Theory and Society

, 40:475 | Cite as

States, regimes, and decisions: why Jews were expelled from Medieval England and France

  • Karen BarkeyEmail author
  • Ira Katznelson


This article explores the relation between the expulsion of Jews from medieval England and France and state building, geo-politics, regime styles, and taxation in these countries. Jews were evicted as a result of attempts by kings to manage royal insecurity, refashion relations between state and society, and build more durable systems of taxation within the territories they claimed as theirs. As they engaged in state building and extended their ties, often conflictual, to key societal and political actors, Jews became financially less important but more visible as outsiders, becoming a liability for the crown. Similar mechanisms were at work despite important differences distinguishing England’s growing regime of rights and representation and France’s emergent absolutist patrimonialism.


Bouvines Parliament Religion State building Taxation War 


  1. Bairoch, P. (1988). Cities and economic development: from the dawn of history to the present. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin, J. W. (1986). The government of Philip Augustus: foundations of French royal power in the middle ages. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  3. Baron, S. W. (1929). Nationalism and Intolerance, Babylon to seventeenth century. The Menorah Journal, 16, 503–515.Google Scholar
  4. Bartlett, R. (2000). The making of Europe: Conquest, colonization, and cultural change, 950–1350. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  5. Barzel, Y. (1992). Confiscation by the ruler: The rise and fall of Jewish lending in the middle ages. Journal of Law and Economics, 35(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barzel, Y., & Kiser, E. (1997). The development and decline of medieval voting institutions: a comparison of England and France. Economic Inquiry, 35, 244–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barzel, Y., & Kiser, E. (2002). Taxation and voting rights in Medieval England and France. Rationality and Society, 14, 473–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bendix, R. (1978). Kings or people: Power and the mandate to rule. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  9. Benevolo, L. (1993). The European city. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Berman, L. (1937). Histoire des Juifs de France des Origines à nos Jours. Paris: Librairie Lipschutz.Google Scholar
  11. Bisson, T. N. (1969). Consultative functions in the King’s parliaments (1250–1234). Speculum, 44, 353–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bisson, T. N. (1972). The general assemblies of Philip the Fair. Studia Gratiana, 15, 539–564.Google Scholar
  13. Bradbury, J. (1998). Philip Augustus: King of France, 1180–1223. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, E. A. R. (1972). Cessante Causa and the taxes of the Last Capetians: the political applications of a philosophical maxim. Studia Gratiana, 15, 565–587.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, E. A. R. (1973). Philip IV and the morality of taxation. In J. B. Henneman (Ed.), The Medieval French monarchy (pp. 111–119). Hinsdale: Dryden.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, E. A. R. (1980). Philippe Le Bel and the Remains of Saint Louis. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 122nd year, 175–182.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, E. A. R. (1991). Philip V, Charles IV, and the Jews of France: the alleged expulsion of 1322. Speculum, 66, 294–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carpenter, D. (2003). The struggle for mastery: Britain, 1066–1284. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  19. Chazan, R. (1973). Medieval Jewry in Northern France: A political and social history. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Chazan, R. (1980). Church, State, and Jew in the middle ages. New York: Behrman House.Google Scholar
  21. Coulet, N. (1990). L’Expulsion des Juifs de France. L’Histoire, 139, 9–16.Google Scholar
  22. Dobson, R. B. (1974). The Jews of Medieval York and the massacre of march 1190. York: St. Anthony’s.Google Scholar
  23. Downing, B. M. (1992). The military revolution and political change: Origins of democracy and autocracy in early modern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Elias, Norbert. (2000 [1939]). The civilizing process: The history of manners and state formation and civilization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  25. Elman, P. (1937). The economic causes of the expulsion of the Jews. The Economic History Review, 7, 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ertman, T. (1997). Birth of the Leviathan: Building states and regimes in medieval and early modern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Favier, J. (1978). Philippe Le Bel. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  28. Fawtier, R. (1940). L'Europe occidentale de 1270 a 1380. In G. Glotz (Ed.), Historie Génèrale, Histoire du moyen age (vol. 6). Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  29. Fawtier, R. (1953). Parlement d’Angleterre et Etats Generaux de France au Moyen Age. Comptes Rendus des séances de l’année, Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 30, 275–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fawtier, R. (1960). The Capetian Kings of France: Monarchy & Nation, 987–1328, trans. Lionel Butler and R. J. Adam. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  31. Giddens, A. (1987). The Nation-State and violence. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  32. Graetz, H. (1894). Geschichte der Juden, vol. 7. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  33. Green, J. A. (1997). The aristocracy of Norman England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Guenée, B. (1967). Etat et nation en France du moyen age. Revue Historique, 237, 17–30.Google Scholar
  35. Hohenberg, P. M., & Lees, L. H. (1985). The making of Urban Europe 1000–1950. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Holt, J. C. (1992). Magna Carta (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Huscroft, R. (2006). Expulsion: England’s Jewish solution. Uckfield: Tempus.Google Scholar
