Research on Language and Computation

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 1–7 | Cite as

Formal Issues in Natural Language Generation

  • Kees Van Deemter
  • Ehud Reiter
  • Helmut Horacek


Natural Language Generation (NLG) can be studied both empirically and formally. In recent times empirical research has tended to dominate the NLG research community, especially with the emergence of corpus and statistical techniques. However, formal research, based on proofs, formal models, and formal linguistics, can also contribute to the NLG research agenda. In this paper, we discuss what types of formal research are relevant for NLG, and we introduce the four papers in the Special Issue on Formal Issues in Natural Language Generation of the journal Research on Language and Computation in the light of this discussion.


logical equivalence meaning NLG proof 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Appelt, D. E. (1987) Bidirectional Grammar and the Design of Natural Language Generation Systems. In Procs of TINLAP-3. Las Cruces, NM. pp. 185–191. Reprinted (1989) in Wilks Y. (ed.), Theoretical Issues in Natural Language Processing, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 199–205Google Scholar
  2. Baldridge J., Kruijff G.-J. (2002) Multi-modal Combinatory Categorial Grammar. In Proc. of 10th Annual Meeting of the European Assoc. for Computational Linguistics Google Scholar
  3. Dale R., Reiter E. (1995) Computational Interpretations of the Gricean Maxims in the generation of referring expressions. Cognitive Science 19:233–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Garey M.R., Johnson D.S. (1979) Computers and Intractability: A guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. Freeman and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Grice P. (1975) Logic and Conversation. In: Cole P., Morgan J. (eds). Syntax and Semantics (3): Speech Acts. Academic Press, New York, pp. 41–58Google Scholar
  6. Horacek H. (2004) Handling Dependencies in Reorganizing Content Specifications – A Case Study of Case Analysis. Research on Language and Computation, (this issue).Google Scholar
  7. Minock M. (2004) Modular Generation of Relational Query Paraphrases. Research on Language and Computation, (this issue).Google Scholar
  8. Muskens R., van Benthem J., Visser A. (1997) Dynamics. In: van Benthem J., ter Meulen A. Handbook of Logic and Language. Elsevier, MIT Press.Google Scholar
  9. Reiter E., Horacek H., van Deemter K. (2003) Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-2003), Budapest In association with the 11th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, EACL-2003.Google Scholar
  10. Shieber S. (1994) The Problem of Logical-form Equivalence. Computational Linguistics 19(1):179–190Google Scholar
  11. Siddharthan A. (2004) Syntactic Simplification and Text Cohesion. Research on Language and Computation (this issue).Google Scholar
  12. van Deemter K. (2002) Generating Referring Expressions: Boolean Extensions of the Incremental Algorithm. Computational Linguistics 28(1):37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. White M. (2004) Efficient Realization of Coordinate Structures in Combinatory Categorial Grammar. Research on Language and Computation, (this issue)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kees Van Deemter
    • 1
  • Ehud Reiter
    • 1
  • Helmut Horacek
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computing ScienceUniversity of AberdeenScotlandUK
  2. 2.Universität des SaarlandesSaarbrückenGermany

Personalised recommendations