Theory and Society

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 67–94 | Cite as

Misdiagnosing medicalization: penal psychopathy and psychiatric practice

  • David ShowalterEmail author


This article offers a critique and reconstruction of the concept of medicalization. Most researchers describe medicalization as the redefinition of social problems as medical concerns, and track its spread by the proliferation of disease language and diagnostic categories. Forensic psychiatry and disorders like psychopathy are often cited in these debates. I argue that focusing on discourse overlooks how medical language can justify or mask non-medical practices and outcomes, and lead researchers to identify medicalization where it has not occurred. Building on other critiques of medicalization and recent studies of medical and legal expertise, I propose an alternative conception based on conditions for the performance of medical practice and other forms of expert labor. I distinguish the participation or intervention of medical practitioners from the medicalization of expert practice and identify several institutional factors that facilitate the latter. I illustrate this approach using a critical historical case: the first adult penal psychiatric clinic in the United States, founded by the eminent psychopathologist Bernard Glueck at New York’s Sing Sing Prison in 1916. Glueck’s extensive writings reveal little evidence of medicalization: psychopaths were largely defined and diagnosed according to penal rather than medical criteria, and they received additional punishment rather than treatment. A review of recent research confirms that psychopathy remains primarily a penal rather than medical condition. I conclude that focusing studies of medicalization on practice rather than discourse clarifies the concept and avoids reifying the notion of a medicalized society.


Expertise Bernard Glueck Medicalization Prison Psychiatry Sing Sing 



I am very grateful to Bernard Harcourt and Kristen Schilt for advising the undergraduate thesis that formed the original basis for this article. I also thank Alex Barnard, Lindsay Berkowitz, Leah Jacobs, Christopher Muller, Josh Seim, Loïc Wacquant, discussants at UC Berkeley, UC Irvine, and the 111th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, and the Editors and reviewers at Theory and Society for their extensive and incisive comments. This research was partially supported by a Graduate Research Fellowship from the National Science Foundation.


  1. Abbott, A. (1982). The emergence of American psychiatry, 1880–1930. PhD dissertation: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  2. Abbott, A. (1988). The system of professions: An essay on the division of expert labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  3. Acker, C. J. (1993). Stigma or legitimation? A historical examination of the social potentials of addiction disease models. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 25(3), 193–205.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  5. Benedikt, M. (1881). Anatomical studies upon brains of criminals. New York: William Wood.Google Scholar
  6. Berrios, G. E. (1999). J.C. Prichard and the concept of ‘moral insanity. History of Psychiatry, 10(37), 111–126.Google Scholar
  7. Birnbaum, K. (1914). Die psychopathischen Verbrecher: die Grenzzustände zwischen geistiger Gesundheit und Krankheit in ihren Beziehungen zu Verbrechen und Strafwesen. Berlin: Langenscheidt.Google Scholar
  8. Blackburn, R. (1988). On moral judgements and personality disorders: The myth of psychopathic personality revisited. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153(4), 505–512.Google Scholar
  9. Blair, R. J. R. (2003). Neurobiological basis of psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182(1), 5–7.Google Scholar
  10. Blais, J., & Forth, A. E. (2014). Potential labeling effects: Influence of psychopathy diagnosis, defendant age, and defendant gender on mock jurors' decisions. Psychology, Crime & Law, 20(2), 116–134.Google Scholar