  38. Hyams, P. (1974). The Jewish minority in Medieval England, 1066–1290. Journal of Jewish Studies, 25, 270–293.Google Scholar
  39. Jones, M. (1994). The New Cambridge Medieval history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Jordan, W. C. (1979). Louis IX and the challenge of the crusade: A study in rulership. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Jordan, W. C. (1989). The French Monarchy and the Jews: From Philip Augustus to the Last Capetians. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  42. Jordan, W. C. (1998). Jews regalian rights and the constitution in Medieval France. American Journal of Jewish Studies, 23, 1–16.Google Scholar
  43. Jordan, W. C. (2003). Europe in the high middle ages. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  44. Kriegel, M. (1978). La Prise d’une Decision: I’expulsion des Juifs d’Espagne. Revue Historique, 260, 49–90.Google Scholar
  45. Lachmann, R. (2002). Capitalists in spite of themselves. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Langmuir, G. (1976). Prolegomena to any present analysis of hostility against the Jews. Social Science Information, 15, 689–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Langmuir, G. (1990). Toward a definition of antisemitism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  48. Leonard, G. H. (1891). The expulsion of the Jews by Edward I: An essay in explanation of the exodus, A.D. 1290. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. New Series, Volume 5.Google Scholar
  49. Levi, M. (1988). Of rule and revenue. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  50. Levy, M. (1995). Massacre de juifs en France lors la deuxième croisade. Archives juives, 28, 89–92.Google Scholar
  51. Lewis, P. S. (1962). The failure of the French Medieval estates. Past & Present, 23, 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lyon, B. (1973). Philip IV; a King who avoided being constitutional. In J. B. Henneman (Ed.), The Medieval French monarchy (pp. 111–119). Hinsdale: Dryden.Google Scholar
  53. Mann, M. (1988). States, war, and capitalism. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  54. Mann, M. (1986). The sources of social power. Volume I: A history of power from the beginning to A.D.1760. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Mechoulan, S. (2004). The expulsion of the Jews from France in 1306: a modern fiscal analysis. Journal of European Economic History, 33, 555–584.Google Scholar
  56. Menache, S. (1985). Faith, myth and politics—the stereotype of the Jews and their expulsion from England and France. The Jewish Quarterly Review, 75, 351–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Menache, S. (1987). The King, the Church, and the Jews: some considerations on the expulsion from England and from France. Journal of Medieval History, 13, 223–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Menache, S. (1993). The Templar Order: a failed ordeal. Catholic Historical Review, 79, 1–17.Google Scholar
  59. Mundill, R. R. (1998). England’s Jewish solution: Experiment and expulsion, 1262–1290. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nahon, G. (1962). Contributions à l’histoire des Juifs en France sous Philippe Le Bel. Revue des Etudes Juives, 121, 60–81.Google Scholar
  61. Parkes, J. W. (1938). The Jew and the medieval community. London: Soncino.Google Scholar
  62. Perry, F. (1901). Saint Louis. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
  63. Picot, G. (1901). Documents relatifs aux Etats génèraux et assemblées reunis sous Philippe le Bel. Paris: Imprimerie nationale.Google Scholar
  64. Picot, G. (1969). Histoire des Etats génèraux. 5 vols. Vol. 1. New York: Burt Franklin.Google Scholar
  65. Pirenne, H. (1936). Economic and social history of Medieval Europe. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd.Google Scholar
  66. Richardson, H. G. (1960). The English Jewry under Angevin Kings. London: Methuen and Company.Google Scholar
  67. Richardson, H. G., & Sayles, G. (1931). The King’s ministers in parliament. The English Historical Review, 46, 194–203.Google Scholar
  68. Roth, C. (1949). The intellectual activities of medieval english Jewry. Oxford: Oxford University Press for The British Academy.Google Scholar
  69. Schwarzfuchs, S. R. (1967). The expulsion of the Jews from France (1306). In The Seventy-fifth anniversary volume of the Jewish quarterly review, pp. 482–489. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  70. Sivery, G. (1993). Philippe Auguste. Paris: Plon.Google Scholar
  71. Stacey, R. C. (1988). 1240–1260: A watershed in Anglo-Jewish relations? Historical Research, 61, 135–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stacey, R. C. (1997). Parliamentary negotiation and the expulsion of Jews from England. In M. Prestwich, R. H. Britnell, & R. Frame (Eds.), Thirteenth century England, VI, Proceedings of the Durham Conference 1995. Woodbridge: The Boydell.Google Scholar
  73. Stacey, R. C. (2001). Jews and Christians in Twelfth-Century England: some dynamics of a changing relationship. In M. A. Signer & J. Van Engen (Eds.), Jews and Christians in twelfth-century Europe. South Bend: Notre Dame University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Strayer, J. R. (1971). Medieval statecraft and the perspectives of history: Essays by Joseph R. Strayer. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Strayer, J. R. (1980). The reign of Philip the Fair. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Strayer, J. R., & Taylor, C. H. (1939). Studies in early French taxation, Harvard historical monographs; XII. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Thomas, H. (2003). The English & the Normans: Ethnic hostility, assimilation, and identity, 1066-c.1220. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Tilly, C. (Ed.). (1975). The formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Tilly, C. (1990). Coercion, capital, and European States, AD990-1990. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  80. Veitch, J. M. (1986). Repudiations and confiscations by the medieval state. The Journal of Economic History, 41, 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sociology DepartmentColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Political Science DepartmentColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations