Advertisement

Theory and Society

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 127–168 | Cite as

Why are professors liberal?

  • Neil Gross
  • Ethan Fosse
Article

Abstract

The political liberalism of professors—an important occupational group and anomaly according to traditional theories of class politics—has long puzzled sociologists. This article sheds new light on the subject by employing a two-step analytic procedure. In the first step, we assess the explanatory power of the main hypotheses proposed over the last half century to account for professors’ liberal views. To do so, we examine hypothesized predictors of the political gap between professors and other Americans using General Social Survey data pooled from 1974–2008. Results indicate that professors are more liberal than other Americans because a higher proportion possess advanced educational credentials, exhibit a disparity between their levels of education and income, identify as Jewish, non-religious, or non-theologically conservative Protestant, and express greater tolerance for controversial ideas. In the second step of our article, we develop a new theory of professors’ politics on the basis of these findings (though not directly testable with our data) that we think holds more explanatory promise than existing approaches and that sets an agenda for future research.

Keywords

Professors Intellectuals Politics Liberalism New class 

Notes

Acknowledgements

For helpful comments on earlier drafts we thank Clem Brooks, Charles Camic, Nathan Fosse, Andrew Gelman, Julian Go, David Grusky, Laura Hamilton, Michael Hout, Andrew Jewett, Michèle Lamont, Erin Leahey, Omar Lizardo, Neil McLaughlin, Paul Quirk, Lauren Rivera, Fabio Rojas, Darren Sherkat, Mitchell Stevens, David Swartz, Stephen Turner, and Christopher Winship.

References

  1. Alexander, J. (2006). The civil sphere. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Allison, P. (2001). Missing data. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Alwin, D., & McCammon, R. (2003). Generations, cohorts, and social change. In J. Mortimer & M. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 23–50). New York: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babb, S. (2004). Managing Mexico: Economists from nationalism to neoliberalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Baldassarri, D., & Gelman, A. (2008). Partisans without constraint: political polarization and trends in American public opinion. American Journal of Sociology, 114, 408–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes, B. (1977). Interests and the growth of knowledge. London: Routledge and K. Paul.Google Scholar
  7. Bassett, R. (Ed.). (2005). Parenting and professing: Balancing family work with an academic career. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bell, D. (1976). The coming of post-industrial society: A venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Bell, D. (1979). The new class? A muddled concept. In B. Bruce-Briggs (Ed.), The new class? (pp. 169–190). New Brunswick: Transaction.Google Scholar
  10. Bérubé, M. (2007). What’s liberal about the liberal arts? Classroom politics and “bias” in higher education. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  11. Binder, A., & Wood, A. (forthcoming). Becoming right: How campuses shape young conservatives. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Black, E., & Black, M. (2002). The rise of southern republicans. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Blinder, A. (1973). Wage discrimination: reduced form and structural estimates. Journal of Human Resources, 8, 436–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bourdieu, P. (1991). The political ontology of Martin Heidegger. Peter Collier, translator. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bourdieu, P. ([1984] 1988). Homo Academicus. Peter Collier, translator. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J.-C. (1979). The inheritors: French students and their relation to culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  17. Brennan, M. (1995). Turning right in the sixties: The conservative capture of the GOP. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  18. Brint, S. (1984). ‘New Class’ and cumulative trend explanations of the liberal political attitudes of professionals. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 30–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brint, S. (1985). The political attitudes of professionals. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 389–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brooks, C., & Brady, D. (1999). Income, economic voting, and long-term political change in the U.S., 1952–1996. Social Forces, 77, 1339–1374.Google Scholar
  21. Brubaker, R. (2004). Ethnicity without groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bruce-Briggs, B. (Ed.). (1979). The new class? New Brunswick: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  23. Brym, R. (1980). Intellectuals and politics. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  24. Buckley, W. (1951). God and man at Yale: The superstitions of academic freedom. Chicago: Regnery.Google Scholar
  25. Burke, P. (2004). Identity and social structure. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67, 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Calhoun, C. (1994). Neither gods nor emperors: Students and the struggle for democracy in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Clark, T. N., & Hoffmann-Martinot, V. (Eds.). (1998). The new political culture. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  28. Clark, T., & Lipset, S. M. (1991). Are social classes dying? International Sociology, 6, 397–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clemens, E., & Cook, J. (1999). Politics and institutionalism: durability and change. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 441–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen, N. (2002). The reconstruction of American liberalism, 1865–1914. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  31. Cohen-Cole, E., & Durlauf, S. (2005). “Evaluating claims of bias in academia: a comment on Klein and Western’s ‘How many Democrats per Republican at UC-Berkeley and Stanford.’” Working paper, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison.Google Scholar
  32. Cole, J., & Cole, S. (1973). Social stratification in science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Collins, R. (1979). The credential society: An historical sociology of education and stratification. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  34. Converse, P. E. (1964). The nature of belief systems in mass publics. In D. Apter (Ed.), Ideology and discontent (pp. 168–189). New York: Free.Google Scholar
  35. Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were: American families and the nostalgia trap. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  36. Correll, S. (2001). Gender and career choice process: the role of biased self-assessments. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 1691–1730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Correll, S. (2004). Constraints into preferences: gender, status, and emerging career aspirations. American Sociological Review, 69, 93–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Critchlow, D. (2007). The conservative ascendency: How the GOP right made history. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. D’Souza, D. (1991). Illiberal education: The politics of race and sex on campus. New York: Free.Google Scholar
  40. Darnell, A., & Sherkat, D. (1997). The impact of protestant fundamentalism on educational attainment. American Sociological Review, 62, 306–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Deary, I. J., David Batty, G., & Gale, C. R. (2008). Bright children become enlightened adults. Psychological Science, 19, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dey, E. (1997). Undergraduate political attitudes: peer influence in changing social contexts. Journal of Higher Education, 70, 308–323.Google Scholar
  43. Diamond, S. (1995). Roads to dominion: Right-wing movements and political power in the United States. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  44. DiMaggio, P., & Mohr, J. (1985). Cultural capital, educational attainment, and marital selection. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 1231–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Downs, D. (2005). Restoring free speech and liberty on campus. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Drori, G., Meyer, J., Ramirez, F., & Schofer, E. (2002). Science in the modern world polity: Institutionalization and globalization. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Ecklund, E. (2010). Science vs. religion: What scientists really think. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Ecklund, E., & Scheitle, C. (2007). Religion among academic scientists: distinctions, disciplines, and demographics. Social Problems, 54, 289–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Evans, G. (Ed.). (1999). The end of class politics? Class voting in comparative context. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Eyal, G. (2003). The origins of postcommunist elites: From Prague Spring to the breakup of Czechloslovakia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  51. Eyerman, R. (1994). Between culture and politics: Intellectuals in modern society. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  52. Faia, M. (1974). The myth of the liberal professor. Sociology of Education, 47, 171–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fairlie, R. (2005). An extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to logit and probit Models. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 30, 305–316.Google Scholar
  54. Feldman, K., & Newcomb, T. (1969). The impact of college on students (Vol. 1–2). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  55. Ferree, M. M., Khan, S., & Morimoto, S. (2007). Assessing the feminist revolution: The presence and absence of gender in theory and practice. In C. Calhoun (Ed.), Sociology in America: A history (pp. 438–479). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  56. Finkelstein, M. (1984). The American academic profession: A synthesis of social scientific inquiry since World War II. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Fourcade-Gourinchas, M., & Babb, S. (2002). The rebirth of the liberal creed: paths to neo-liberalism in four countries. American Journal of Sociology, 108, 533–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Frank, D., & Gabler, J. (2006). Reconstructing the university: Worldwide shifts in academia in the 20th century. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Frickel, S. (2004). Chemical consequences: Environmental mutagens, scientist activism, and the rise of genetic toxicology. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Frickel, S., & Gross, N. (2005). A general theory of scientific/intellectual movements. American Sociological Review, 70, 204–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gecas, V. (2000). Value identities, self-motives, and social movements. In S. Stryker, T. J. Owens, & R. W. White (Eds.), Self, identity, and social movements (pp. 93–109). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  62. Gelman, A., & Hill, J. (2007). Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Gelman, A., Park, D., Shor, B., Bafumi, J., & Cortina, J. (2008). Red state, blue state, rich state, poor state: Why Americans vote the way they do. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Gerson, K. (1985). Hard choices: How women decide about work, career, and motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  65. Gerteis, J. (1998). Political alignment and the American middle class, 1974–1994. Sociological Forum, 13, 639–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Goffman, I. W. (1957). Status consistency and preference for change in power distribution. American Sociological Review, 22, 275–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Goldthorpe, J. (2007). On sociology (2nd ed., Vol. 2). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Gottfredson, L. (1981). Circumscription and compromise: a developmental theory of occupational aspirations. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 545–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gouldner, A. (1979). The future of the intellectuals and the rise of the new class. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Greeley, A., & Hout, M. (2006). The truth about conservative Christians: What they think and what they believe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  71. Gross, N. (2008). Richard Rorty: The making of an American philosopher. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  72. Gross, N., & Cheng, C. (2009). “Narratives of political development among American professors.” Working paper, University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  73. Gross, N., & Simmons, S. (2006). “Americans’ views of political bias in the academy and academic freedom.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of University Professors.Google Scholar
  74. Gross, N., & Simmons, S. (2007). “The social and political views of American professors.” Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  75. Gross, N., & Simmons, S. (2009). The religiosity of American college and university professors. Sociology of Religion, 70, 101–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gross, N., Medvetz, T., & Russell, R. (2011). The contemporary American conservative movement. Annual Review of Sociology, 37, 3253–3254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gusfield, J. (1984). The culture of public problems: Drinking-driving and the symbolic order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  78. Habermas, J. (1984–1986). The Theory of Communicative Action. Volume 1–2. Thomas McCarthy, translator. Boston, MA: Beacon.Google Scholar
  79. Hackett, C., & Michael Lindsay, D. (2008). Measuring evangelicalism: consequences of different operationalization strategies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47, 499–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Halaby, C. (2003). Where do job values come from? Family and schooling background, cognitive ability, and gender. American Sociological Review, 68, 251–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hallett, T., & Ventresca, M. (2006). Inhabited institutions: social interactions and organizational forms in Gouldner’s patterns of industrial bureaucracy. Theory & Society, 35, 213–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hallinan, M., & Williams, R. (1990). Students’ characteristics and the peer-influence process. Sociology of Education, 63, 122–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hamilton, N. (1995). Zealotry and academic freedom: A legal and historical perspective. New Brunswick: Transaction.Google Scholar