  11. Brian, D. (2005). Sing sing: the inside story of a notorious prison. Amherst: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  12. Boccaccini, M. T., Murrie, D. C., Clark, J. W., & Cornell, D. G. (2008). Describing, diagnosing, and naming psychopathy: How do youth psychopathy labels influence jurors? Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 26(4), 487–510.Google Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, P. (1990 [1980]). The logic of practice. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bowman, K. M., & Rose, M. (1952). A criticism of the current usage of the term “sexual psychopath”. American Journal of Psychiatry, 109(3), 177–182.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, P. (1990). The name game: Toward a sociology of diagnosis. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 11(3/4), 385–406.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, P. (1995). Naming and framing: The social construction of diagnosis and illness. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Extra Issue: Forty Years of Medical Sociology: The State of the Art and Directions for the Future: 34–52.Google Scholar
  17. Burns, S. L., & Peyrot, M. (2003). Tough love: Nurturing and coercing responsibility and recovery in California drug courts. Social Problems, 50(3), 416–438.Google Scholar
  18. Camp, J. P., Skeem, J. L., Barchard, K., Lillenfeld, S. O., & Poythress, N. G. (2013). Psychopathic predators? Getting specific about the relation between psychopathy and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(3), 467–480.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, N. (2012). Medicalization and biomedicalization: Does the diseasing of addiction fit the frame? In J. Netherland (Ed.), Critical perspectives on addiction (pp. 3–25). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  20. Castel, R. (1988 [1976]). The regulation of madness: The origins of incarceration in France. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. Chamberlain, R. W. (1935). There is no truce: A life of Thomas Mott Osborne. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  22. Clarke, A. E., Shim, J. K., Mamo, L., Fosket, J. R., & Fishman, J. R. (2003). Biomedicalization: Technoscientific transformations of health, illness, and U.S. biomedicine. American Sociological Review, 68(2), 161–194.Google Scholar
  23. Conrad, P. (1975). The discovery of hyperkinesis: Notes on the medicalization of deviant behavior. Social Problems, 23(1), 12–21.Google Scholar
  24. Conrad, P. (1979). Types of medical social control. Sociology of Health and Illness, 1(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  25. Conrad, P. (1992). Medicalization and social control. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 209–232.Google Scholar
  26. Conrad, P. (2005). The shifting engines of medicalization. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 3–14.Google Scholar
  27. Conrad, P. (2008). The medicalization of society: On the transformation of human conditions into treatable disorders. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Conrad, P., & Schneider, J. W. (1992 [1980]). Deviance and medicalization: From badness to sickness. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Cooke, D. J., & Michie, C. (1997). An item response theory analysis of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Psychological Assessment, 9(1), 3–14.Google Scholar
  30. Cooke, D. J., & Michie, C. (1999). Psychopathy across cultures: North America and Scotland compared. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108(1), 58–68.Google Scholar
  31. Cooke, D. J., Michie, C., Hart, S. D., & Clark, D. A. (2004). Reconstructing psychopathy: Clarifying the significance of antisocial and socially deviant behavior in the diagnosis of psychopathic personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(4), 337–357.Google Scholar
  32. Cooter, R. J. (1976). Phrenology and British alienists, c. 1825–1845, parts 1 and 2. Medical History, 20(1–2), 1–21 135–151.Google Scholar
  33. Courtwright, D. T. (2010). The NIDA brain disease paradigm: History, resistance. and spinoffs. BioSocieties, 5(1), 137–147.Google Scholar
  34. Cox, S. D. (2009). The big house: Image and reality of the American prison. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Cox, J., DeMatteo, D. S., & Foster, E. E. (2010). The effect of the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised in capital cases: Mock jurors’ responses to the label of psychopathy. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28(6), 878–891.Google Scholar
  36. Cox, J., Edens, J. F., Rulseh, A., & Clark, J. W. (2016). Juror perceptions of the interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy predict sentence severity in a white-collar criminal case. Psychology, Crime & Law, 22(8), 721–740.Google Scholar
  37. Dain, N., & Carlson, E. T. (1962). Moral insanity in the United States 1835–1866. American Journal of Psychiatry, 118(9), 795–801.Google Scholar
  38. Danziger, K. (1997). Naming the mind: how psychology found its language. London: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  39. Davis, J. E. (2006). How medicalization lost its way. Society, 43(6), 51–56.Google Scholar
  40. Davis, J. E. (2010). Medicalization, social control, and the relief of suffering. In W. C. Cockerham (Ed.), The new Blackwell companion to medical sociology (pp. 211–241). Malden: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. De Certeau, M. (1984). The practice of everyday life. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  42. DeMatteo, D., & Edens, J. F. (2006). The role and relevance of the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised in court: A case law survey of U.S. courts (1991–2004). Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 12(2), 214–241.Google Scholar
  43. DeMatteo, D., Edens, J. F., Galloway, M., Cox, J., Smith, S. T., & Formon, D. (2014). The role and reliability of the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised in U.S. sexually violent predator evaluations: A case law survey. Law and Human Behavior, 38(3), 248–255.Google Scholar
  44. Dolan, M. (1994). Psychopathy—A neurobiological perspective. British Journal of Psychiatry 165(2), 151–159.Google Scholar
  45. Edens, J. F., Davis, K. M., Fernandez Smith, K., & Guy, L. S. (2013). No sympathy for the devil: Attributing psychopathic traits to capital murderers also predicts support for executing them. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 4(2), 175–181.Google Scholar
  46. Eghigian, G. (2015). A drifting concept for an unruly menace: A history of psychopathy in Germany. Isis, 106(2), 283–309.Google Scholar
  47. Eigen, J. P. (2010). Diagnosing homicidal mania: Forensic psychiatry and the purposeless murder. Medical History, 54, 433–456.Google Scholar
  48. Elam, M. (2015). How the brain disease paradigm remoralizes addictive behavior. Science as Culture, 24(1), 46–64.Google Scholar
  49. Eyal, G. (2013). For a sociology of expertise: The social origins of the autism epidemic. American Journal of Sociology, 118(4), 863–907.Google Scholar
  50. Fine, C., & Kennett, J. (2004). Mental impairment, moral understanding and criminal responsibility: Psychopathy and the purposes of punishment. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 27(5), 425–443.Google Scholar
  51. Fink, A. E. (1938). Causes of crime: Biological theories in the United States, 1800–1915. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  52. Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219–245.Google Scholar
  53. Follis, L. (2008). Ordering penal space: New York state prison governance in nineteenth century America. The New School: PhD dissertation.Google Scholar
  54. Fosdick, R. B. (1952). The story of the Rockefeller Foundation. New York: Harper & Brothers.Google Scholar
  55. Foucault, M. (1970 [1966]). The order of things: An archaeology of the human sciences. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  56. Foucault, M. (1972 [1969]). The archaeology of knowledge. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  57. Foucault, M. (1973 [1963]). The birth of the clinic: An archaeology of medical perception. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  58. Foucault, M. (1977a [1975]). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  59. Foucault, M. (1977b [1971]). Nietzsche, genealogy, history. In D. F. Bouchard (Ed.), Language, counter-memory, practice: Selected essays and interviews (pp. 139–164). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Foucault, M. (1978). About the concept of the ‘dangerous individual’ in 19th-century legal psychiatry. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 1(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  61. Foucault, M. (2003 [1999]). Abnormal: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1974–1975. New York: Picador.Google Scholar
  62. Foucault, M. (2006a [1961]). History of madness. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Foucault, M. (2006b [2003]). Psychiatric power: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1973–1974. New York: Picador.Google Scholar
  64. Foucault, M. (2015 [2013]). The Punitive society: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1972–1973. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  65. Fox, A. R., Kvaran, T. H., & Fontaine, R. G. (2013). Psychopathy and culpability: How responsible is the psychopath for criminal wrongdoing? Law & Social Inquiry, 38(1), 1–26.Google Scholar
  66. Freedman, E. B. (1987). “Uncontrolled desires”: The response to the sexual psychopath, 1920–1960. Journal of American History, 74(1), 83–106.Google Scholar
  67. Friedland, S. I. (1999). On treatment, punishment, and the civil commitment of sex offenders. University of Colorado Law Review, 70, 73–154.Google Scholar
  68. Freidson, E. (1970). The profession of medicine: A study in the sociology of applied knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  69. Galanek, J. D. (2013). The cultural construction of mental illness in prison: A perfect storm of pathology. Culture, Medicine, & Psychiatry, 37, 195–225.Google Scholar
  70. Garton, S. (2010). Criminal propensities: Psychiatry, classification and imprisonment in New York State 1916–1940. Social History of Medicine, 23(1), 79–97.Google Scholar
  71. Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  72. Gildemeister, G. A. (1987). Prison labor and convict competition with free workers in industrial America, 1840–1890. New York: Garland Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  73. Glueck, B. (1916). Studies in forensic psychiatry. Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  74. Glueck, B. (1917). Types of delinquent careers. Mental Hygiene, 1(2), 171–195.Google Scholar
  75. Glueck, B. (1918a). Concerning prisoners. Mental Hygiene, 2(2), 177–218.Google Scholar
  76. Glueck, B. (1918b). Psychiatric aims in the field of criminology. Mental Hygiene, 2(4), 546–556.Google Scholar
  77. Glueck, B. (1918c). A study of 608 admissions to Sing Sing Prison. Mental Hygiene, 2(1), 85–151.Google Scholar
  78. Glueck, B. (1919). Review of: Die psychopathischen Verbrecher. (The psychopathic criminal.) by Karl Birnbaum. Mental Hygiene, 3(1), 157–166.Google Scholar
  79. Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  80. Goldstein, J. E. (1987). Console and classify: The French psychiatric profession in the nineteenth century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  81. Gong, N. (2017). “That proves you mad, because you know it not”: Impaired insight and the dilemma of governing psychiatric patients as legal subjects. Theory and Society, 46, 201–228.Google Scholar
  82. Gowan, T., & Whetstone, S. (2012). Making the criminal addict: subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment & Society, 14(1), 69–93.Google Scholar
  83. Grob, G. N. (1973). Mental institutions in America: Social policy to 1870. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  84. Grob, G. N. (1983). Mental illness and American society, 1875–1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Grossman, T. M. (1999). Kansas v. Hendricks: The diminishing role of treatment in the involuntary civil confinement of sexually dangerous persons. New England Law Review, 33(2), 475–513.Google Scholar
  86. Gunn, J. (1999). A few good men: The Rockefeller approach to population, 1911–1936. In T. Richardson & D. Fisher (Eds.), The Development of the Social Sciences in the United States and Canada: The Role of Philanthropy (pp. 97–114). Stamford: Ablex Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  87. Gusfield, J. R. (1963). Symbolic crusade: Status politics and the American temperance movement. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  88. Hacking, I. (1991). The making and molding of child abuse. Critical Inquiry, 17(2), 253–288.Google Scholar
  89. Hacking, I. (1995). Rewriting the soul: Multiple personality and the sciences of memory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Hacking, I. (2002). Historical ontology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Halfmann, D. (2012). Recognizing medicalization and demedicalization: Discourses, practices, and identities. Health, 16(2), 186–207.Google Scholar
  92. Hall, J. R., & Benning, S. D. (2006). The “successful” psychopath: Adaptive and subclinical manifestations of psychopathy in the general population. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 459–480). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  93. Hall, W., Carter, A., & Forlini, C. (2015). The brain disease model of addiction: Is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises? The Lancet Psychiatry, 2, 105–110.Google Scholar
  94. Halleck, S. (1965). American psychiatry and the criminal: A historical review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 121(9), i–xxi.Google Scholar
  95. Hare, R. D. (1998). Psychopaths and their nature. In Millon, T., E. Simonsen, M. Birket–Smith, & R. D. Davis (Eds.), Psychopathy: antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior (pp. 188–212). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  96. Hare, R. D. (2003). Manual for the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (2nd ed.). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  97. Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2005). Structural models of psychopathy. Current Psychiatry Reports, 7(1), 57–64.Google Scholar
  98. Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2010). The role of antisociality in the psychopathy construct: Comment on Skeem and Cooke (2010). Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 446–454.Google Scholar
  99. Hare, R. D., Harpur, T. J., Hakstian, A. R., Forth, A. E., Hart, S. D., & Newman, J. P. (1990). The Revised Psychopathy Checklist: Reliability and factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 2(3), 338–341.Google Scholar
  100. Hasenfeld, Y. (1972). People processing organizations: An exchange approach. American Sociological Review, 37(3), 256–263.Google Scholar
  101. Haydu, J. (1998). Making use of the past: Time periods as cases to compare and as sequences of problem solving. American Journal of Sociology, 104(2), 339–371.Google Scholar
  102. Healy, W. (1915). The individual delinquent. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.Google Scholar
  103. Healy, W. (1922). Psychiatry, psychology, psychologists, psychiatrists. Mental Hygiene, 6(2), 248–256.Google Scholar
  104. Hilgard, E. R. (1980). The trilogy of mind: Cognition, affection, and conation. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 16(2), 107–117.Google Scholar
  105. Holmes, C. A. (1991). Psychopathic disorder: A category mistake? Journal of Medical Ethics, 17(2), 77–85.Google Scholar
  106. Horley, J. (2014). The emergence and development of psychopathy. History of the Human Sciences, 27(5), 91–110.Google Scholar
  107. Huddleston, J. H. (1926). The part of conduct disorders in the concept of constitutional psychopathic inferiority. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 64(2), 151–156.Google Scholar
  108. Huertas, R. (1993). Madness and degeneration, III: Degeneration and criminality. History of Psychiatry, 4(2), 141–158.Google Scholar
  109. Illich, I. (1976). Medical nemesis: The expropriation of health. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  110. Jenkins, P. (1998). Moral panic: changing concepts of the child molester in modern America. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Jutel, A. G. (2009). Sociology of diagnosis: A preliminary review. Sociology of Health & Illness, 31(2), 278–299.Google Scholar
  112. Jutel, A. G. (2011). Putting a name to it: Diagnosis in contemporary society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Karpman, B. (1948). The myth of the psychopathic personality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 104(9), 523–534.Google Scholar
  114. Kiehl, K. A. (2006). A cognitive neuroscience perspective on psychopathy: Evidence for paralimbic system dysfunction. Psychiatry Research, 142(2-3), 107–128.Google Scholar
  115. Kittrie, N. N. (1971). The right to be different: Deviance and enforced therapy. Baltimore: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  116. Knox, H. A. (1914). A scale, based on the work at Ellis Island, for estimating mental defect. Journal of the American Medical Association, 62(10), 741–747.Google Scholar
  117. Kraepelin, E., & Diefendorf, A. R. (1907). Clinical psychiatry: A text-book for students and physicians. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  118. Kvaale, E. P., Haslam, N., & Gottdiener, W. H. (2013). The “side effects” of medicalization: A meta-analytic review of how biogenetic explanations affect stigma. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 782–794.Google Scholar
  119. La Fond, J. Q. (1992). Washington’s sexually violent predator law: A deliberate misuse of the therapeutic state for social control. Puget Sound Law Review, 15(3), 655–708.Google Scholar
  120. Lamb, S. D. (2014). Pathologist of the mind: Adolf Meyer and the origins of American psychiatry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Lamb, H. R., & Weinberger, L. E. (2005). The shift of psychiatric inpatient care from hospitals to jails and prisons. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 33(4), 529–534.Google Scholar
  122. Lamb, H. R., Weinberger, L. E., & DeCuir, W. J., Jr. (2002). The police and mental health. Psychiatric Services, 53(10), 1266–1271.Google Scholar
  123. Lebensohn, Z. M. (1973). In memoriam: Bernard Glueck, Sr. 1884–1972. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130(3), 326.Google Scholar
  124. Levy, K. (2011). Dangerous psychopaths: Criminally responsible but not morally responsible, subject to criminal punishment and to preventative detention. San Diego Law Review, 48, 1299–1395.Google Scholar
  125. Lloyd, C. D., Clark, H. L., & Forth, A. E. (2010). Psychopathy, expert testimony, and indeterminate sentences: Exploring the relationship between psychopathy checklist–revised testimony and trial outcome in Canada. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15(2), 323–339.Google Scholar
  126. Lombroso, C. (2006 [1876]). The criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  127. McGann, P. J., & Hutson, D. J. (2011). Sociology of diagnosis. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  128. McGovern, C. M. (1985). Masters of madness: Social origins of the American psychiatric profession. Hanover: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  129. McKim, A. (2017). Addicted to rehab: Race, gender, and drugs in the era of mass incarceration. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  130. McLennan, R. M. (2008). The crisis of imprisonment: Protest, politics, and the making of the American penal state, 1776–1941. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Metzl, J. M. (2010). The protest psychosis: How schizophrenia became a black disease. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  132. Metzl, J. M., & Kirkland, A. (Eds.). (2010). Against health: how health became the new morality. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Millon, T., Simonsen, E., Birket–Smith, M., & Davis, R. D. (Eds.). (1998). Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  134. Moran, R. (1992 [1980]). Medicine and crime: The search for the born criminal and the medical control of criminality. In P. Conrad & J. W. Schneider (Eds.), Deviance and medicalization (pp. 215–240). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Glover, N. G., Derefinko, K. J., Miller, J. D., & Widiger, T. A. (2010). The search for the successful psychopath. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 554–558.Google Scholar
  136. Murphy, J. (2015). Illness or deviance? Drug courts, drug treatment, and the ambiguity of addiction. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Nadelhoffer, T., & Sinnott-Armstrong, W. P. (2013). Is psychopathy a mental disease? In N. A. Vincent (Ed.), Neuroscience and legal responsibility (pp. 229–255). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  138. New York Times. (1916). Sing sing will be country’s first clinic of crime. 16 July, p. 1.Google Scholar
  139. New York Times. (1917). Prison at Beekman for feeble-minded. 19 January, p. 4.Google Scholar
  140. New York Times. (1922). Crime clinics growing: New experiments to check young delinquents yield good results. 18 June, p. 75.Google Scholar
  141. New York Times. (1924). Expert says Loeb admitted he was the actual slayer. 7 August, p. 1.Google Scholar
  142. Nolan, J. L. (2001). Reinventing justice: The American drug court movement. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  143. Ortner, S. B. (1984). Theory in anthropology since the sixties. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 26(1), 126–166.Google Scholar
  144. Osborne, T. M. (1914). Within prison walls: Being a narrative of personal experience during a week of voluntary confinement in the state prison at Auburn, New York. New York: D. Appleton & Company.Google Scholar
  145. Panetta, R. (1999). Up the river: A history of Sing Sing in the nineteenth century. PhD dissertation, City University of New York.Google Scholar
  146. Parsons, T. (1951). The social system. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  147. Partridge, G. E. (1930). Current conceptions of psychopathic personality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 87(1), 53–99.Google Scholar
  148. Petchesky, R. P. (1993). At hard labor: Penal confinement and production in nineteenth century America. In D. F. Greenberg (Ed.), Crime and capitalism: Readings in Marxist criminology (pp. 595–611). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  149. Pfohl, S. J. (1977). The “discovery” of child abuse. Social Problems, 24(3), 310–323.Google Scholar
  150. Phillips, K. D. (2013). Empathy for psychopaths: Using fMRI brain scans to plea for leniency in death penalty cases. University of Alabama Law & Psychology Review, 37, 1–48.Google Scholar
  151. Pick, D. (1993). Faces of degeneration: A European disorder, c. 1848 – c. 1919. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  152. Pickersgill, M. (2009). Between soma and society: Neuroscience and the ontology of psychopathy. BioSocieties, 4(1), 45–60.Google Scholar
  153. Pickersgill, M. (2011). Ordering disorder: Knowledge production and uncertainty in neuroscience research. Science as Culture, 20(1), 71–87.Google Scholar
  154. Pisciotta, A. W. (1994). Benevolent repression: Social control and the American reformatory–prison movement. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Pressman, J. D. (1998). Last resort: psychosurgery and the limits of medicine. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Rafter, N. H. (1992). Criminal anthropology in the United States. Criminology, 30(4), 525–546.Google Scholar
  157. Rafter, N. (1997). Psychopathy and the evolution of criminological knowledge. Theoretical Criminology, 1(2), 235–259.Google Scholar
  158. Rafter, N. (2004). The unrepentant horse-slasher: Moral insanity and the origins of criminological thought. Criminology, 42(4), 979–1008.Google Scholar
  159. Rafter, N. (2005). The murderous Dutch fiddler: Criminology, history, and the problem of phrenology. Theoretical Criminology, 9(1), 65–96.Google Scholar
  160. Rafter, N. (2008). The criminal brain: Understanding biological theories of crime. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Raine, A. (2013). The anatomy of violence: The biological roots of crime. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  162. Reinarman, C. (2005). Addiction as accomplishment: The discursive construction of disease. Addiction Research & Theory, 13(4), 307–320.Google Scholar
  163. Rhodes, L. A. (2002). Psychopathy and the face of control in supermax. Ethnography, 3(4), 442–466.Google Scholar
  164. Rhodes, L. A. (2004). Total confinement: Madness and reason in the maximum security prison. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  165. Rhodes, L. A. (2007). Ethnography “inside”: Acknowledging the 2005 Anthony Leeds prize for Total confinement. City & Society, 19(1), 77–80.Google Scholar
  166. Rockefeller Foundation. (1916). Psychopathic clinic at sing sing prison. The Rockefeller Foundation, 1(3), 15.Google Scholar
  167. Rose, N. (1989). Governing the soul: The shaping of the private self. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  168. Rose, N. (1996). Inventing our selves: Psychology, power, and personhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  169. Rose, N. (2007a). Beyond medicalisation. Lancet, 369, 700–701.Google Scholar
  170. Rose, N. (2007b). The politics of life itself: Biomedicine, power, and subjectivity in the twenty-first century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  171. Roter, D., & Hall, J. A. (2006). Doctors talking with patients/patients talking with doctors: Improving communication in medical visits. Westport: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  172. Rothman, D. J. (1971). The discovery of the asylum: Social order and disorder in the new republic. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  173. Rothman, D. J. (1980). Conscience and convenience: The asylum and its alternatives in progressive America.Google Scholar
  174. Schneider, J. W. (1985). Defining the definitional perspective on social problems. Social Problems, 32(3), 232–234.Google Scholar
  175. Schnittker, J. (2017). The diagnostic system: Why the classification of psychiatric disorders is necessary, difficult, and never settled. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  176. Scull, A. (1975). From madness to mental illness: Medical men as moral entrepreneurs. European Journal of Sociology, 16(2), 218–261.Google Scholar
  177. Scull, A. (1979). Moral treatment reconsidered: Some sociological comments on an episode in the history of British psychiatry. Psychological Medicine, 9, 421–428.Google Scholar
  178. Scull, A. (1989). Social disorder/mental disorder: Anglo-American psychiatry in historical perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  179. Scull, A. (2005). Madhouse: a tragic tale of megalomania and modern medicine. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  180. Simon, J. (2000). The ‘society of captives’ in the era of hyper-incarceration. Theoretical Criminology, 4(3), 285–308.Google Scholar
  181. Skålevåg, S. A. (2006). The matter of forensic psychiatry: A historical enquiry. Medical History, 50, 49–68.Google Scholar
  182. Skeem, J. L., & Cooke, D. J. (2010a). Is criminal behavior a central component of psychopathy? Conceptual directions for resolving the debate. Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 433–445.Google Scholar
  183. Skeem, J. L., & Cooke, D. J. (2010b). One measure does not a construct make: Directions toward reinvigorating psychopathy research--reply to Hare and Neumann (2010). Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 455–459.Google Scholar
  184. Smith, S. T., Edens, J. F., Clark, J., & Rulseh, A. (2014). “So, what is a psychopath?” Venireperson perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes about psychopathic personality. Law and Human Behavior, 38(5), 490–500.Google Scholar
  185. Sofaer, S., & Firminger, K. (2005). Patient perceptions of the quality of health services. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 513–559.Google Scholar
  186. Spaulding, E. R. (1923). An experimental study of psychopathic delinquent women. Montclair: Patterson Smith.Google Scholar
  187. Stein, D. J. (1996). The philosophy of psychopathy. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 39(4), 569–580.Google Scholar
  188. Stuart, F. (2016). Down, out, and under arrest: Policing and everyday life in skid row. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  189. Szasz, T. S. (1958a). Men and machines. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 8(32), 310–317.Google Scholar
  190. Szasz, T. S. (1958b). Psychiatry, ethics, and the criminal law. Columbia Law Review, 58(2), 183–198.Google Scholar
  191. Szasz, T. S. (1961). The myth of mental illness: Foundations of a theory of personal conduct. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  192. Szasz, T. S. (1970). The manufacture of madness: A comparative study of the inquisition and the mental health movement. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  193. Szasz, T. S. (1977). Psychiatric slavery. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  194. Szasz, T. S. (1994). Cruel compassion: Psychiatric control of society’s unwanted. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  195. Szasz, T. S. (2002). Liberation by oppression: A comparative study of slavery and psychiatry. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  196. Szasz, T. S. (2007). The medicalization of everyday life: Selected essays. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  197. Tiger, R. (2012). Judging addicts: Drug courts and coercion in the justice system. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  198. Tighe, J. A. (1983). A question of responsibility: The development of American forensic psychiatry, 1838–1930. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  199. Tighe, J. A. (2005). “What’s in a name?”: A brief foray into the history of insanity in England and the United States. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 33(2), 252–258.Google Scholar
  200. Viljoen, J. L., MacDougall, E. A. M., Gagnon, N. C., & Douglas, K. S. (2010). Psychopathy evidence in legal proceedings involving adolescent offenders. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(3), 254–283.Google Scholar
  201. Wacquant, L. (2002). The curious eclipse of prison ethnography in the age of mass incarceration. Ethnography, 3(4), 371–397.Google Scholar
  202. Wacquant, L. (2009). Punishing the poor: The neoliberal government of social insecurity. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  203. Washington Post. (1916). Dr. Glueck guest of honor: Tendered a farewell dinner on eve of departure to new post. 13 July, p. 10.Google Scholar
  204. Werlinder, H. (1978). Psychopathy: A history of the concepts. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell International.Google Scholar
  205. Whetstone, S., & Gowan, T. (2017). Carceral rehab as fuzzy penality: Hybrid technologies of control in the new temperance crusade. Social Justice, 44(2/3), 83–112.Google Scholar
  206. Whitlock, F. A. (1967). Prichard and the concept of moral insanity. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1(2), 72–79.Google Scholar
  207. Williams, R. (1983 [1976]). Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society. New York: Fontana.Google Scholar
  208. Willrich, M. (2003). City of courts: Socializing justice in progressive era Chicago. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  209. Wootten, B. (1959). Social science and social pathology. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  210. Zinger, I., & Forth, A. E. (1998). Psychopathy and Canadian criminal proceedings: The potential for human rights abuses. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(3), 237–276.Google Scholar
  211. Zola, I. K. (1972). Medicine as an institution of social control. The Sociological Review, 20(4), 487–504.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations