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GEM research: achievements and challenges

Abstract

This article analyzes the content and evolution of research based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) project. We conducted a rigorous search of articles published in journals within the Thomson Reuters’ Social Sciences Citation Index® through an exploratory analysis focused on articles using GEM data. The main findings of this study reveal that the institutional approach is the most commonly used conceptual framework. Also, although there are still few academic publications using GEM data, the number of articles is increasing, as are opportunities for future research.

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Notes

  1. The GEM project collects three types of data: adult population surveys, national expert surveys, and standardized cross-national data.

  2. The SCCI is part of Thomson Reuters’ Web of KnowledgeSM (formerly ISI Web of Knowledge), which is a unified research platform for finding, analyzing, and sharing information in the sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities. More information can be found at http://wokinfo.com/.

  3. While entrepreneurship as a discipline is relatively new, several authors have made significant theoretical and empirical contributions in recent decades: Brockhaus (1987), Busenitz et al. (2003), Bygrave and Hofer (1991), Davidsson (2003), Gartner (1985), Gnyawali and Fogel (1994), Johannisson (1988), Shane and Venkataraman (2000), Steyaert and Hjorth (2006), Verheul et al. (2002), and others.

  4. Although Gnyawali and Fogel (1994) discuss the social and economic conditions together, we consider these conditions separately in this work in order to adapt them to the conceptual framework.

  5. The 5-year impact factors according to JCR (up to 2011) are the following: Academy of Management Review (11.442), Academy of Management Journal (10.565), Journal of Economic Literature (9.243), Quarterly Journal of Economics (8.184), Journal of Marketing (7.039), Journal of Management (6.810), Administrative Science Quarterly (6.545), Journal Finance (6.333), Strategic Management Journal (6.288), and Journal of International Business Studies (5.245).

  6. By rule, the Web of Knowledge only includes publications that have the journal’s volume number, issue number, and page number even though some articles are “in press” on journals’ web-based systems and have Digital Object Identifiers (DOI®) (for more information see http://www.doi.org/). For this research, we made an exception. For example, we included Springer Link’s “Online First” system articles, which include several articles that use GEM data mainly from Small Business Economics (for more information see http://www.springerlink.com). Now many of them have volume and issue.

  7. Considering the strict definition of entrepreneurial and business skills Gnyawali and Fogel (1994) provide, few items can be classified in this dimension because although many studies consider the perceptions of entrepreneurial and business skills, these authors include only the formal aspects of education and training in this definition, while the perceptual aspects are included as social conditions.

  8. For more information about the evolution of the GEM model, see the GEM Global Report 2008 (Bosma et al. 2009).

  9. The 5-year impact factors according to JCR (up to 2011) are the following: Journal of Business Venturing (3.849), Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (3.610), Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal (2.803), Entrepreneurship and Regional Development (2.438), and Small Business Economics (2.287). We highlight the case of the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, which was created in 2007 and has been published four times a year by the Strategic Management Society. It quickly increased its impact factor and according to JCR rankings was 29/113 (Business) and 41/166 (Management) in 2011. Also, another specific entrepreneurship journal that has recently been accepted as part of the SSCI is the International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal (without JCR impact yet).

  10. The author’s country refers to the country associated with the first affiliation institution in which he/she was developing his/her scientific activity at the time of publication and not the country of origin or residence.

  11. After having been published for several years, the articles have a higher chance of being cited compared with more recently published articles. Therefore, an index of citations is often weighted by the number of years in which a work has been published. In this sense, this work does not consider this index because the results do not vary with respect to those presented in Table 6 (since the horizon period between 2005 and 2011 is small).

  12. For example the Academy of Management in general management topics or Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference in particular on entrepreneurship.

  13. GEM data are available at www.gemconsortium.org.

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Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Zoltan Acs, Erkko Autio, Niels Bosma and Jonathan Levie for helpful comments on the earlier drafts. We extend our thankfulness to all members of GEM Consortium. Claudia Álvarez and David Urbano acknowledge the financial support from the Projects ECO2010-16760 (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation) and 2005SGR00858 (Catalan Government Department for Universities, Research and Information Society.

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Correspondence to José Ernesto Amorós.

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Álvarez, C., Urbano, D. & Amorós, J.E. GEM research: achievements and challenges. Small Bus Econ 42, 445–465 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-013-9517-5

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Keywords

  • Global entrepreneurship monitor
  • GEM
  • Literature review
  • Institutional approach
  • Social Sciences Citation Index

JEL classification

  • L26
  • B25
  • M13
  • O57