  84. Hamilton, R., & Hargens, L. (1993). The politics of the professors: self-identifications, 1969–1984. Social Forces, 71, 603–627.Google Scholar
  85. Haraway, D. (1989). Primate visions: Gender, race, and nature in the world of modern science. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  86. Haskell, T. (1996). Justifying the rights of academic freedom in the era of ‘power/knowledge’. In L. Menand (Ed.), The future of academic freedom (pp. 43–88). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  87. Hauser, R., Tsai, S.-L., & Sewell, W. (1983). A model of stratification with response error in social and psychological variables. Sociology of Education, 56, 20–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Highton, B. (2009). Revisiting the relationship between educational attainment and political sophistication. Journal of Politics, 71, 1564–1576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Himmelstein, J. (1990). To the right: The transformation of American conservatism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  90. Hochschild, A. (2003). The commercialization of intimate life. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  91. Hofstadter, R. (1966). Anti-intellectualism in American life. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  92. Hofstadter, R., & Metzger, W. (1955). The development of academic freedom in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Holland, J. (1984). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  94. Hope, K. (1975). Models of status inconsistency and social mobility effects. American Sociological Review, 40, 322–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Horowitz, D. (2006). The professors: The 101 most dangerous academics in America. Washington, DC: Regnery.Google Scholar
  96. Horowitz, D. (2007). Indoctrination U.: The left’s war against academic freedom. New York: Encounter.Google Scholar
  97. Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Jackman, M. R., & Muha, M. J. (1984). Education and intergroup attitudes: moral enlightenment, superficial democratic commitment, or ideological refinement? American Sociological Review, 49, 751–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Jacobs, J., Karen, D., & McClelland, K. (1991). The dynamics of young men’s career aspirations. Sociological Forum, 6, 609–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Jennings, M. K., & Stoker, L. (2008). “Another and Longer Look at the Impact of Higher Education on Political Involvement and Attitudes.” Paper for Midwest Political Science Association conference.Google Scholar
  101. Jost, J. (2006). The end of the end of ideology. American Psychologist, 61, 651–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jost, J., & Hunyady, O. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of system-justifying ideologies. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 260–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Jost, J., Kay, A., & Thorisdottir, H. (Eds.). (2009). Social and psychological bases of identity and system justification. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Kanazawa, S. (2010). Why liberals and atheists are more intelligent. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 33–57.Google Scholar
  105. Kao, G. (2000). Group images and possible selves among adolescents: linking stereotypes to expecations by race and ethnicity. Sociological Forum, 15, 407–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Karabel, J. (1996). Towards a theory of intellectuals and politics. Theory & Society, 5, 205–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kimball, R. (1990). Tenured radicals: How politics has corrupted our higher education. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  108. King, L., & Szelényi, I. (2004). Theories of the new class: Intellectuals and power. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  109. Klein, D., & Stern, C. (2004–2005). “Political Diversity in Six Disciplines.” Academic Questions, 18, 40–52.Google Scholar
  110. Klein, D., & Stern, C. (2005). Professors and their politics: the policy views of social scientists. Critical Review, 17, 257–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Klein, D., & Western, A. (2004–2005). “Voter registration of Berkeley and Stanford faculty.” Academic Questions, 18, 53–65.Google Scholar
  112. Konrád, G., & Szelényi, I. (1979). The intellectuals on the road to class power. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  113. Kurzman, C., & Owens, L. (2002). The sociology of intellectuals. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 63–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ladd, E. C., Jr., & Lipset, S. M. (1976). The divided academy: Professors and politics. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  115. Lamont, M. (1987). Cultural capital and the liberal political attitudes of professionals: comment on Brint. American Journal of Sociology, 92, 1501–1506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lamont, M. (1992). Money, morals, and manners: The culture of the french and american upper-middle class. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  117. Lamont, M. (2008). How professors think: Inside the curious world of academic judgment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Lassiter, M. (2005). The silent majority: Suburban politics in the Sunbelt south. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Layman, G. (1997). Religion and political behavior in the United States: the impact of beliefs, affiliations, and commitment from 1980 to 1994. Public Opinion Quarterly, 61, 288–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lazarsfeld, P. F., & Jr Thielens, W. (1958). The academic mind: Social scientists in a time of crisis. Glencoe: Free.Google Scholar
