Eds.), A Companion to Wittgenstein on Education. (pp. 453–465). Springer.
Smith, R. (2017). A neuro-cognitive defense of the unified self. Conscious Cogn, 48, 21–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.10.007.
Spalding, K. N., Jones, S. H., Duff, M. C., Tranel, D., & Warren, D. E. (2015). Investigating the neural correlates of schemas: Ventromedial prefrontal cortex is necessary for normal schematic influence on memory. J Neurosci, 35, 15746–15751. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2767-15.2015.
Spitzer, S. O., Sitnikov, S., Kamen, Y., Evans, K. A., Kronenberg-Versteeg, D., Dietmann, S., ... & Káradóttir, R. T. (2019). Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells become regionally diverse and heterogeneous with age. Neuron, 101, 459–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.020.
Spreng, R. N., Mar, R. A., & Kim, A. S. N. (2009). The common neural basis of autobiographical memory, prospection, navigation, theory of mind, and the default mode: A quantitative meta-analysis. J Cogn Neurosci, 21, 489–510. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2008.21029.
Squire, L. R., & Wixted, J. T. (2011). The cognitive neuroscience of human memory since HM. Annu Rev Neurosci, 34, 259–288. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-061010-113720.
Stone, L. D., Underwood, C., & Hotchkiss, J. (2012). The relational habitus: Intersubjective processes in learning settings. Hum Devs, 55, 65–91. https://doi.org/10.1159/000337150.
Strevens, M. (2020). The Knowledge Machine: How Irrationality Created Modern Science. Liveright Publishing Corporation.
Sui, J., & Humphreys, G. W. (2015). The integrative self: How self-reference integrates perception and memory. Trends Cogn Sci, 19, 719–728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.08.015.
Taber, K. S. (2016). Constructivism in education: Interpretations and criticisms from science education. In E. Railean (Ed.), Handbook of Applied Learning Theory and Design in Modern Education (pp. 116–144). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Tang, W., Jbabdi, S., Zhu, Z., Cottaar, M., Grisot, G., Lehman, J. F., ... & Haber, S. N. (2019). A connectional hub in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex links areas of emotion and cognitive control. eLife, 8, e43761. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.43761.
Thomas, G. (2016). After the gold rush: Questioning the “gold standard” and reappraising the status of experiment and randomized controlled trials in education. Harv Educ Rev, 86, 390–411. https://doi.org/10.17763/1943-5045-86.3.390.
Tomasello, M. (1999). The cultural origins of human cognition. Harvard University Press.
Tomasello, M., Kruger, A. C., & Ratner, H. H. (1993). Cultural learning. Behav Brain Sci, 16, 495–511. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X0003123X.
van den Heuvel, M. P., & Sporns, O. (2013a). An anatomical substrate for integration among functional networks in human cortex. J Neurosci, 33, 14489–14500. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2128-13.2013.
van den Heuvel, M. P., & Sporns, O. (2013b). Network hubs in the human brain. Trends Cogn Sci, 17, 683–696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.09.012.
van Kesteren, M. T. R., Beul, S. F., Takashima, A., Henson, R. N., Ruiter, D. J., & Fernández, G. (2013). Differential roles for medial prefrontal and medial temporal cortices in schema-dependent encoding: From congruent to incongruent. Neuropsychologia, 51, 2352–2359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.05.027.
van Kesteren, M. T. R., Fernández, G., Norris, D. G., & Hermans, E. J. (2010). Persistent schema-dependent hippocampal-neocortical connectivity during memory encoding and postencoding rest in humans. Proc Nat Acad Sci, 107, 7550–7555. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914892107.
van Kesteren, M. T. R., Ruiter, D. J., Fernández, G., & Henson, R. N. (2012). How schema and novelty augment memory formation. Trends Neurosci, 35, 211–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2012.02.001.
Vatansever, D., Menon, D. K., Manktelow, A. E., Sahakian, B. J., & Stamatakis, E. A. (2015). Default mode dynamics for global functional integration. J Neurosci, 35, 15254–15262. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2135-15.2015.
von der Heide, R. J., Skipper, L. M., Klobusicky, E., & Olson, I. R. (2013). Dissecting the uncinate fasciculus: disorders, controversies, and a hypothesis. Brain, 136, 1692–1707. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awt094.
von Glasersfeld, E. (1984). An introduction to radical constructivism. In P. Watzlawick (Ed.), The Invented Reality. (pp. 17–40). Norton.
von Glasersfeld, E. (1991). An exposition of constructivism: Why some like it radical. Facets of Systems Science. (pp. 229–238). Springer.
von Glasersfeld, E. (1998). Cognition, construction of knowledge, and teaching. Constructivism in science education. (pp. 11–30). Springer.
Wagner, P. A., & Fair, F. K. (2021). Education for knowing: Theories of Knowledge for Effective Student Building. Rowman & Littlefield.
Whitaker, K. J., Vértes, P. E., Romero-Garcia, R., Váša, F., Moutoussis, M., Prabhu, G., ... & Bullmore, E. T. (2016). Adolescence is associated with genomically patterned consolidation of the hubs of the human brain connectome. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 113, 9105–9110. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601745113.
Windschitl, M., Thompson, J., & Braaten, M. (2008). Beyond the scientific method: Model-based inquiry as a new paradigm of preference for school science investigations. Science & Education, 92, 941–967. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20259.
Wixted, J. T., & Squire, L. R. (2011). The medial temporal lobe and the attributes of memory. Trends Cogn Sci, 15, 210–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2011.03.005.
Wrigley, T. (2018). The power of ‘evidence’: reliable science or a set of blunt tools? Br Educ Res J, 44, 359–376. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3338.
Wrigley, T., & McCusker, S. (2019). Evidence-based teaching: A simple view of “science.” Educ Res Eval, 25, 110–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2019.1617992.
Zahavi, D. (2008). Simulation, projection and empathy. Conscious Cogn, 17, 514–522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2008.03.010.
Zeithamova, D., Dominick, A. L., & Preston, A. R. (2012). Hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal activation during retrieval-mediated learning supports novel inference. Neuron, 75, 168–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.05.010.
Conflict of Interest
The author declares no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Larison, K.D. On Beyond Constructivism. Sci & Educ (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-021-00237-8
- The self
- Brain development
- Narrative frameworks