  121. Leahey, E. (2007). Not by productivity alone: how visibility and specialization contribute to academic earnings. American Sociological Review, 72, 533–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lechner, F., & Boli, J. (2005). World culture: Origins and consequences. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  123. Lieberman, M., Schreiber, D., & Ochsner, K. (2003). Is political sophistication like riding a bicycle? How cognitive neuroscience can inform research on political attitudes and decision-making. Political Psychology, 24, 681–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lindsay, D. M. (2007). Faith in the halls of power: How evangelicals joined the American elite. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Lipset, S. M. (1982). The academic mind at the top: the political behavior and values of faculty elites. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46, 143–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Lipset, S. M., & Dobson, R. (1972). The intellectual as critic and rebel: with special reference to the United States and the Soviet Union. Daedalus, 101, 137–198.Google Scholar
  127. Mannheim, K. (1949). Ideology and Utopia: An introduction to the sociology of knowledge. Louis Wirth and Edward Shils, translators. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.Google Scholar
  128. Manza, J., & Brooks, C. (1997). Class politics and political change in the U.S., 1952–1992. Social Forces, 76, 379–408.Google Scholar
  129. Manza, J., & Brooks, C. (2002). The changing political fortunes of mainline Protestants. In R. Wuthnow & J. Evans (Eds.), The quiet hand of God: The public role of mainline Protestantism (pp. 159–180). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  130. Manza, J., & Wright, N. (2003). Religion and political behavior. In M. Dillon (Ed.), Handbook of the sociology of religion (pp. 297–314). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Manza, J., Hout, M., & Brooks, C. (1995). Class voting in capitalist democracies since World War II: dealignment, realignment, or trendless fluctuation? Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 137–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Marini, M. M., & Brinton, M. (1984). Sex typing in occupational socialization. In B. Reskin (Ed.), Sex segregation in the workplace: Trends, explanations, remedies (pp. 191–232). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  133. Marini, M. M., & Greenberger, E. (1978). Sex differences in occupational aspirations and expectations. Work and Occupations, 5, 147–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Marini, M. M., Fan, P.-L., Finley, E., & Beutel, A. (1996). Gender and job values. Sociology of Education, 69, 49–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Martin, J. (2001). The authoritarian personality 50 years later: what questions are there for political psychology? Political Psychology, 22, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Mazur, A. (2007). “A statistical portrait of American Jews into the 21st century.” Working paper, Syracuse University.Google Scholar
  137. Messer-Davidow, E. (1993). Manufacturing the attack on liberalized higher education. Social Text, 36, 40–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Meyer, J., Ramirez, F., Frank, D., & Schofer, E. (2007). Higher education as an institution. In P. Gumport (Ed.), Sociology of higher education: Contributions and their contexts (pp. 187–221). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Miller, A., & Hoffmann, J. (1999). The growing divisiveness: culture wars or a war of words? Social Forces, 78, 721–752.Google Scholar
  140. Mullen, A., Goyette, K., & Soares, J. (2003). Who goes to graduate school: social and academic determinants of matriculation in master’s, first-professional, and Ph.D. programs. Sociology of Education, 76, 143–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Neumark, D. (1988). Employers’ discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination. Journal of Human Resources, 23, 279–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Newcomb, T. (1943). Personality and social change. New York: Dryden.Google Scholar
  143. Newport, F. (2008). “Democrats Have Significant Identification, Issue Advantage.” Gallup. Retrieved October 20, 2010 (http://www.gallup.com/poll/104494/Democrats-Significant-Identification-Image-Advantage.aspx).
  144. Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  145. Oaxaca, R. (1973). Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets. International Economic Review, 14, 693–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Owen, D. (2008). “Political socialization in the twenty-first century: Recommendations for researchers.” Working Paper, Georgetown University.Google Scholar
  147. Parsons, T., & Platt, G. (1973). The American university. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  148. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights from twenty years of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  149. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students. Vol. 2, a third decade of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  150. Perna, L. (2004). Understanding the decision to enroll in graduate school: sex and racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 75, 487–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Phelan, J., Link, B., Stueve, A., & Moore, R. (1995). Education, social liberalism, and economic conservatism: attitudes toward homeless people. American Sociological Review, 60, 126–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Pierson, P., & Skocpol, T. (Eds.). (2007). The transformation of American politics: Activist government and the rise of conservatism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Powell, W., & DiMaggio, P. (Eds.). (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  154. Rae, N. (1989). The decline and fall of the liberal republicans: From 1952 to the present. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Rojas, F. (2007). From black power to black studies: How a radical social movement became an academic discipline. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Ross, D. (1991). The origins of American social science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  157. Rothman, S., & Lichter, S. R. (2008). “The vanishing conservative: is there a glass ceiling?” Paper presented at American Enterprise Institute conference.Google Scholar
  158. Rothman, S., Lichter, S. R., & Nevitte, N. (2005). “Politics and professional advancement among college faculty.” The Forum 3: article 2.Google Scholar
  159. Rubin, D. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York: Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sadri, A. (1992). Max Weber’s sociology of intellectuals. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Saito, H. (2011). Actor-network theory of cosmopolitanism. Sociological Theory, 29(2), 124–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Schmalzbauer, J. (2002). People of faith: Religious conviction in American journalism and higher education. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  163. Schneider, B., & Stevenson, D. (1999). The ambitious generation: America’s teenagers, motivated but directionless. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  164. Schrecker, E. W. (1986). No ivory tower: McCarthyism and the universities. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Schuman, H., Steeh, C., Bobo, L. D., & Krysan, M. (1998). Racial attitudes in America: Trends and interpretations (Revisedth ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  166. Schuster, J., & Finkelstein, M. (2006). The American faculty: The restructuring of academic work and careers. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  167. Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  168. Sewell, W., & Hauser, R. (1972). Causes and consequences of higher education: models of the status attainment process. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 54, 851–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Sewell, W., & Hauser, R. (1975). Education, occupation, and earnings: Achievement in the early career. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  170. Sewell, W., Haller, A., & Portes, A. (1969). The educational and early occupational attainment process. American Sociological Review, 34, 82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sewell, W., Haller, A., & Ohlendorf, G. (1970). The educational and early occupational status attainment process: replication and revision. American Sociological Review, 35, 1014–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Shapin, S., & Schaffer, S. (1985). Leviathan and the air-pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  173. Shapiro, V. (2004). Not your parents’ political socialization: introduction for a new generation. Annual Review of Political Science, 7, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Shulman, B., & Zelizer, J. (Eds.). (2008). Rightward bound: Making America conservative in the 1970s. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  175. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (2001). Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  176. Smith, T. (1990). Classifying protestant denominations. Review of Religious Research, 31, 225–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Smith, B., Meyer, J., & Lee Fritschler, A. (2008). Closed minds? Politics and ideology in American Universities. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  178. Stanton-Salazar, R., & Dornbusch, S. (1995). Social capital and the reproduction of inequality: information networks among Mexican-American high school students. Sociology of Education, 68, 116–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Steensland, B., Park, J., Regnerus, M., Robinson, L., Wilcox, W. B., & Woodberry, R. (2000). The measure of American religion: toward improving the state of the art. Social Forces, 79, 291–318.Google Scholar
  180. Stevens, M., Armstrong, E., & Arum, R. (2008). Sieve, incubator, temple, hub: empirical and theoretical advances in the sociology of higher education. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 127–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Summers, L. (2007). “Comments.” Symposium on Professors and Their Politics, Department of Sociology, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  182. Swartz, D. (1997). Culture and power: The sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  183. Tobin, G., & Weinberg, A. (2006). A profile of American college and university faculty: Political beliefs and behavior. San Francisco: Institute for Jewish and Community Research.Google Scholar
  184. Vaisey, S. (2006). Education and its discontents: overqualification in America, 1972-2002. Social Forces, 85, 835–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Veysey, L. (1965). The emergence of the American University. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  186. von Hippel, P. (2007). Regression with missing Ys: an improved strategy for analyzing multiply imputed data. Sociological Methodology, 37, 83–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Weakliem, D. (2002). The effects of education on political opinions: an international study. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 13, 141–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Weeden, K., & Grusky, D. (2005). The case for a new class map. American Journal of Sociology, 111, 141–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Weil, F. (1985). The variable effects of education on liberal attitudes: a comparative-historical analysis of anti-semitism using public opinion survey data. American Sociological Review, 50, 458–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Western, B. (1996). Vague theory and model uncertainty in macrosociology. Sociological Methodology, 26, 165–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Wilson, J. (2008). Patriotic correctness: Academic freedom and its enemies. Boulder: Paradigm.Google Scholar
  192. Woessner, M., & Kelly-Woessner, A. (2009). Left pipeline: Why conservatives don’t get doctorates. In R. Maranto, R. E. Redding, & F. M. Hess (Eds.), The politically correct university: Problems, scope, and reforms (pp. 38–59). Washington, D.C: The AEI.Google Scholar
  193. Woodberry, R., & Smith, C. (1998). Fundamentalism et al.: conservative Protestants in America. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 25–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wright, E. O. (1978). Intellectuals and the class structure of capitalist societies. In P. Walker (Ed.), Between labor and capital (pp. 191–212). Boston: South End.Google Scholar
  195. Wright, E. O. (1985). Classes. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  196. Wuthnow, R. (Ed.). (2007). Encyclopedia of politics and religion (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: CQ.Google Scholar
  197. Young, C. (2009). Model uncertainty in sociological research. American Sociological Review, 74, 380–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zipp, J., & Fenwick, R. (2006). Is the academy a liberal hegemony? The political orientations and educational values of professors. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70, 304–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of SociologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations